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Full text of "The select dialogues of Lucian"

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SELECT DIALOGUES 



LUC I AN. $*£***! 






TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

A NEW LITERAL TRANSLATION 

IN 

LATIN, 

WITH 

NOTES IN ENGLISH. 



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BY EDWARD MURPHY, M. A. 



verbum verbo curabis reddere fidus. Kor. 

C<eca regens Filo vestigia. Viae, 



PHILADELPHIA: 
AT THE C£fa#S'lC ]$##£ FOR THE 

PROPRIETORS 

WILLIAM POYNTELL & GO. 



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Hi MAXWEtL, PRINTER, NO. 25, NORTH SECOND-STREET. 

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PREFACE, 



It is well known that the tediousness, the inaccuracy 
and, in many instances, the great ignorance with which 
youth have been used to read over the following dialogues 
of Lucian, has been owing to a succession of faulty editions, 
a loose and distant translation, a real difficulty in the Greek, 
arising from long and transposed sentences, and an entire 
want of proper illustrations. Hence hath arisen a constant and 
just complaint of the hardship upon beginners, in their be- 
ing obliged to pass immediately from the gospels in the 
Greek Testament, into an author circumstanced with so 
many difficulties. And yet there was no. help for this'.hard- 
ahip as we had not a more proper book to put into the hands 
of school-boys, other authors containing matter not well 
suited to tender understandings. 

These were the considerations that prevailed on me to 
engage in the following laborious work; and the particulars 
I proposed to myself in the execution of it were, 

First, To correct the text of the current edition ; 

Second, To make a strictly literal translation of the same 
into Latin, inserting no words of my own but such as were 
explanatory, by being fairly to be understood in the original, 
and placing the whole in nearly the exact grammatical or- 
der; and, 

Lastly, To illustrate the text with explanations from his- 
tory, mythology, and a strict con side ration of the author's 
language, sense, and humour. 

To these designs I added a resolution to endeavour, that 
every single word of my translation should be the most 
properly expressive of its respective original word, that the 
Latin tongue could afford: which added much difficulty to 
my undertaking, being in the nature of the thing very hard 
to accomplish. However I have succeeded in this part of 
my design, my intention was, to fix the precise correspond- 
ing significations of as many Greek and Latin words, as 
came within the compass of this work, 



iv PREFACE. 

With regard to my notes, I must observe, that, however 
executed, they are the first that, to my knowledge, have 
ever been made to this particular collection of Lucian's Di- 
alogues: and that I would have written them in Latin, but for 
the following considerations, which I think of much more 
importance than the notes themselves. 

I am humbly of opinion, that the Latin of all our commen- 
tators upon the classics abound with stiff and affected expres- 
sions, cant phrases of the ancient comedians, and a great 
mixture of mere modernisms: so that by the time a youth 
has gone through his course of humanity, both at school and 
the university, he probably has read as much, if not more, 
of this sort of language, than of pure Latin. And, as quaint 
expressions, and such as correspond v/ith the modern modes 
of speech, have been easy and affecting to him, so he proba- 
bly retains much more of such, than of the genuine Roman 
style. And to this alone, I am persuaded, is justly to be at- 
tributed, that in such a variety of modern writers in the Latin 
tongue, so very few can be said to have written with tolera- 
ble purity; which is a great disadvantage, and often a discre- 
dit to the subjects they have treated. 

Hence am I induced to think, that it had been greatly for 
the interest of learning, had no comments upon the classics 
been ever written, but in the language of the country for 
whose use they were first intended. For, if any other coun- 
try saw an improvement to be gained by the reading of such, 
it might with equal information, but no detriment, read them 
translated into its own language. So that hence the learn- 
ed, having never read any but pure Latin, could scarce have 
known any other; and therefore must the writers among 
them have formed a far better style from their unmixeU 
fund* than from a jumble of good and bad. 

Therefore, as I could not flatter myself with the hopes of 
succeeding in such a Latin style as I judge requisite ; I have 
declined the attempt lest 1 should contribute to hurt the taste 
of such as shall happen to read the following edition. 

But to what I have above advanced it may be objected, 
that if youth had not their comments in Latin, they must 
loose the benefit of reading, at least, as much more of that 
language, as they can by perusing only the bare text of the 
Latin classics; and therefore, that though there may arise 



PREFACE. v 

some little disadvantage to the learner with regard to the 
future purity of his phrase and style, yet it will be amply 
made up to him in the swiftness of his progress, and the far 

greater extent of his knowledge in the Latin tongue Now 

I am much mistaken if I have not by experience found that 
this objection is of little or no weight. For I have always 
observed, that it costs boys as much, nay I will venture to say 
more of their time, to make themselves masters of the Latin 
comments upon a lesson, than it would to understand the lesson 
itself, had they the explanations of the difficult parts of it in a 
language intelligible upon sight. And if this be the case, 
would it not be far better for them to spend that large portion of 
spare time which such prompt explanations would afford them 
in reading more of the pure classic text, than in imprinting 
upon their minds barbarous and insipid modes of speech ? 
And is it not evident that this, far from retarding their pro- 
gress, would, in fact, doubly forward it, and that with the 
most elegant, as well as the soundest improvement ? 

But here again I may be asked, why I have not upon this 
principle, instead of a very inelegant Latin translation, 
chosen to make an English one ? For is not this literal Latin 
of mine, in> the uncouth grammatical order, very unclassicai 
and vitiating to a Latin ear and taste ? I own it is ; and the 
objection is just : but then this, and the like evils are not to 
be avoided while we want Greek English Lexicons, which, 
together with English translations of all good Latin com- 
ments, would best contribute to the prevention of Gothicism 
in all future Greek and Latin writings or performances 
whatsoever. 

I shall now beg leave to mention three evils which ap- 
pear to me in the present method of education, and which 
seem to tend in some measure to the extirpation of letters. 
If I am mistaken, I hope that gentlemen of better judgment 
will pardon me, for in truth I mean well. 

The first is, an immoderate use of literal translations. I 
have in compliance with the prevailing usage, bred up seve- 
ral, and some ot very good parts, with the help of all the 
literal translations I could get: and foreseeing the conse- 
quence of letting them come at the meaning of what they 
read with so much ease, I always insisted both in their les- 
sons and repetitions, upon a most accurate account of their 

a 2 



vi PREFACE. 

business in every particular. At length when they had 
read as much as was sufficient to qualify them as well, or 
rather better, than is usually required for entering the uni- 
versity, they neither could write Latin, nor construe authors 
that were new to them, near so well and readily as I have 
known others do upon much less reading in the old 
method, in which they were obliged to use great attention 
and industry. 

From this experience then I am convinced that what 
youth thus easily get, they as easily forget; and that the 
meaning of a certain portion, gained by the exercise of their 
sagacity and invention, renders them more expert, and leaves 
a more lasting impression, as well as a more enlarged 
knowledge in their minds, than ten times as much gained 
with ease and oscitancy, by the help of a literal translation. 
And I, therefore, am persuaded, that the use of literal 
translations is most detrimental to learners, if continued 
after they have received an accurate and sufficient introduc- 
tion into the language they are to learn ; that is, have gained 
a competent knowledge of words, and the nature of gram- 
matical order. The mind, constantly kept in these leading- 
strings and go-carts, never arrives at that vigour and activity 
that result from a due exercise of her powers. 

The second evil that appears to me in the modern method 
of teaching is, the neglect of making youth get the best and 
most charming of their school authors by heart. This, 
besides the great improvement of their memories, hath here- 
tofore left such strong and lively impressions of the greatest 
geniuses upon the minds o! youth, that they have often pro- 
duced such exercises in prose and poetry, as delighted, if 
not astonished learned men. Hence, have they, when men 
adorned their conversation and public speeches with such 
pertinent, beautiful, illustrating quotations and instances, as 
made what they uttered at once both delightful and decisive. 
The decay of learning is from nothing more evident, than 
from the very rare use, or rather entire want of these orna- 
ments, and imitations of the ancients : In the room of which 
Is daily substituted, in writings, a deal of dull, dry stuff, and, 
in discourse, much cold and insipid cant ; all owing to the 
neglect of imprinting a taste of the most sublime and beau- 
tiful conceptions, and of the most lively, strong, and polite 



PREFACE. vii 

expressions upon the minds of youth, by making them com- 
mit to memory the greatest productions of the wit of man. 

The third, and greatest evil, is that of sending youth to 
the university, with a most insignificant stock of reading. It 
is grown a general custom to hurry them thither, as soon 
as they have read over a few of Lucian's Dialogues, Horace, 
and a little of Homer; nay, when they have read these so 
very superficially, that they may be justly said to have 
only gabbled them over ; and when, before these, they have 
only gone through a few small portions of inferior authors, 
with so little understanding, that they have now entirely 
forget them. It is a melancholy reflection to all lovers of 
learning, and their country, to think how many do yearly enter 
into the learned professions thus prepared or furnished, and 
with a trifle more gained at a college ; for I cannot but insist 
upon it, that, when they are thus sent in, they must come 
out either utterly ignorant of the course they should have 
gone through, or furnished with very little more than they 
entered with ; it being impossible even for parts or industry 
to gain much more, when only thus qualified to acquire it. 
Now the sure and fatal consequence of thus entering them 
at once children and uninstructeel, is, solemn ignorance in 
physic, low and wicked tricks in the law, and a scandalous 
inability in divinity, attended with such a contempt of the 
clergy, as must finally establish irreligion, or, in another 
word, vice. Not to mention the want of learning and elo- 
quence in those assemblies, which, without both, can never 
be held and conducted with proper credit, and due advantage 
to the nations who intrust them with their greatest con- 
cerns. 

But all these evils will be removed when certain gentle- 
men, who have it in their power, shall think proper so to do -, 
and I enjoy the hope of seeing it soon done in one of these 
kingdoms, in an university wherein, if I am well informed, 
is read with great strictness the best and the finest college 
course of learning in the world ; and some of whose governors, 
I am assured, are gentlemen of such genius, learning, and 
spirit, as must make the promotion of letters their most con- 
stant pursuit, and their highest pleasure. From such alone 
can be expected a regulation that will absolutely exclude all 
raw and ignorant youth from entering the university : and 



vin PREFACE. 

such alone are capable of despising the loss of having fewer 
pupils, till such a regulation can take effect ^ which, I am 
persuaded, cannot possibly exceed two years after its institu- 
tion. 

In the meantime, if any single and singular father or son, 
or, rather, both together, should accidentally read these sen- 
timents, and very accidentally join in them, let them (if the 
youth aspires to be a useful and a shining man) further join 
in the following resolution, which I here set down for the 
sake, or even the hope, of gaining over such a youth to a 
glorious ambition of emerging from the thick, and gross, 
and mean obscurity that at present overwhelms the minds 
of most of those who should be the lights and ornaments of 
the public. The resolution is this : That such a youth quit 
not school, till he is as perfect as a very good master can 
make him, in every single word of the following books, viz. 
Cses. Comment. Quint. Curt. Sallust's Wars of Catil. and 
Jugurtha. The five first books of Livy. The select Orat. of 
Cicero. All Virgil, except his juvenile works. Hor. and 
Juv. (except the improper parts) Pers. The four first plays 
of Terence. St. John's Gospel. Leusd. Compend. These 
Dial, of Lucian. The four first books of Xen. Cyr. Epict. 
and Tab. Ceb. The eight first books of Horn. Iliad. Hesiod. 
The Idyl, of Theocrit. Hero and Leand. and CEdip. of 
Sophocles. 

He who will not, before he enters the university, read the 
above, or an equal quantity of Greek and Latin, and that, 
every word most accurately and perfectly, nay, till each 
author, being but thought of, seems to chime in his head, 
and his very manner of thought, and expression to occur to 
him most strongly and distinctly, from that of every other 
author he has read ; he, I say, who will not thus read this, 
or at least very nearly this quantity of the best Greek and 
Latin authors, shall not, if he hath but middling parts, go 
through a college course, with any tolerable credit or im- 
provement, but shall end it (as is generally the case) nearly 
as ignorant, or very probably, more so, than when he began: 
And, if he hath even strong and bright parts, rt will cost 
him infinite toil to obtain the knowledge and name of a 
scholar. But, the above authors being read, as is here 
proposed, a youth of but ordinary abilities shall be able to 



PREFACE. rx 

gam a great stock of learning, and even to pass for a bright 
man : and, he, on whom God hath bestowed extraordinary- 
talents, shall proceed in his studies with unspeakable de- 
light, and prodigious improvement. He shall become of 
his parents and friends the pride and joy ; of his teacher the 
boast and honour ; of arts and learning the pillar ; of dulness, 
ignorance, and obscurity the shame ; of his country the 
happiness, the ornament, and the glory, 



THE LIFE 



OF 



L U C I A N. 



WE have scarcely any accounts of Lucian's Life, but such 
as are to be found scattered in his own works ; the sum of 
which is, that he was the son of obscure and indigent parents, 
inhabitants of Samosata, a city of Syria, bordering upon the 
Euphrates ; that in his younger days he studied oratory, 
and pleaded causes at Antioch j but scon quitting the law, 
applied himself mostly to the study of rhetoric, which he 
taught with great success and applause, in Ionia, Greece, 
Italy, Gaul, and Macedonia, through all which nations he 
travelled ; that at length his fame and his writings had so 
recommended him to the emperor Marcus Aurelius, that 
he made him the procurator, or regent of Egypt, after 
which, it is said, he died about the ninetieth year of his age, 
leaving one son. Suidas says, that he was torn to pieces by 
dogs, and reckons this a judgment upon him, for his having 
reviled Christ and the Christian religion. But as this story 
is not supported by any other authority, it has justly met 
with little or no credit. 

It is true thatLucian, in his Philopatris, and death of Pere- 
grinus, (though some have doubted whether those are his 
writings) endeavours to ridicule Christ and his doctrines, but 
happens at the same time to render himself not a little 
ridiculous, while he unwarily mentions such pure and sub- 
lime principles of Christianity, as sufficiently expose his 
want of candour. Nor can it in the least affect the Christian 
cause, that a professed sceptic and a licentious liver (such 
as Lucian's own writings demonstrate him to have been) 
takes the liberty of ridiculing it, while he doth not so much 
as attempt to reason against it. 

When ingenious men, as too often happens, become 
Very corrupt (like those keen-sensed animals in Homer, which 



xn THE LIFE OF LUCIAN. 

were the readiest to catch the pestilence, I think, he says., 
they were mules and dogs) then, finding it impossible by 
fair argument to overthrow those principles that absolutely 
forbid their nefarious practices, they are obliged to defend 
themselves, or attack others with those shadows of weapons, 
scoffs and sophisms ; to which, often adding obdurate impu- 
dence, or when they can, that thunder-bolt of an argument, 
power, they fancy they bear down all before them. But it 
is as signal and singular, as it is a true circumstance of 
Christianity, that scoffers, free thinkers and tyrants, have 
absolutely contributed most considerably to its establishment. 
And this is manifestly one of God's marvellous methods 
of providence, that by such instruments as the vilest of men, 
he sometimes pleases to produce the greatest and most 
universal blessings. Witness those abandoned and impious 
nations that have been chastised, crushed, and humbled with 
the dust, by the hands of most barbarous robbers and mur- 
derers, however afterwards dignified with the title of heroes. 

And of this method of Providence is Lucian a very prin- 
cipal instance. The little or no regard he pays to the notion 
of a Supreme Being; his publishing some obscene and very- 
corrupting performances ; his taking upon him to ridicule 
Socrates and Plato, those great lights of mankind, and 
honours of human nature ; his denying every degree of 
excellence to almost every man, except some of his own 
obscure acquaintance (whose merit probably was little more 
than that of flattery) these things, I say, besides his entire 
want of candour, while he talks against the Christian 
religion, prove him to have been a man of unbounded vanity, 
little sincerity, extravagant assurance, and desperate impiety. 
And yet it is as certain matter of fact, as any in all history, 
that this very man was the most active, as well as the ablest 
hand, after the apostles, in pulling down the whole Heaven 
of heathen Gods, and clearing away the rubbish of their 
abominations ; and in thereby making room for the church 
of Christ in every part of the earth that was not utterly bar- 
barous. 

But while we dislike his principles, it is impossible not 
to admire and extol his matchless abilities : for when he 
pleased to take the side of virtue, no man ever, with more 
ease, overthrew vice ; no man ever rendered it at the same 



THE LIFE OF LUCIAN. xui 

time so ridiculous and odious. It may be doubted whether 
any man> of the age he lived in, had so much learning ; it 
may be granted that no man of that age had finer or stronger 
sense : it is most certain, that no man of that, or any other 
age, hath equalled him in the points of irony and true 
humour: in which particulars, he seems to me to have this 
singular happiness of excellence, that he considerably dis- 
tances, at the same time, many and great geniuses. 



AOTKIANOT 

SAMOXA.TECrX 
A I A A O r Q N 

iiB.AioU n r ^ f o Mi 



AiAAorou *'. 

It may not be amiss previously to observe to the young reader* 
that the design of this first, and such other Dialogues of Lucian, 
as have taken their rise from ancient mythology, was to ridicule 
the credulity of the Heathens, who blindly received the most 
groundless and inconsistent fables concerning their g«ds and 
heroes ; and, while they regarded them as so many historical 
truths, were naturally led into a thousand extravagancies, iaot 
only in point of opinion, but also in the very conduct of their 
lives. But such Dialogues have been, in a more particular man* 
ner, intended as satires upon the poets (Homer especiall)) as 
being the founders of so much superstition : though it must be 
observed, that those fictions, considered as mere machines in 
Homer's poems, are surprising and beautiful, and well deserve 
that commendation given of them by Horace, where he calls 
them, Specios a Miracula. Lucian, too, knew this very well : 
but men of his satirical turn, rather than not be witty, are ant 
t© ridicule even the excellencies of others. *The truth is, it was 
not so much the ingenious poet, as the silly credulous world, 
that deserved to be laughed at. 

This Dialogue is drawn from that part of Ulysses's travels, in 
Homer, where Polyphemus, the Cyclops, caught Ulysses with seve- 
ral of his crew, in his cave ; and, having devoured two of them, 
reserved the rest for other meals. But UUsses, having given 
him two or three large goblets of wine, with which he washed 
down his Grecians, took the opportunity, as he lay intoxicated, 
and, with the giant's own olive staff (one end of which he had 
first sharpened, and made red hpt in the fire) thrust out his eve 



(for he never had but one, and that of a large size) and then 
made his escape with the rest of his companions v 

KYKA. — .'H 7roiTZfy oi& zri7rovda vwo rov xcflxpdrts %ivv o$ 
p<Jv<rx$ Vtx'rv'pXoiTi pi, KOipap'ivsa i7rt%upfoe6$ ; II OS. Tig 3s o 

-Tccvra roXpfcotg, Z TloXv'pvpi - 3 KYKA. To ph tt^to/^YTIN 
iotvrov a^ixctXii, \m\ Ss S^vys, ^ \a -Jv fi'iXxg, 'odvorivg ovopti- 
S^irSxt, ty*> HOS. Otdos ev Xiyug, rh 'Wxkvktiov \% 'iX/a 3' 
tLvinXu. 'AAA* nag rxvr ztt^iv, Hi nclvv ei>6*eo-tg covj KYKA. 
KamAosbov iv ia> avrpa-, ccto tv,s vop^g uvetrpiiJ/oc$, ?*o\\tsg rivets 
v.riZxMvovrcg d/iXovort rolg ?>oipvio:g. 'Em* iitdnx.ec (a) r*j &l>p>x 

TO (QrUpeC (-ZTiTpet 01 itt pot STCippSyi^nf) it: TO earvp UVlKOlVe-GCy 

10 ivocv7tipiv®-> o zQz^ov ¥tv%pov kro tS opvg, ipxvYicr&v uttox^vAiv 
tcvrxg zrupx pivot. Ey® di q-vXXolZouv ocvraiv rtvecg, oii(T7Cip i'txog ni, 
xecrztpetyov Xv\g-*g ovrug. 'Evrecvdec o GretvtipyoTecT(&> \xtiv(&> {iirt 

OYTIS, UTl OdvG-G-lV? Yiv) dtdu)G~l poi T^tttV (b) <PoCpp.Gi.XOV Tt (c) 
iy%Zxg, KOV ptV ft} iVOQ-poV, i7TtZ%X6T0TCCT6V 3g KJ TOCpoC'fcCtihzg'CCTCV, 

1 &' AnecvToc ykp ivkvg ihoxa pot -srtptQspzirSeci nnovrt, x} to mtXcctcv 



(a) r~ &v0 to 7r&px.1 By 3-yg«, here, he means not a door 9 
hut the mouth of his cave. For the savage Polyphemus 
knew nothing of the habitations of men, and, agreeably to 
his rude and wild notions, calls the rock, which he used for 
a door, ri &&pet, the cover, or rather, here, the stopper of the 
mouth of his cave. 

(b) <pifpx*fo t;.] Some strong' dose. He knew no other 
name for it, being an utter stranger to wine. Qctppecxov often 
signifies poison* 'EbiboUw ph iv rot xpocrn^i <p autoexec pip try- 
pivcc lit. Xcn. Cyr. Peed. Lib. i. And here Polyphemus 
might well think, that what he had drank was some sort of 
poison, and so have used the word in this meaning. 

(c) !y#g#f ] This is an extraordinary participle from the 
rerb hp&ot. The formation, by which it becomes such, is 
this: 9 Eyx£o) fut. ly^ivaruf (like 7rxico, ivo-u, and the like) aor. 1. 
ifgjg&tirtB, and, by losing t, Wiyzvoc -, and again, by loosing t/, 
invito, which, running through the moods, will end in the 
participle iyyjzs. This I translate, postquam infuderat, in 
order to give nearly a just notion of the time or tense. For 
this reason I shall frequently, in the beginning of my trans- 



tffvdv x&TZ?7ru# , &'4V' o Ss ciir6%vrets rov ^d^Acy, Kj <&v$a<rx$ yi (a) 
srpos-gT;, 'irvtpXuri pz xxOivdovrx* *£ xt? Ikuvh rvtphog upt rot, oi 
Ilonihoi. IIOS. 'ft? fix&vv 2xoi l uv$'iis, d rim**) 85 &>£ fc§&9fe|S$ 
pitTo&lv rvQhxpzvos. e O 2' hv 'oly^cgv? WS diiQvyev, % yxp *v iv 
olV on IJi/wjS-jj kiroKivntrxt w ssirpetv ano tv$ &vpx$. KYKA. 3 
'A AA' iya> xtyuXov* m ^SAAov etyrov XciZ-api \%iiv]et* K.xi xx&t'crag 
fmxpx TJjy 3-vpMV) l&ipw TX5 %e*pot$ Ix'KlTXtrxq^ p,6vx TSXpiU TX 
isrpo&xlx I? tJiv ytytijv, hriihcLfitv©-* ra> #p<# o-ttoctx s^pjjy vrpxrlnv 
xvrov V7rlp IpS* IIOS. Mxv&xva* v7r* \ximi$ ott yz tXx&w 
v7ri%iX$-6t>v org. 'AAA& t£$- u\\%g yi KvxXowxg \dit IniZwrxcrfraiiQ 
hr* xvrov. KYKA. HvvixxXicXy ca wxTip, *Cj r,xov' mit oi upovro 
T8 I^S»Asvovt(^» to ivopoi) xxya s^jjy, Xt*"OYTIZ tei 9 piXxyfco- 
XXV 6h$-$VTS$ [ti, WftOVTO UTrtOVTiS. Ovro) xxTirctyio-XTO pz 
xxTUpxr(&> ta> ovopstTt* Kx} ptdXifx wixvi fit, on Kj hudiZpv 
luot T'/tV crvptyopxv, u Ot)§' ftrxrvip {(p^trii) Tlccruieiv ixri-Txi eg." *5 
IIOS. G>dp<Tii, a TZX.V0V) xf&vvxftxt yxp xvrov^ ag pxB-y-. oTt it 9§ 
•zs-'^paciv p$i otpB-xXftav IxcB-xi xavvxrev-, rx ySv rcov -zrXzovTav, r« 
rd^uv xt>T%g t& x7roKhvvxi^ \n spot zrpinn. Iltei Ss nv* 



lation, turn the participles of the aorists, by jiostquam, or cum^ 
and the verb -, but, further on, into ablatives absolute, when 
1 cannot have the Latin participle of the preter tense of a 
verb deponent, as s}V<wf locutus, t7ri^itpi<rxg adortus, life. 

(a) sT^ocrsT/.] The best editions add npoAri to ItvPAakts; 
and, accordingly, the other translation renders both toge- 
ther, by insuptr exexcavit. But, as Ulysses had not, as yet, 
laid a finger upon Polyphemus, how could he irptffirt, ?nore- 
over, do any violence to him ? For this reason, I have taken 
the liberty to subjoin k^ti to nvpao-xs ys. So that the sense 
of the whole may iiterally run thus: 'o Jg xtco\v<?x$ rfo 
pofthh. But he having sharpened a stake^ *}, and (not con- 
tent with sharpening it) 7irvpoo<rxg yi Trpoo-in, having moreover 
made it red-hot in thejire^ hvp^cri pi, blinded me. Sec. 



fi2 



AIAA. /3'. Mv/zXclx y^ Up6Ti&j$. 

This Dialogue is a ridicule upon that part of Homer'3 Odyssey, 
where Menelaus is represented, as having, by the instructions of 
the nymph Eidotbea, seized Proteus, her father (a prophet and 
sea-god, who could change his form and appearance to what he 
pleased), and learned from him, how he might escape from the 
island of Pharos, where he was. detained by contrary winds.— 
The conversation of Menelaus and Proteus in Homer, upon that 
occasion, is here particularly ridiculed. 

MEN. — • AXXoi v$&p p'tv <rt yivia-Srctt a> ITp^TSv, xx, w7r&o&v6y y 
hdxiov y% ovtm, v^j oh^poy in ^opiiroy, y^ I; xiovrcc okoti uXXciyitq$, 
q/u.w$ *2s t5to s|<a zri<3ia$. Et 21 Jtj zrvp ytvio-B-cct dvvxrov iv t% 
B-oe>Xdr\-n otxSvTct) tSto ttccvv S-^y^'^, j£ a-Triea. IIP£2T. Mn 
5 S-ccvftdwis, a yiinX&i, yiyvo.icai ydp, MEN.- ILidov j£ uvto?, 
'AXXd poi liox.iis {sipio-iToti yap -&pog <ri) yo^rilex,y Ttvot <urpe<rdyiiy 
r£ -srpdyftctTt, y$ t»j o^otX^Hq t^ciTronoiy ray opavTM, mvtos s5sp 
toixto yiyvopiv(&>* TIYQT . Kott rig Uv vj U7rdrn tv* rav arcag 
ly&pyay yivoiro; hx, kvivypctvoig ro7? otp&xXpots it ?££, $£ o-wt 

10 fiZTiiroiw& Ipccvrit i E< 5s fal&fay Kj to --Grpuyftot fa) '^ivTiq thai 
dox.{iy QHyrae-tet tis arpo t£v oQ&atXpav. Wc&piYAi hru\dy -zs-vp 
yiv&psti) -zrpocrivsyxi ^©*, &> ywctiorxri, rw yjtpx' 11T4 yap, il 
opZffiect piovoV) S*$ rh kxiuv tots [aoi st ports' tv* MEN. Ovx aG-$a,\v\$ 
n <aiipoL, a npaTiv. TITQT. 2v di ^><, MmXas y dozzig aSe 

l5zroXwn4V iapMKZvxi st^oti, *S' 8 m&Q%n * %§v<; kr(&> iiiivsti* 
MEN. 'AAA<* Toy ply <&oXv7rt4v iidov. *A «ruff%u Se, vihicas a* 
(LtdBoitii 7rotpd c£. IIP£2T. 'Ovcnc* uv <&i?pu. (arpoTih^m, upftoo-ft 
rat (b) xorvXaSy :£ <&%o<7<pvs i%iToti xecld ids (c) <&tex,Tciv#f y 

(a) ^iv2k*~\ Grxvius would have it -^tvhs, agreeing with 
^»w/«j and, I think, with good reason. 

(b) xervXccg.'] Suidas says, that kotvM properly signifies 
a cup, and that hence it hath been used to signify the cavity 
or hollow in one bone, for the reception of the head of 
another. The fish, called polypus, hath little cups or 
cavities along the inside of its claws, which it applieth to any- 
thing it grasps, and, with them performing a kind of suction,, 
clings quite close to it. Plin. Nat. Hist. Lib. ix. cap. 9. 

(c) TrKiKruyoi^'] A kind of small claws, which the polypus 
twines about some sort of shell-fish, so fast, that it bursts the* 
shell, and so gets the fish for its pains. Plin. ibid. 



UtuVftiV®* TKV <TO5T£fltV, 6>? UV A«S"S TZS$ UXl'iCt?) pk OlxXAcCTica^ 

l&Y^l $ccyi%o$ cov ^ios, tSto, #AA* h.xag ta> XiSx. MEN. ®xet 
rocvicc* t« ^s <7oy-7roAA<£ .isru^^o^oTi^ov, &) Hpu)Tiv, I1PQT. Ovk 

ti^ot* a MsvsA^s, Tivi ay olXXx 'i£ri?tv<7Ucc$, ro7g axviis Ity&ctXpus 5 
pLnifav. MEN. 'lo&v u^or #AA# to Gr^siypx Ti^dfioV) lev ctvTO? 



AIAA. y'. IlaFg.Saly®- ^ AeA^VW. 

It is probable that Lucian, here, intends to be merry, not only with 
the fable of Arion, but also with Herodotus, and his own cotem- 
porary Plutarch: the former of whom, after his usual manner, 
relates this story with an air of gravity; and the latter hath not 
scrupled to introduce it, as told by an eye-witness, in the com- 
pany of the seven wise men of Greece, and as credited by every 
one of them. See Herod, in Clio, and Pint, in Syinpcs. 

IIOZ. — E£ys 5 cd AsA^rvsj, oti as} (piXdvS-^&Troi Irs. Kat/ <r?uXxi 

^t4SV TO T>)$ 'lvS$ «ro6Jfl/oV \tv\ (a) TOV^IfS^OV httflfa 54T5, *2rd3bf istytft**. 
U7T0 TOOV *Z)Cl%&>vioidV ^.%TOL TY t $ ^T^O? IptTiCCV* K&t VVV (TV TO? 

xt$-&g'-idov tStov rov lx Mr,B-v^cv/ig uvaXa'oaV) i&ivvfeca \q Tctivapot, 
uvtyi a-KSvn Y^y.ttid^cis kdl Tgg*s/3gs xattas vko rav vavrav uttoXXv- 5 

LliVCy. AEA<&« Mi frcCVflUFfS) 01 HoG-iiCG)/) U TZS Qt,V§ £&)?!%$ tV 



(a) Toy 'lefyh ] The Corinthian isthmus, called, 'leaser, 
(he isthmus, by way of pre-eminence. I will give neither 
the geography of the places mentioned in these dialogues, 
nor the stories relating to the proper names of men, or 
gods 1 because the geography of any pl?xe is never learned 
to any purpose, but by maps,- and the stories, concerning 
men and gods, are, for the most part, to be found in dic- 
tionaries. Yet, if any of these fables or histories are not to 
be found in the common dictionaries, or if the sense or 
beauty of any part of the text requires a particular relation 
of them, they shall be set forth* 



6 

tfUxtttV) (a) l| uv&^M7T6fv yi >£ c&vrat \y$'vig ytvipim. 1102. K&l 

{Aiutpeuoct yi r« Ai6vvr(t y oTt vpag ycecrxvotv^ct^ascg fAiT&xXe-, 
dm %zi£&<rcu?66ti povoV) acm^ rag liXXxg v7rqyciyiT0. "Onus y£f 
TCI XOLTCC, TMV* Agt3VC6 TKTOV lyhir& ) a AiXtpiv ; AEA<I>. *0 Tli^lot^^^j 
S oiuxi, ip/eci^iv ccvrat) Kg -zroXKoiKtg pninipTciTo etvrov Ins t? ts^vjt, 
'O 2s, <&'KxliG-eiq TffOL^k T8 TV£ClVVi£) IniS'vptiiiO'ii -srXivrcLg tUoChi \g T>JV 

xccKX^yav eiv^gav, cog idii%i tjoXvv ayav %£v<rov *$ cj^yygay, vjtil 
xcCToi i&i<rov to AiyccTcv iyiviro, hrtZaMvacif avrcp 61 vccvrcci, 

19 'O 2s (ijKPOMf&Yiv ysig et7roivroi 'ztctQGcvwv ra c-ydtyit) "'Ewfi tc&vtcx. 
" vph 2ioo&l*t (s«^»j) uXXa rs.v (b) oczviiv uve&XxQivTcc ^s, *y 
Ci Ufrettrot S-gajvov Tivot eV ifxecvra ikovtgi IoLitxti pi'ypett IftavTov." 
'EvrsTpv^/otv ot vuvtmi. Kcct civiXxvi tJjv vytzvviv, ^ >J~s f&dvv 
Xiyvpoog* xj mio-iv i'tg t^v ^oiXocrluvs cos ot>vrix,oc Tardyrag uno- 

l5^y^gy(^.. i Eyco dl v7ro?.x£aV) >£ ccvc&S-'z l uiv®>> otvrov, IfyvYfecipyst 
i%wv its Tcavagov. FIOS. EttccivS) rv^g fiiXopxe-ixg* &%tov y&>^ 
T«y [tiG-Sav a7roh'iOQi)itxg ccvrca rtig uKpbiviwg* 



(a) \% uv6p*>7r6)v-*\ The fable is, that a crew of sailors hav- 
ing taken Bacchus, in the form of a beautiful boy, would 
have carried him off as a prey. Upon which, the god 
resumed his own shape, and turned them all into dol- 
phins. Ovid. Met. Lib. iii. 

(b) (tkivw.~\ By czivhv, probably, is meant here, not his 
ordinary dress, but that which he wore as a musician. For 
great musicians wore certain habits peculiar to their profes- 
sion: as appears from Plutarch, where he introduces Gorgias, 
telling this story to the seven wise-men, and saying, that he 
knew Arion before he came on shore off the dolphin's back, 
because he wore his Ivctycovtov xta-ph, the dress which he wore 
at the games i for musicians, in Greece, were wont to contend 
lor prizes at the public games; which extraordinary occasion 
probably gave rise to a particular dress. Herodotus, in 
relating this story, called Arion's dress, o-Kivn. Lucian, 
therefore, probably, uses the same word, by way of mimickry 
and ridicule upon his chimerical narration. 



AIAA. 2'. Tltvi$av<&» to NqgjiSai. 

The story of Athamas and Nephele is not completely told in any 
dictionary ; nor can this dialogue be fully understood, without 
a particular account of the latter. 

Athamas, king of Thebes, married Nephele. She was a goddess; 
but the mythologistsdo not tell us, of what part of the creation: 
yet, that it must have been of the clouds, her name puts out of 
all question. Athamas, upon some dislike to her, put her away 
and married Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, who proved a most 
cruel step-mother to Phryxus and Helle, his children by Nephele. 
Wherefore, in order to rid herself of them entirely, she privately- 
caused all the seed corn in Boeotia to be parched, so that the 
next sowing produced no crop, and then bribed the soothsayers 
to report that there should be none, till Helle and Phryxus were 
sacrificed to the gods. As they stood at the altar, for that pur- 
pose, their mother, Nephele, took them away in a cloud, and 
mounted them on the golden ram, which she got from Mercury. 
This flew away high through the air with them, and crossed 
over the Hellespont, afterwards so called, from Helle's having 
then fallen into it. Upon this, Juno sent a fury to Athamas, 
who inspired him with such rage and phrenzy, that, when Ino 
appeared to him, with her and his own two children, Learchus 
and Melicerta,he imagined them a lioness with her two whelps, 
and, snatching up Learchus, dashed him against a rock ; 
whereupon, Ino fled away with Melicerta in her arms, and, 
being closely pursued by Athamas, threw herself from the pro- 
montory Cithxron into the sea. The gods, in** pity to them, 
turned her into a sea-nymph, and Meiicerta into a sea god, 
afterwards called Portumnus, the god of havens or ports. Hoff- 
man and Natal. Comes. 

COS.— Td ^SV <?ivbv t2-T0, h i (Sraiq K*&lltfFS%$ty EAAij0^r«y/@o 

rvj Tpwdat •srecreviywrs, &)<; tk&uyi vtto im frrifewp/av* NHP. 
(a) Mqiafi&s, a noe*s; Joy, #AA' ivrctZQu h tw (b) iw&yvpcs: isi'huyii 



(a) Mvihetpuc.'] Pert enough. 

(b) btwvpt*.'] Cognomi%i, which is the ablat. case sing*, 
of the noun adject. Cogmominis — e, — Lucian seems to 
have made a blunder here : for how could the sea be brmvp*f y 
or called, after-her-JSwne, before men knew of her fall, so as* 
from thence, to call the sea after her name? 



&§&$$*' (a) IXiSptft yk'p Mvr\y r oikIi^sc vkI r*q pLy,7pvix$ zrirrt^ 
$v7av. nOS. T£to pe.lv, a Aptftigirfy % bipUf* Oi?3' *XXv$ 
xseXov lvlecv6d &te x.t7cr$-cti Irrro tjJ "ycifApiM ttvriv* uXX , ©argg fcpijfy 
$;> t? T^»#§; (b) h t? Xippoviitta rt&ei'^/tToit. 9 Ezt7vo 21 zs-upetitvQtGV 
5 eVa« #vr^, or< |ttgT oXtyov rcc, oevrk v^ h 'lv<y ts-u't tract, j£ tptirefitTUt 

V7TQ r5 *A0CtplCZVT(&* du-JX-OpiiVYi U$ TO KiXcLy^, Ct.7T etX.CH TS KlQxl- 

pa>v(&>, x.oc&o7Tip xafakei 1$ rjv §ru,XM<?e«,v, s^ra ?£ Toy £joc frsri t?j 
«yKc:A>jj» NHP. AXXci (c) kuki'ivw f&fc&i oiia , ti,% t ci£i<rcLpiiv(&» tw 
Atovve-*' rgo$o$ yei(> civrts HJ t/t^»j *5 Ij/^J. I10S. Ovx ££{?* * Tca " ro '* 
\Ov^ou,v keuv. 'AXXa, tw £i6vvrip ct%x£i<n.h} A Apt0i*pim, %%- *{<**• 
Nil?, AiVu £s #g» t/ wu§£?a xuriTttfiv uvro rS »(<£) a «e«A(f &f 



(a) Ixixpav.'] One would think there was no great pity 
shewn, in letting her lie where she was. But, perhaps, 
Lucian would represent these Nereids, as a parcel of fleer- 
ing baggages, who made a shew of concern, but, in truth, 
did not care a rush what became of the poor young crea- 
ture, and were too lazy to give themselves any trouble about 
her. 

(b) \v t?.] Ghevius says it should be written, i h ??, &c. 
and produces the authority of a MS. for the amendment. 
He is certainly in the right; for it is an egregious blunder to 
say, in Troas in the Chersonese : because the Thracian 
Chersonese lay on the European side of the Hellespont, and 
Troas on the Asiatic. See Wells's maps. 

A Chersonese, or Cherrhonese, is a peninsula, or an island 
joined to the continent by a neck of land* It is so called 
from %e£<rh, Terra, and vv<rt<$, Insula. 

(c) «<fcWvy,v.] Her also. That is, you must save Ino too, 
as you now do Helle. But where is the great favour in 
saving her, as he does Helle, who is actually drowned ? 
The meaning, then, must be, that he must save her too, that 
is, her body too, as he now does that of Helle. 

I cannot make grammar of the nom. case £«g<0-*fct'sv«$ $ 
and, therefore, think Lucian must have written it ##gW^gv«y, 
0-s„ Te, being understood. Grsevius hath found it xH i<rcim 
piivvs in a MS. which will make it full sense and grammar 
because they are ail supposed to join in conferring the 
favour, 



& o Qj>v%<'&> etffQ&X&f (a) lyjCitcd', IT02. E*fc«T#?. Ntxvtxg yotfa 
■tig dvvarc&i avrtftiiv vs-fig rhv (i>) (pcgdv >j ?2, v^-o oiv^ilxg, IvAucca 

-vr\ views, atcqarhg ly'&Sro rav mqatm rov Kgix* cov tw$ bruXqrf}*, 5 
*£ wprmtviv lc to ZTZhxy©*. NHP. Ovkxv l%ftv riv pviripx t*ip 
(c) Nf^sA*?* #cg0s7v w?f\i*i7y j IIOS. *Ji;£g?y» 'AAA* si ^e?p# 

WQhhf ts}§ N.i^eAjjf $v¥aT®T2PX. 



(a) o;<js7t«<.] He speaks, in the present tense, because 
Phryxus is supposed to be still in sight, as Helle had been 
drowned but just before. 

(b) $0g#y.] I take it that #*$«'», as it is derived from ^sg#, 
here, signifies the great Felocity-wit/i-which-they-zvere-carried. 
By Phryxus being said to bear against it, is meant no 
more than that he could hear it, without being affected as 
Helle was, 

(c) NepgAjjv.] The reason why her mother, Nephele, is 
supposed to be able to help her, is, that she was a goddess, 
and had before shewn her power, by getting the golden 
ram from Mercury for her children. 



Homer tells us, in the 21st book of his Iliad, that, in a warm 
encounter between the Grecians and Trojans, several gods 
were engaged on both sides, the river (that is, the god of the 
river) Xanthus, seeing Achilles slaughtering his neighbours, 
the Phrygians, on his banks, attempted to drown him, by laying 
all the ground, on which he fought, under water: and that 
Vulcan fell upon the flood of Xanthus, with a conflagration, 
and almost dried up his whole channel. 

HAN®.— A£|#< pi, a QdXavcrot,, %nw z3-i7rov$oTx> jcxraeZiffov 
(&X rx rgavMXTX. 0AA. Tt txto, £ lewfo; rig « xetTiKoivrtv $ 
HAN®. ,s H*p#;?®*. 'AAA' eiirviv8geticafAMt oXag o x.xx,odxt{&*>v, ^ 
%w. 0AA. At* rf 3s r%i b'&aXt to <gv$ ; HANG. At* rh Uh 



10 

*i%g ®iTt2&>* hrii yk% (povtvoyTX rxg Qgiyag Wiriv<ru, 9 iJ' xz 
Ikc&vo-ccto tk Gtyyfa «AA vko im nxp&v ani'p ez.-f\t pot rov p£it, 
ite4>7c6$ TiSg &$Xl&$) i7r^A&ov. £?rixXvff<Zi S-gA&y.j &$ Q&yMU *J*«V- 

&m) tpoLv orov* ciftai- -zrv% u.yj-< >£ ojcv iv rf, A/rvp, *£ uxoQt aX?^edt 9 
q>i$av % b**,7&i poty 9tj txoivrt ph rkg sfliMug^ xj ftvpixag^ iwTn<r* 
H t£ Tits xaxoda/povctg iyj^vs-, {a} KJ tm$ \yyjhv&g. Avrov dl Ipt 
(b) vTrigteLxfiMffcti ■srotiie'afi fAtxgx duv oXov %Y}gov iipycLfou. % OftHg 
2' isv 07T6>$ hxxetpobi vtto tcov lyxc&vp&Tav ; ©A A. GoXzp og 9 a> 2*etv6e 9 
*l0*j B-t^fiog^ cog sixes* to cttitet ph uno rcov vsxgM, i biffin 3e, 
wg <?'<$) kkq rov zrvgog. Koci sixor&s, ® "EetvH 9 0$ mt rov Utbt vt69 
eogftyxrcts, %x ctiozcB-ZiS art NigwdQr vtog ?iv» HAN0. Ovx tin 
i&v lXi?i<rai yu'rovag ovrctg rhg <bpyyag ', OAA. Toy (c) c 'H0#<$-d* 
Jg hx tilt iXwrat ®tr3<&> i/tov hrot, rov 9 A%tXXicc. 



r ( a ) *? T "<$ «y^A-v«j.] And even my very Eels",; which lief 
far down in the mud. 

Kxtovro TrliXzoct, yj Wtctt 9 iit (Avyxeti, 
Ttipovr lyfciXvig ri 9 >£ iy$-vtg. 

Horn, Iliad. $\ 

(b) t>7rie t xax t >J.<7xi.'] The other translation renders, this 
-word effervesce?*. But it is derived from x*%\vfe-ix»$ 9 
a pebble; and xx^Xot^ signifies to-make-that-nohc-whicli- 
water-running-over-fiebjles-or-stones-dotlu Fire, thrown into 
water, makes a noise not unlike this 5 so that v7rip t xoL%\d£ ) 6r 
will signi fy , to - boil- or - bubble ~ uji - violently -voith-that-sort- of - 
noise. Vid. Steph. 

(c) *H$cu?h ih&vetiJ] There was good reason, why Xan- 
thus should take the part of his neighbours, the Phrygians : 
but it is not evident, why Vulcan should take that of 
Achilles. The case was, Vulcan had been under very great 
obligations to his mother Thetis : for, when Jupiter had 
kicked him down from heaven, for interposing in a 'quarrel 
between himself and Juno, Thetis received and concealed 
him, till he was taken up into favour again. This Vul- 
can himself gratefully acknowledges, in the 1 8th book of 
Homer's; Iliad, where he says of her, *'H p Icrdaxr'oTt p aXyog 
.atpixiro rnXt sno-ovTet. And it was in return, that he made 
her an impenetrable suit of armour for her son. 



11 



This Dialogue, possibly, was written upon occasion of some dis- 
putes concerning the merits of iEsculapius and Hercules. Read 
the stories of these two, and of Omphale, before you read the 
Dialogue. 

ZEY2. — TlavTocetii) a 'Ao-kX-atii '<$' HgdjcXug^ l^iTovrig 7rp)$ 
uXXviXxg atrTig <ivB-g&7roi. ATPiTv yag TcivTM) tfy aXXoTgicc ?& 
G-vp7T0(rtv rav $-zav* 'HPAKA. 'AAA* IflgAg/?, a Ziv, rxrovt tqv 
<p#0pax,icc -&£0Ke£lci>tX>'vs<r6ci/pXi 'ASKA. N>j A/#, j£ &ptivav y*£ 
ttut. 'HPAKA. Kara t/, a IpZc iyrnrs j h dton 71 Ztv; 5 
IxzpcivvcrHjiv, S uh Sripis -zroitsvTa $ vvv dinar tXzav av&is aS-xvatrfies 
(liTgtMty&Si 'A SKA. 9 ETiXiXvi3-xg (a) ykg ^ <rv, a [HgcUhiig, 
gy tvj Ofay xotTotQXiytU) on pot omdifytg to srt/gj HPAICA. 
OvxSv Jcrcc ?£ opcia. fi&iarett iptv, og Aibg ph viog iipt) ror&vTct, 
§g 'sn^ovnxcL SKtcsiS-aigav tov /3/av, B-yj^/os, jcetrxyayt^ouiv^j ^ 10 
ciy&g&rr%g l&plskg Tii/«o)o%(.t,iv(&> % <rv ol pi£ > oTcp(&> u ttj uyvgnrn' 
V6G%<7i ftXv irag ky§pj>)T0ig %%40"iu(&> iTtdycreiv t&v fet^udxeavj 
ay^pallig ?g k^h lTi$ihiyuzv@r J , 'A2KA. Ev Xzyztg, on <rx to, 

tyKOtVUXTCt iOCO-Oi^ViV, OTi WgdltiV UVqX&ig yiUltyXZXT&i V7T uppoHif 
^li<pQcf.£[/Av(&> TOO G-GOpcLTl^ tS ^ITaV^^ ?£ [AITU TXT6 TH *&Vg>$% \ 5 

'Eyd %l u 90 fAvibh e&XXO) 4ti i^xXivccz air Tig c-y, an s^&ivov spi& 
Iv At/S/#, 7To^v£i^oi hdi^vxag, ?£ -srxiofisv®* vto rng 'OuCp&Xng 
%pv<rai exvctdX'j:) aXX' &§g piXayftoXYiQ-ag (b) X7ri)cliivx rx tv-oim, 



(ft) v«£.] This particle looks a little extraordinary, in this 
place. But I take it to be referred to ort, which follows, in 
the sentence, and that the meaning of it is, ergo : ""Or*, since, 
" you upbraid me with fire, iTtXixrMg ya^ you therefore ,have 
" forgotten ; since this might have been objected to your- 
« self." 

(b) cLt'oltuw.'] This alludes to apart of the story of Her- 
cules, which is not to be found in dictionaries, and which is 
as follows : Hercules was married to Megara, daughter of 
Creon king of Thebes; about which time, he made a 
descent into hell, to release Pirithous and Theseus, who 
were confined there, for their rudeness to Proserpine. Dur- 
ing his absence, the Thebans deposed his father-in-law 

c 



12 

not} ty.v yvvcUKU,. HPAKA. E< ^J zrctio~y Xot^o^i^ivot; pot, 
ecvTticu [tclha. HG-ri) oaq % -zroXv as ovarii i uB-etveiciotj Iku k^dpivoq 
gs pity*} hrt KityaXw Ik, tS XgccvS, gosi fW/^S tov Tlutiovot, iao-c&F&ect 
rs to xge&vfov evylgfezvTM. ZEY2. Tlocvo-octrB-B, (pv^i) Kj f^tyj Ittitx- 
5 gurlen iftTit tw %vv%<rtav, % aptyoT'cgXt; aTro'/rzp'^/ouo&t vpca$ tov 
6-vfs,7io<7ix* KaiTot ivyvapov, to 'H^oixXziS) -&Qox.ctTctx,}\{rt<j§oii 
cm tov AG~xXv)7rtovy tin ^ srgsTggcy (a) uTroBocvovTec, 



Creon, and restored Lycus to the crotvn. Lycus, after his 
restoration, put many of the Thebans, who had opposed his 
interest, to death ; and was just on the point of murdering 
Amphrytrio, Hercules's reputed father, his wife Megara* 
and also his children, when Hercules, having- just then 
returned from hell, appeared, and slew Lycus. Upon this, 
Juno sent a fury to Hercules, who inspired him with such a 
fit of rage and madness, that, in the midst of it, he unwit- 
tingly killed Megara and his own children by her. Euripid* 
in c Hg#». Motlv. and Senec. in Here. Furens. 

(a) d7ro6ccvQVTc&.'] Jupiter doth not say, because he nvasjirst 
received into Heaven-, but, because he died first', which 
looks like an humorous hint at the absurdity of a dead man's 
setting up for a Deity. 



AIAA. £'. 3/ A%m$ x&t e £g//.£. 

This Dialogue was intended to expose a real and great inconsis- 
tency, in Homer : who, in the eighth book of his Ilias, hath 
introduced Jupiter justly asserting his superiority over all the 
powers of heaven and earth, by proposing to let down a golden 
chain, &c. as you have it here : and this, after having, in his 
first book, represented this same supreme power in great distress, 
and beholden to the giant Briareus, for releasing him from the 
hands of Neptune and two goddesses. This was a vast weak- 
ness, in this prodigious genius, and shews us, how subject to 
error and impiety is the unassisted light of the strongest natural 
reason. It is ni defence of Homer to say, that he wrote in 
conformity to the mode of fabling, in his time. This makes 



13 

him worse ; fcr it is saying, that he sacrificed the honour and 
dignity of the Supreme Being- to the silly and extravagant 
humour of the age he lived in. 

S/ AV. — -'HzxtrtiS) a ''E(>{6ti } ci x^itXria-iv vip*iv o Zgt)?, &s v7ngo7rrix,& 
t£ M7ri'0otvat ; a 'H» i3-zXii<r0 ((pY^ii) \yo) p\v lx tzs xqcivx czigxv 
w x.pJii(r&, vfAtig i' v±v dvoxgtfAXffSivlsg xctTctv7rav fitdfyr&i f^h 
il f&ccTw "ertffaitv £ y&g ^h xcdhXxvarSTt* El 21 \yoo biXfaottfAi 
w MViXscvcroti, 4? [Aovgv vftiZf) ccXXm v^ thv yv>v cttaa j£ rw B'etXeitro'xv 5 
ii G-vvc&QTicras ftrrsagtZ" K«* tmXXcc crcc j^j <rv atcJiKOBtg, 'Eyco ol 
on f&v (a) tcc&6 zv u-Trc&yr&y ctfrilv&y j£ lo-%vgoTtgo$ iftVy Use a? 

agVYl&ZlVIV. 'OftX 2$ TQV T6CV7&V V'T*?^?iiy, CC<Z fit 7CStT0l%C&gVO'UV 

UV76V) 9cuv tvv yjy, f&kv rjv &dXcbtr<rot9 <& gar hate afAiV) %%. ttv 
vu&mv* \EPM. 'EvQifjiii) & "A|H» & y%% ao-tpaXk xiyuv Td\Q 

TGlXVTfy ftl) HO.) Tl (b) It&tiQV C£7foXxV7&{L4St T¥\$ @XvXgiX$. A P. 

Ota yup pi -zrgog &rdv7c&$ 0.9 ravrei, ttwuvy hy) 21 zsr^o$ pivQV o-s, 
C9 i%£ftv$hU9 tfariedpzqv ; yyv pdXi?u yzXolcv K2o%i [toi ukuovti 
/MTa^v rn$ U7ruXii$, xx &v ovvetif&W F&fTCntreu sr£<?s eg. Ms,«vij 4 «*/ 
y#g % 77^0 tfoXXQ cttoi* lioru^Svi ?^ i 'Hgx, k} 'a , AQr^ci\^ 

cidta$j k} TcLvTci,*, Tgz7$ ovTctc , Kai i\ fiii yi n &irig xoiliXzii<7c£Ccc, 
lx,a,Xi<rtv ctvT(f crv^u-xy^cy Bgiecgsm ix&ToyfeU&M cvroij zciv \dz2zTO 
otvTw jtigotvw *£ figovrn* Txiroc hoytfy/Atv®) Imfat floi ylXoiv \t?1 
tj| xxXippyipoo-vvvj uvtS* £PM. 2t6V7TU) ivtpvpiu Ov y*P2Q 
d<?$£>ite$ vTt rot Myuv, xnlpci mkHUV toc, to;mvtc6. 



(a) xaf gV] Pro xctf wee. 

(b) xxxh dvoXcivrapcv.'] To say, enjoy a misfortune, is a 
manner of expression, which is warranted by what is called 
the figure Catachresis ; that is, the abuse, or misapplication, 
of words. So in Latin, Tu scaMefrwrk) &c. Juven. 



u 



AIAA. *?'. Aioyivtig km) IIoXv$tvxVf. 

The folly of the ancient philosophers, in several instances, and 
some of the vanities and vices of mankind, are here exposed. 

(a, AIOF.— -Q, YleXvoivxig, hr'cAAopui coi } Isrg^v Tet%igs6 
AnXi»g (cev ydg Wtv, ofaai, amGtwat avgiov)vv 7?% idpg (b) Mivi7r- 
*7rov rev xvvot, (itipoig ^ av ctvrov \y KopivQa* x.c&tm to (c) TLpclviiov. 
•vi tv Avxu® iwv igiCfiVTUf srpog «APujA#s QiMroQm x.ocrc6yzX&vrc&) 
5 'ii-rrilv la-gog etvrov, on — u So;, eo MzvtTrvru kzazuu Atoytvvig, it 
u trot txebiZg tu VTTip^ yyg xctTccyiyzAarxt, r.xsiv h6etii noAAZ 
•* m-Aita tTrtyshe&ffcptvcv. 'Exu ph yup (d) h a^tQoXrp cro; &j 
yi\&)g yV) t^ zroXv to, r*$ yug oXag olot rot, yAik rov fitov ; IvluZQcc 
iC M } k Travel (e) fi&xfac yiAttv, xaQutriP lyto vvv £ udXisu 



i«) HOP.] TTiis Diogenes, the cynic pniiosopher* being 
asked, why he was called the dog*, made answer, " Because 
u I fawn upon those who give me any thing, and snarl at 
" those who do not, and bite rogues." Diog. Laert» 
Lib. vi. 

(b) Mimm***) Another cynic; of whom little is recorded, 
except that, having grown rich by usury, he was robbed, 
and, thereupon, hanged himself. Ibid. Segm. 100. 

(c) Kgamov.'] The Craneum was the philosophy-school, 
built upon a hill near Corinth, and so called from K^cinh, 
Caput. The Lyceum was that at Athens, so called from 
Avx&ifigy a name of Apollo. 

(d) It dp$&oA®.~\ In a doubt ^ that is, ufion no sure grounds. 
For no man knew, whether he had a right to laugh at 
another, because there was no certainty of living beyond the 
grave ; and it was, therefore, seemingly wise in every man 
to please himself; so that he was no just object of the 
ridicule of another. 

(e) fi&xius*'] Upon-good-grounds. As if he had said, "It 
" is here, in this other world, that all the vice and folly of 
" the former appear indisputably real vice and folly ; and, 
" therefore, here you are sure they deserve your laughter 
" and contempt." 






15 

a uyivslg u<ri y fiSfAWipsvot r&v avti, Tccvtcc teyt ccvtu*, 3% srgocgTJ) 
a l^vAjjc^gvov tkv gt'a^oiv i'xg/y (a) S-gg^aw ti -ztoXX&jv, k> a zrx 

" IV £01 h T? T£tO$Cf> (b)' 'EkKTYIS itlTTVOV KSlfAiVOVy 8 *«» S* (c) X#3wg- 

" Wa, J' t; Td;8ro/ J IIOA. 'AAA' oL7rayft\a rxviot^ oo Aioyzvig' 
07T6}(, 2s u^a pdXifG!,, 07rcilq Tig hi tv>v c^/iv j AIOT. Ti^cavS 

<PxholX.e ) 0$) TQ&GOVICV t%M9 ^oXv^V^OV^ C&7T&VTI CtvifA® d,VX7ri7noif^iVOV^ 

xj ToCig hrtir]v%e&i<s t&v ferJav -zroixiXcv. TiXct, d c&u, ?£ ra 
-zroXXoi ?%$ dxafyvcig t%t%$ (ptXoFoQag Iwi^ti^lu, IIOA. 
*Yc&iov svggjy U7F0 yi txtmv. AlOr. BsAg* ?£ -zrpog avTtsg Ixu'vxg 
IflitXapctt rt T%$ (piXoG-otpxg ; IIOA. Asy% » /3#£t) yu% *3g t£tq' 

(a) B-^uav.'} Lupines were a very bitter kind of pulse or 
pease, as Pliny says. Lib. xviii. cap. 14. And Virgil, in 
his first Georgia, terms them, Tristisque Lufiini. They, 
therefore, were food only for very poor people. 

(b) e £*«'njs JsEoflv.] Cognatus, upon this place, observes 
from Suidas, that the rich, taking occasion from the month- 
ly offering to Hecate, used to leave a number of loaves on. 
the high-roads, for the poor to take away. This offering 
was called c EKoiTr,g 3s£tw*. 

(c) K6c3-u%<ri%.'] Among the ancients, the people were 
purified, either after they had buried their dead, as is done 
in Virgil, after the burial of Misenus, or when any great 
wickedness had been committed among them, as in Homer, 
after Agamemnon had offended Apollo, by dishonouring 
his priest Chryses. It is observable, that the things, which 
they used in order to purify themselves, were of a purifying 
or cleansing nature, being either water, or sulphur, or eggs. 
The first is used in Virgil. Juvenal mentions the second, 
Sat. ii. — Si qua darentur Sulfihura. And, here in Lucian* 
we find eggs used. Cognatus says, that it was also used to 
purify the assemblies and theatres. The reason why Dio- 
genes charges Menippus to bring down some lupines, the 
supper of Hecate, and eggs from a purification, will appear 
from considering what is observed above : that the poor 
only lived upon lupines and the high-way-offerings, and, no 
doubt, upon eggs, or any such scraps left after purifications 3 
and that the cynics lived like the poor, or like beggars : as 
Horace shews, where he says to a cynic, 

Tu fioscis vilia rerum 
Da?itc minor. 

c2 



16 



AlOr. To yy-.v oAay, (a) 7?ot,v?otcr§ r cii ccvroiq Grct^zyyvoi Xvi^^tj %} 
tzi^i (b) rav oXwj Ipitptri, kxi (o) yA^UToc. (pvzrtv #AA;JA©^, x,ai 
(d) xpoKudztXvs Kroizri-, xott raioivroi cmo^a (e) l^rSv $i$cc<7x%<rt 
toy V6v. IIO A. AAA Ipi cIilc/Ja %>x>i drsiidzvrov zivxt (pjjVycr;, 



And again, 

firanderet ohis— 

So that this charge, to bring down lupines, eggs, Sec. is a 
gibe upon that beggarly way of living, by which the cynics 
affected to shew their great contentedness. 

(a) ttsiVTac-B-cit Mepn.] An idiom, or particular way of 
speaking, put for -Tz-ccvrxG-S-ctt Xvi^iiv, 

(b) T#y oXm.] Some of the ancient philosophers, as Epi- 
curus, maintained, that the universe was made by chance. 
Others, as Aristotle, that it existed by necessity, i. e. had 
no beginning at all. Others, hitting on the truth, held that 
it was the work of an Almighty God. So Plutarch, in his 
life of Pericles, says of Anaxagoras, that he made neither 
chance, nor necessity, to be the maker, t%v oAa/v, of the uni- 
verse, dhXa rh Kxdxgh vSit) but the pure mind, i. e. God. 
Lucian derides their endless disputes about things they had 
little or no certain knowledge of. 

(c) xi££6Tct cpvxtriv.'] Lucian here laughs at Chrysippus, 
who was the notorious author of many subtile, but silly argu- 
ments, and" puzzling questions ; to which he gave names, 
according to their natures: such as the Electra, the 
Achilles, the Crocodile, the Horner, &c. The Horning 
Sophism was this : "You have what you have not lost: 
" you have not lost horns: therefore you have horns.'* 
Diog. Laert. in Chrysip. 

(d) fcooKohixag.'] Chrysiftfius's Crocodile was a sort of puz- 
zling question. He himself puts it, in the following man- 
ner, to his purchaser, in Lucian's auction of the philoso- 
phers : u If a Crocodile had swallowed down your child, 
u and told you he would spue him up again, provided you 
" told him the truth, whether, or no, he intended so to do - ? 
a in that case, whether of the two, would you say, the Cro- 
" codile was determined upon ?" I suppose he means that, 
whether the person, whose child was swallowed, answered 
the Crocodile, you do, or, you do not, it woulci be equal ; 



17 

xartyoeZvra t3$ croQTag uvrav. AIOT. St» Ss (a) oift&fyiv otvT6t<; 
zrotp zp,$ Xiys, IIOA. Ketiretvrx^ a Aioying^ diru,y[iXoo» AIOT. 
Totg <a-X%rtoig 2'i } on (p/Xrocrov TJoXv^ivJctov^ dirdyfiXXi tovtm <nra,£ 
ip&r " T/, & pdrxiot, tov xZ v< ?h QvXoirliri ; ri §s Ti^ca^7<rBe 
i6 zavritg, Xoyityfizvot rzsg ro'xxg, xctt raXuvrot lit) rxXavroig 5 
K c-vyrriivrsgi %g y^A wot oZoXov z^ovrxg^ yixuv pur oXtyov | JFIOA, 
JLifiwetT&i kc/a TGtvTot, <&(>o$ Imivxg. AlOr. AXX& jcmi ro7g 
xccXo7g yl xcx.) ivftvpoig Xiyi^ MzytXXai ts tS K.og;v0*<T, xott 
Aotpo&to, to) ta-aXciifvi, on 7rx£ ip7v »ts i %ctv&n tcopn, «ts tu 
yy&qtwk P, pikoLvat, $f£,uotT*> v) (b) l^vByifiot Inl T* ^^orcoTra mlO 
Wh, vi vivpot, ivrovoC) jj copoi xccpligot' clXXol watVTX yjcx, qp,7v XOVtgy 
Qeurt, x£avt* yvpvd t9 xceXXxg. IIOA. Ov %oiXvxov %h\ ravra 
limit zrp}g rig xotXxg xou hyi%Hg. AlOr. Kcct rctg TriVYicnv, &> 
Aoiy-wv, (<nroXXoi 2' 6tff})Xei}*%d'ipiV6t t£ 7epdypoLn, teat o\x\ilpovng 
tkv ccTrogUv) xkyi pnti dax^vuv, pir oipdfyw) otYiyYi<rdp,iv(&> rm I 5 
hl&vB-& ia-ortfAtcty xoct on o^/ovrxt ?%$ Iks7 <&X%(rt%g ssoh dpcztvovotg 
uvTcov. Kxt ro7g Aocjci^Kipovioig Ss ro7g (c) co7g^ reevrx, el So^g?, 
€votg lp% iTFtTipwMy Xtyav (d) IkXiX verbal otvrxg. IIO A. Mjj^v, 
w Atoyzvzgy <&ip\ AciKidxifiovUjv xiyi* k yet% oovt%opLou yv *\A Sg 
zff£og Tisg aXXvg iQnio-S-et, d7rd[yiXa>' AIOT. ' Eccrapviv tstss,2G 
\7rii roi $ox.i7. 2y §g ; olg zargoi77rov 9 d%\nyxi &&£ *(&% rtsg Xoyxg* 



for the Crocodile could contradict either, and so still make 
sure of the morsel he had in his stomach. 

(e) eg#r£p.] Alluding to the above practice of putting 
questions. 

(a) olpdfyw.'] This is an usual expression in the Greek 
tongue. Horace hath adopted it into the Latin: " Nil sibi 
M relictum praeter, Plorare.*' 

(b) Igifaftx.'] Bxpfta xoKXivoV) v) wpfov : a A crimson or 
" reddish tincture." Bourdol — But I take it here, to signify 
the natural redness of the cheeks ; because he here men- 
tions several other, but still all of them natural qualities or 
perfections. 

(c) <ro7g.'] Pollux was a Lacedemonian. 

(d) bctexlrS-ai.'] The Lacedemonians were the hardiest and 
the bravest people in the world, while the strict laws of 
Lycurgus remained in force among them: Patiens Lacede- 
mon. Hor. Od. — But, in Lucian's days, and long before^ 
they were grown very degenerate, 



IS 



AlAA. &'. IlXXT&ll) 7i KCCTCC MiVtTTirif. 

Menippus here plagues a set of vile and effeminate kings, whose 
stories see in your dictionaries. 

KPOI2. — Ov (p'zQopW) a ITAS7#y, M.zvi7T7rov txtovi tov xivct 

T&CtpOtxSvTX* 12$-g i iKUVOV TffOi X.C!,TOi<?V)(rOV) Vj V}ftU$ filTOMYfi 6JfA.IV 

tigSTtgov tWov* IIAOTT. T/ S' v/acig dzivov Igyd^ZTdi opovix.p(&» 
m-i -, KPOIS. 'E^-g;§^y ifAitq oipd^opzv xai wo/Lav, htiivm 

5 ftipvYiphot tcov &V&-, Mi^ocg plv xtoq-i tS ^^c/s, Xx$o&vci7rctX(&> 
21 T>ig t&oXXys Tpyffig, tyc\ 5? tocv ^Kjocvpciov^ IsnygAos, kgu \\ovadi- 
£g*, civ a^^diro §# xat (a) x-oc&ciejAoirct ipug d'rox.xXcov. 'EvioTi Ss 
x,cci abcav, briragdrTSi viftoev Tag o'lpwyug, not] oXojg Xv7r^pog hi* 
IIAOYT. Titccvtu $ariv, a> MivurTn; MEN. 9 AAjj0ji, go TlXtSTM. 

\0Mica ya(> civTisg dyzvug x.c&} oteOgixg ovrus' oig %%. u.71 i^wi (I wvou 
y-c&y.oi<i< i cixxd kccI d7ro$a.vlv\ig zti psfivvivlcii) xot,} vrz^tzfcovTcLi tcov 
av&>. Xccl^ca Toiya^v dvicov ccvt%$* IIAOYT. 'AAA* k %($. 

Xv%'6VTCH y#g S frU'APCOV figX/UiVOt. MEN. KcCt (TV p&OlgCbJvilfi CO 

TlA8T6>v, opo-fy'A(p<& av To7g tovtcvv eevetypoTg; IIAOYT. Ov^cc- 
\5paS) «AA 5 ovx. civ ifahirctipt fotviottfiv vpoig. MEN. Kctt 
f&lv, 00 xuxifoi At/Saw, «#/ <T>£vy#y, xeti 'Ag-fvqiM) ovtm yivdcjciTi^ 
log ov2l 7ra.vco^.ivov pov . "EvScc yc\^ dv inn, dfcoXadiicrcv clviaJv, nut 
7La,Tci!}»v K.CU KXTo&yiX&v* KPOI2. Tc&vrot ov% vZ^tg ; MEN. 

OvX.* tfAA' iKUVCt vZtfs VjV) C& V^lig ItFOIBTtB, rGrQCG-KVVilr^Ctk 
20 d%i%VTig, K.KI iXivQigOig dvhpciGLV (b) IVTPV^OOVTig^ XSt,t TOV ^CtVUTOV 

to turccpdiroiv ov f^vyiuovziovTzg' TOiyctpovv oipatzri, -zzdvTUv lx.it vav 
dtPfgYipzvoi. KPOI2. IIoAA&v yg, a Bsot, xcci piydXov xT'tpdTcov. 
MIA. "Oca ph lyoo ^vex. SAPA. "Owe S' lyco TgvQvg. MEU. 
Eyyg, %T6> TroiSiTi* o^vgzoS-i (Aiv vpug' lyh 2g 5 to yva$-i g-ccvtoVj 
25 3ToAA«fc<£ o-vvii^av iTretcrofiott vp7v* IlggTrg; ya.% ay T&7g toimvtxis 
cfaayxtg i7raoo^ivov, 

(a) xottdzftxru.'] Ka^^fflt, properly signifies, the dirt that 
remains after cleansing any thing; but figuratively, a wicked 
wretch -, because a person, offered as an expiatory sacrifice 
for the sins of the people, was supposed to bear all their 
crimes, and was called v-dU^p*. Stefih. It may here, I think, 
signify either you-off-scourings, or figuratively, you-viie, or, 
cursed-wretches, 

(b) IvT^vQwrig.'] Wantonly-abusing^ or, abusing -by -way -of - 
sfiorL 



19 



Tne impostures of some of the ancient oracles exposed. 

MEN.— S^ phru, a Tgopdyih xott ApQt'Xo%s, vuc£o} am*, 
*k oiy ovag vc&Zv KMrn%ta§%Ti) kou fidyras 3a*g*rg, x,oc} oi pctT&ioi 
ray d'tfodvm S-g^c V&&S viruXJi$*fftv iivxi* AM3>. Tt isv vfAitg 
ctiTiot, n vtt etyoietg sxityot rciotvrx weg/ viȣM oo%xcpn ; 
MEN. 'AAA 9 *k av ibo%x£pv< i u ph {jSvns k*i vffius Tdiecvrx 5 
irtQ*rivivS'i i &s ?<* fAiXXovTa, a-gegiSaVfcf, xxi <sr(>ou7rsiv ovva t usvoi 
to7s houhois. TPO€>. ? 12 MiWflrg, 9 A l u,q>iXo%<&> fch zr&> *9 
ttaun, on avra> X7re»c%iTZ6V vn-gg ctims.<*—r,ya oi vi%m<; ttfAi, xxi 
fcuvTiio^ott, t,v ns koltsXHi ir*£ 9 iici t 2y c? $oix.ct$ ** (a) STrtot- 
ifywivut AtZuiuu reiraylirebr d ya£ foifUf ev r%rot$, MEN. 10 
Ti $i% ; 4 p\ \% A&diu*v y&g wajfaSw, ueti \fahph&* ra7$ 
i&imtty ytXefas (b) pd£#v h r*!v X,H*w 6##v, sVigarwa S;«i t£ 
fifth rxTniyS for®* U t« eTrfaaw, ux, *y livvdpw tiihai iV# 

ftxyTM?.:, tI V* c §%e?z l?*v \ a Ayn® yrfp TrOs>» '£§ ^S^^rs* 15 

t< K#i S"g5 9-ivPgrov. MEN. f/ ^jfrg foQ^coTrls Iftv, co$ £>«?, fifoi 
Shot, km} ffvyetffiQ&riti* tf& Nvv kv 7rQ o% ro .9-gg Ike/v* iutrofM* 
inxfavh ; TPO^ ,'xgS, <2 Mswsrwfci $y Ktierh. MSN. OJ% oio*, 
&> T^oQdm, o'j r< >c^i >wgys^' or< /tes» to/ iX(^* fi vSK|e?5 t^n^Si 



(a) KT<Sg3^xgi»*<.] Not adiisscy as in the other transla- 
tion, but fieregninatus-fuisse) to~have -sojourned -at \ Sec 
Judic. Vocal. Sect. 2. 

(b) pcifyiv.'] A cake y which the consulters of Trophonius's 
oracle were wont to carry into his cave, to throw to serpents 
that were said to infest that place. Eras, in Adag. de Tro- 
phon. — I do not believe there was one serpent there, except 
the priest of the oracle, who made these cakes a perquisite. 
This imposture, probably, was an imitation of that of the 
priests of Bel, who daily got twelve great measures of flour, 
forty sheep, and six vessels of wine, sent in to that idol, till 
they were detected by the prophet Daniel, who exposed 
them to Cyrus. See the hist, of Bel and the Dragon, 



20 

AIAA, tec. Eop£ x.ui Xa.g&v(5}~>. 

Accounts settled between Charon and Mercury. 

£P7vf.(a)- — Aeyiffeif&sS'oi, a) -zrcgfyisv) si ocjtsT, 'exberat, ufn 
ttpittett; *j5»j, o7raq pM etvQiq igi^atfiiv ri m£ uvrav. XAP, Aoyicra- 
fAifrotj a) Eg^ij * apiivov ydg q^iTcta tci^i ocvtcov^ km,] uirgccyfAovifi- 
gov. EPM. >f Ayx,v^otv ivTitXcc ( u'iVa> iftofzirct vrivfi (b) $gc&%fA%v* 
5XAP. rioAA^ Xiyu%. 'EPM. N*j rh 'A)'2aAci rav .urwrz av^o-d^cWy 
*£ (c) r fort art get, $V6 zZoXaiv* XAP. Ti$f* trim i^ot^ug^ t§ 



(a) Adywlfit.iS'u.'] I can see no reason for using this verb 
here, in the Aor. 1. med. subj. and am confident Lucian writ 

it Aoyt^eifittfa* 

(b) J^^^y.] The Grecian &o\o$ was equal in value to a 
penny-farthing-, and the sixth part of a farthing, English 
money. Six ctoXot made the Sga^i, equal to seven pence 
three farthings. An hundred %eu,%pcu made the pvcix, or 
mina, equal to three pounds, four shillings, and seven pence. 
And sixty mina made the talent, equal to 193/. 15 s. OOd. 
English. Arbuthnot. 

(c) r%67ru)rv i £ct.~] A strap of leather, with which the oar 
was tied to the era^A^, a piece of wood fixed on the bench 
of the boat, to secure the same oar, when it was not usedo 
Potter's Antiq. 

(d) Kut dicirgotv.'] I can make neither grammar nor sense 
of these words, considering them as a part of the sentence 
continued to xxt&kXov inclusive. I, therefore, would have 
the whole to stand thus, Kxi dxifgxv hiri^ rQ <V*3 — mivrl 
hZoXxs lya xxTi£aXov. In which position, I understand, K«/ 
dxirgetv vTig tQ ifi5, as a continuation of Mercury's speech 
above, and that he would have spoken these words imme- 
diately after flSoA^y, if Charon had not interrupted him by 
saying, T*0g7, Sec. By which interruption, or some slip of 
his memory, Mercury, when he comes to #V<£ 9 forgets the 
price of the needle \ but, making a pause, and thereby recol- 
lecting it, he then, intent upon nothing but the sum he had 
paid, suddenly breaks out into, mrwii hZoXvg \yu xttriGetto*, 
J paid down Jive oboli for it. 



21 
lyco KXtiZaXov. XAP. Ka} rxrxg lepte&u. *EPM. Kx} wplv, 

COg l7Tt7T?>d<70Ct IX a-KX^litH TC6 UViyyOTM, j£ %X%g §5- j£ JCCtA&ilOV) 

a<P* 5 tiv (a)' wwsg«v lirotyG'sis, di>o ip&xpav UTTetyJet. XAP. Et>yg, 
<s|{# rauro #vjiV#. 'EPM. Tccvrcs, teiy, el /ay Tt aXXo tjptcig 2i*Xa&zv 
h to) Aoyivpa. Uore 2' %v tocvt u7ro$coG-ety Qfe. XAP. Nvv $ 
fjchy a t Ep[A% d^vvaToV >N Htf dl Xoipog Tig i\ <nriX2p®*> xci\ot,7rip'^ , » 
clB-£o%g rlvccg, hlfaci rori (b) aTTOxipodvat h r&» TzXvfru <arotgx- 
Xoy^ofAWov tu avopB-ftioi. 'EPM. Nvv kv lyco xccOzfrSpsci, rd 
KUKig-oi ivftOfAtv©*' yzvi<rB-<xi) cog uv oltto rxr&tv U7roXecvotut. XAP. 
Owe sV iv aXXoog, co 'Eppv. Nvv o oXiyoi, cog opotg, d<pixy£vlc6i i[&7v' jq 
u^ivvi yd(>. 'EPM. ' Apuvov xrag, i\ Xj qpTv avccgxTUvotTo Wo <r« 
to otpXypci. IlAvjv dXX 01 pzv zrccXccioi, co Xdgcuv, oicr§~c& oiot 
ftj&piytvovTd dvdpzToi itTFetvns, at[&a6T(&» apd?rXs*)) v^ r^xv^cdrisci ol 
-z?cXXoi' yvv di $ tp&Qftoe.x.to rig v7ro th mrettaog uiroB'ctveoy, % v7ro r^g 
yvvocix.og } P, two r^v<piig l^aoYixcos tw yei&got, ^ id mikif a%$o\ ydp | 5 
%7rctyTt$) 9^ dyivetg, \so\ ouoioi IvMvoig. Ol ol 7aXel$oi ocvtcov did 
%%4p>ctTc& qy-xnv-i in &%XevovTzg aXXviXoig, cog lottcac-i. XAP. Udvv 
ydp 73-zpiiro$riTd 151 recvra. EPM. OvjcSv %o iya dofcacitti &y 
a&cscprdvuV) sriftpcog dTrxiTQv ret otptiXouzva iz&gd g-£. 



(a) &***£«» ] Funcm quo antennarum cornua transfertmtur, 
a rope by which the ends of sail-yards are traversed. Steph. 
There are two belonging to each yard, one being fastened to 
each yard-arm, or end of the sail-yard, either to draw the 
sail fuller to the wind, that is, to Jill it, as the expression is, 
or to let it go slanting off, that is, to back it, as it is also said. 
They are called the braces, 

(b) tfVoxsgSfltwM.] We must not suppose, that Charon 
made this gain, by cheating the shades. That was impos- 
sible, because each, bringing down but his bare vxZxov, or 
passage-piece, could not be cheated of more. The case 
was, the toll of the infernal ferry belonged not to Charon, 
but to iEacus, who rented it from Pluto. But Charon, being 
the collector of it, might have cheated iEacus, when he fer- 
ried over the dead in such crowds, that it was hard for any 
one, but himself, to know how many he took over, at a time. 
This appears from Dial. XXIII. Paragr. 8. concerning 
JEacus. 



22 



AIAA. <£'. TVXhtm&> Kj 'E^wS. 

The four following dialogues expose the abject and base trade of 
legacy-hunting. 

IIAOYT. — Tov yz^ovrct 6i<jQm, tov tfcIvv yzyvigoutoTot Asy*/, tov 

<&X%g-16v Evk^cItviV) a> izoCibi$ plv kx zWtv^ t\ tov xXypov Se S-ypavTZg 

-srzvTMxiFftvptoi. EVM* Nat, tov Htxvaviov ({>»<;' ri isv; IIAOYT. 

Ekzivov ph) co 'Eg^jj, tfiv zourov Z7rt To7g lvvzvix.ov]cc \?zo~iV) o\ fiVoi&»czVy 

5 i7rt{6ST()ii<rc&g oiXXcc toctuZtu, {ziyz otov ts *#jv) ?£ Zti t&Xzta* Tisg oz yZ 

xoXcttcctg c&vrSy Xm^Tvov tov vsov, j£ Adpavct) ?£ Tiig uXXxg koltcig- 

Trxcrov \<pz%v\g ci7rxvTag. 'EPM. "Atottov civ $o%zti to toixtov* 

IIAOYT. Oil [<t>zv «v, uXXot oiKotiorotTov* T/ yc\^ ixuvot TfctQo'vTzg 

zv%ovTxi ciTro&ctvzlv initvov, r t tcov xeypdTeav avTi7rot5vlacij xozv 

lO/&(>o(riix.ovTSs; tN §e ztocvtcov \$) ^tcc^TdTov^oTi ^.toiccvtx zv^oftzvoiy 

optag $Z£cfrzv%<rtv zv yz Ta tyuvz^Z* ^ voo~xvt(&>, u (Av fixXzvovTscty 

<&ttG~t <&pooyiXoc* S-vpziv §s opus v7rt<r%viivTcct v,v ps&icvi) k} oXeagy 

(a) VTClKlXq T/5 »5 XOXclKZlM TUV Uiiofev. AtM T#£t#, ftZV ZfM 

uB-civxT^^ ct Ss <Gr(>6cc7rtT6>Grciv ccvtv ftciTYiv Z7rt%oe.vovl zg* EPM. 
ISTzXoioc <uriicr ovTctt) -srocv^^yot ovTZg' gtoXXgl x,dx.z7v(&* zv jlcuXcc 
diot£xx,6Xz7 uvThsg, y^ hriTiTrit^u* >y oXag, uzl BscvovTt lotjtag, z'o^aTcct 
«reAy /LtaXXov toov v'zwv. O/ Sg, «§« tov kXvqov h c^ia-t iiv\^uivci 
fiocrxCVT&t.) ZpW fJLOtKCi^lctV (Gf^bg ZOLVTHg TiB-'zvTZg. IIAOYT. Ovziiv 
o [th, u7ro$VGru{tzv(& j to yv^cig, axrTrzg 'loXzag^ uvnfiwuTW ol 3' ufto 

l6^i£<7#V TWV ZX7TlOafVy TOV OVZt(>07roXvj9-ZVTC6 (OrX^TtV &\7roXi7TOVTZgy 

wZTcotroiv S§jj xuxot (b) fecocag uTrc&ocvovTtg* \EPM. 'A{x,'zXviG~6Vy ot 
IIXxtm. (c) (tZTitevrepcci yd% trot JjSi) uvTisg Kot& ivx l|?j. 



(a) TffoixtAy}.*] notxixog, properly, signifies fiarty-colourcdy 
or, of-divers-colours. And I take the meaning to be, that the 
cringing behaviour of these men is not of a piece ; for, at 
the same time that their designs are palpable, they make 
shew of the greatest concern, by sacrificing, he. 

(b) xux.ug'] Like Villains. 

(c) fiiTtXivtrtfjLoti.'] The English expression, I-will-go-for^ 
seems to me to come fuller up to pzTzXzvropxt than accersam, 
which, strictly signifies, I-will-cite-before you. Mztz^x /^ 06 * 
is often taken in a more extraordinary signification than 
this, which is that of ? Ukiscor p as rS? fm#$ tov varfe ^gr«A- 



23 

c £«*7« Ss, cipat) ii<?i. ITAOYT. KcctcIg-ttx* o }l (a) zru^UTriu^u 
69ccc?0V) otvri yigof}(&> avS-is '{$'aZ(&> yivopiv<&'. 

6ev, in Dial. XVIII. Which sense, I suppose, it borrows 
from its more natural one of fierseguor, or assequor, " to 
overtake the guilty" 

(a) ^c/^%7rz^ii\ The other translation renders this word, 
firamitiet* But nxrcttoLTFipKa most commonly signifies deduco, 
to-attend, or ivait-ujion-a-fierson-from-one-filace-to- another : — 
never, fira?mtto. So that aragan-e^s*, here, means, (as we 
commonly say in English^ Hc-ivM-attend-iifton, or, see-each- 
of-them, to his grave. 



AIAA. ;y'. Tzp-^iav®* k} TI\%tm(&>. 

TEF-^.—TeyTd, &> IIAsr&'y, o'txatov, \p\ f/Jv rihdveti TQidxevret, 
Itrvj yeyovircc, tov 3s vvrsp t# ivvzvvxovl a yipov]eC) Qxxgirov £v,v in; 
IIAOYT. AtKciiirccTov f&lv ay, &> Tifnptav, it yi o p/Av £>J, [Ar&ivoe, 
ivy^lf^iv(^> u7roQavuv tSv (piXoJV. 2l» 2l <Brctpa -zrcivroi tov %%ovoy 
Zttz&XXsvz; avT&>, wiQifAivei? tov JcAjjpdv. TEPSk. Ov y&o \%^v 5 
yz^ovToc ovTci, 7§ (mxiri %(>vi<rGiQ~$-c&t Tea <srA8T» ccvtov dvvdpzvov) 
«,7nhh7v T8 /3/W, zrccpoc^cjpicuvTx to7$ viag ; ITAOYT. Kccivcc, 

6) TlQtyMV, VOfM&tTit^ TOV fAYiKlTt TO) 3FAgTa> %p4<rciG'$'etl OwdfttVOV 

<Grfb$ idovyv u7roQvYi<?>tiiv» To dl aXXag yi Mo7ga >£ i <S>vo~ic ititot%tv% 
TEP^. Oox,ovv ToiVTTiv cttrtZftett tvs o'tetrdfyttg. 'Eftpqv yug tc 10 
npaypoi iZpis srcog yivicr&oci^ tov -zrpzr*>vTS£ov, tztootipov, j£ f^iTot, 
TiSTCV) o?tg >£ ty\ vjXtxt'cc f&iT WJTOV avu$-pi$ZQ'6oit oi {ty)$ccp,6)g 3 
f^ndl £?v plv tov v7TtgyY,(>e>JV) ooovTocg Tpzig ST< \ot7rxg ZftovTM* y«cytg 

cp&VTCl) CtXtToCig TZT(>do~lV hciKlKVtyGTOLy Xdpbfyg [,&IV TW c7vU) >.'4{i.Y& 

el t%s otyS-aXptzg (aztov Ola, zdlv zti «Sv sI^otcc^ i^^v^ov Ttv&\5 
Tcttyov v7ro rav viav JcctTccyzhdpivoV) airodvio'x.uv di x#AA/W$, ?£ 
tpp&ftiveeciTxs viuvio-xizq. ' Ava yu^ -zroTcipav txto ye* *H to 

TlXlVTcc7oV ii^'iVXt 1%$V) (&0Ti (a) *£ (b) T&VvfeiT&k TCOV yl£0VT6W 

(a) ^.] I can fix no satisfactory meaning to this particle, 
in this place. 

(b) TiB-v^Toci.'] I take this to be the first fut. mid. as it 
were from ravine*. Hedericus gives xihhfypouy as well as 

D 



24 

5f*#f ®-*j rjot ph pc&rnv kv zvtxg I&spu7rzv6v. Kvv ?g to t%$ -eolpvi- 
f&t'ctg, eN H ci/ux^a rh fixv rnroXXuKig lx.$ipn. IIAOYT. Tocvra 
p>h, a TigT^/iaV) •vroXv c-vviTcort^oe, ytviTctt, jjVg^ cot icKii, Kec) 
v/aetg Ss ri <arx3-oyTi$ uXXoTpioig (a) l7ei%mnrt, ft} To'tg UTiJcvoig 

5 t&v yi^ovTM (b) zinroteirt, (pippvTig avTxg j Toiycc^v y'lXvTct oipXio'- 
KciviTZy if pig Ix&iv&v xe&ropvrlifiWM' to }£ -&pZy(&et To7g -zroXXoTf 
r,dt? ov yiviTXt* "Ova* yu^ vptlg licu'vag U7roBocvuv ivft&rS-i, tovzstm 
oi7roccriv '^u Trpoowrofrowitv v t uoig ocvtwv. Katvyiv ydp Ttvct to&vtviv 
TiftVYiv i-rmvoifcecTi^ ypotm ^ yipovTav ipcovTSg' i§ pcdXtfet u drix-vot 

lOetzv. Ol 21 wtzkvoi-) vftlv unpxw xuitoi TtroXXot «3ij Tap 

IpafAZVAtV crWiVTiS V/&&V T«V <&0lV%pylOLV ThS lp60T<&>, W Xj TVftOiG't 

<nroi(hag iftcvTiSj ftto-uv scvTisg arXcLrlovreti, ag y^ uvToi Iparag 
iy^axriv. Eha h Totig dta$-ii>cccig, air&cXih&ne-oiv ply ot -zrdXat 
j&potyopicro&VTZs' o il aroc7g > t£ i (pi/trig, aiowip i?t ItUctiov, ttpu,TX<n 



bavvpah as a first fut. mid. to the verb &vivx»i but it is to- 
be understood that each is borrowed to SvicrKUy from similar 
present tenses ,• that is, as Tzfo^opxi cannot really be formed 
from S-via-Ka, but from refofca ; so S-uvSpat must come from 
its similar theme S»v#, though neither nhixaf nor $■»*& are 
used in the Greek tongue. This I have said for the sake 
of beginners, who are also to observe, that all borrowed 
tenses (with which the Greek language vastly abounds) are 
formed from their natural present tenses, generally out of 
use ; as 9 lg%opm hath the fut. 1. mid. tXivo-opoit from lxti6v y 
not used. 

(a) t7ri%<Bt,MTi.~\ 'ETTwxMTi, inhiatia. Bourdol. from a 
MS. 

(b) i)<77roi,iiTi.~\ EiG-wo/w, says Stephanus, %ot\?X fado-mtva^ 
i. e. facio-ut-sit -intra, Sec. velut, introduco ; and hence he 
shews, it hath been used to signify adofito to adopt, orjix a 
person in one's family. But it appears from his quotations 
that, when it signifies to adopt, it hath after it the accusative 
case of the person ; and, indeed, here, I think one cannot 
but understand vpZg. The received sense of s*Wd*sm, here, 
hath been, vosmet-in-adoptionem-tr adit is, which, in my trans- 
lation, I alter no other way than by putting inducitis instead 
of traditis. And yet, after all, I cannot help thinking that* 
here, (if we consider the dative case tcrixms) uvnuiin will 
better signify vosmet-iminuatis 



25 f 

v-ivrm* ot Ss, v7r67rgi%rt rxq o^ovrccg, x^oc-^vyiyrtg. TEP^. 
AXr,fr?i txvtx $£$. 'EuQ yxv Oxxpir(&> gtoo-x xxT^xyiv^ kit 
iihvi%i(j§cLL doxav k} <jVots lerioipi, vTrorivav, x} ftv%tov n xxQxTrtp 
j| aS vzot]o$ XTlXyfi VTrtxpatpv j ' 'H? lyayi orov ccvtikoc. o\opiv(&> 

ZTTtZvG-itV XVTOV TVS CrOpS, STTSf&TTOV TO, TZOXXx, COq pW \J7FIqJoX XXoiflo 5 

f&i o't durifefat} tv[ fieyxXo^apsce. Kxe to, zrcXXx v7ro (ppovTio^av 
uypV7rv(§^ bszJ&tviVy xpiQpcov Ssa&fac, *£ diXTXT%Jv» TccZtos, y&v 
fAot *£ t% xTrcQxvsh xiTix yiyzv^TXt^ xygwvtot *£ tppovTi^zq* o ?5, 
toctxtov ftct iiXiUD xxrxTriosy, l<p attest B-x7nofj,>va -zrpcoyv iTctyiXm. 
I7AOYT. E Jyg, i) QxxpiTt) t/it^ i-TtpixtfoV) -stXhtcov aptX) j£ rav 10 
rotxrav xxTxyiXcov* /x^l srponpov yi o~v xttoQxvoiS) i wpoirij&'y/us 
7rxvrxq tx<5 xoXxxxg. TEP*". T£to{.lzv, go TlXXTav, v^ Iptl sj ?<$■«* 
n?flj it y^ Xxptxd/ig zrpoTS$*9j%erctt OxxptTZ. ITAOYT. QcippU) 
# TspiJ/tM' xoct 02:^!/ yxg, ?£ MiXctv$(&>, *£ oXag x7rxvTZ$ 

f^pGiXtixTOVTXi XVThS V7T0 Tx7q XVTx7q <pp6VTi<Ti)>* TEP^K 'Elffxiv&^B 
TXVTX* Z&qg SVifAVKifQV) CO QXrcpiTU 



AIAA. i%\ ZvvaQ U9TX 9§ KxXXi2n[4,t2%» 

ZHN. — Xv eh & KxXXi^n/xi^v), -sreoq X7r'i$~xvz$ -, 'Ey«/ jxlv yxg 
crt) -wxqxo*it(&> &v Auvtx, vrXiov t% ixxvx lutpxyav, uireirvtyw, 
oicS-a' -zrxpiiq yxg u7ro^vii<rx&vrt /xot* KAA. I7#£«v, go ZYiVotpxvTiq* 
To §2 i/xlv, Tzx^xoofyv Ti lyivzro. OlcrSx yk^ *$ cry <&% Tlroio^cogov 
rov yiQOVTX. ZHN. Tov xtikvov, rlv --wXHcricv, a o~s tx eareXXx 
tjouv cvvovtx ; KAA. Exihov xvtov xu I3*€|r«5r£v«i^ v7riG-%v%f.ttv(&* 
(a) In luot tw xXy)£ovc{6a> TifovfeeSxi; hnl 2s to -sr^xy^x i$ 



(a) eV Ipo} t$ zXyigovop's.'] Me harede. Much the same 
way cloth Budseus (as Stephanus observes) render hrij 
7?x7a-t Svo Ti\ivTM)decedens, reliciis duobus Jiliis - } and Stepha- 
nus, in the class of phrases, where \ml is taken for cum, 
quotes this out of Herodian, tvs hrl <zrx7<rt ^ix^o^aq rzXtvTiie-ccv- 
tx$, who died, leaving children their successors. Though it 
still appears to me a harsh and extraordinary mode of 
expression, 



26 

Wxifov SKiy/vsro, y$ vttI^ tqv Ti&avov o ysgcjy s^jj, i7riTop,ov rtvtc 
vdQV hrt tov xXygov lc.iv^ov. T\^',c6^iv(^ yag Qd^tccxoV) aviiretcrct 
tov oivoftlov, hritoav rd%t?ei o YLTotoioj^©-* ctlriry zriiiv {?zivu 2' 
I'TFtux.aq) fygiregov IwoxXXovTot £$ xvXixx^ Iroipov EjgffV 66VT0, >£ 

5 liFibismi uurS, El dl tSto zrotiirzi) Ixi'vbi^ov \-rrcr)p.ovd{J6V[V d(pii<rbiv 
uvrov* ZHN. T/ xv iyzviro j Tlcivv ycig ti zrotgci$o%cvlgt7vsotx.xg. 
K.AA. 'Ettu to/vvv XXG-ctpivoi Yifcof,ty}V) ovo qdi/i 6 fAii^cixivx®* xvXtxaig 
irotuxg iftoov, rhv /ulv Tea TlTotoodgta, rqv Sfcxectv to cpd^puxov, tvv 
o irigctv lf&6ii trtyciXus kx o/§' o7rag^ \po) ph to <pd^66xov, IIro;6- 

lOJ^aa o\ to kfidzf&xxTov \&i$$nt,%v» Efact I f&h t7rmv' tyM Ss uvrtxcc 
p&dXa, IktcIoav Wl{/.ilV) v7roQoXt/&ct7(&' ctvr ItiivH nxpog, Tt t£t* 
yiXMS) a> TjYiVoQ&vtiz, • Kcil f^yjv kx lou yi iret/^a c&vdpt \7ftyiXo6V. 
ZHN. 'A soffit y^P^t &> KethXidvipldvi) 'KtTrovQocg. 'O y'sgav Sg rt 
TfQog t&vtol ; KAA. H^corov plv vTrsrctgdfcQv) tz£q$ to alQvi'dtcv. 

ISEitcc crvvzls, oifj.%,1) to yzyzvyjpivov, \yiXo6 x^ avrog oid y%o oho^o^r* 
iipyafcii. ZHN. IIA^y #AA' &oz <ti tjjv ooov IttIto^ov l%,pnv 
Tpo67cl<r$'66L* C H»5S ykp^ civ crot did r?j teatyo^x do-tpuXtfigov, ii k} 
iXtycf $pxh'vTip(&> r,v. 



AIAA. it, K.vipav®* y$ A^nWy, 

K.NHM. — Tovro Ixiivo Ty$ -srctgoifitas, *0 viZA$ rlv Xsovtss. 
A AM. T/ MyavxxTzTgi co Kviftav ; • KNHM. UvvOdv? b, rt 
aya&vccKToo 5 JUXvpovouov dx%Ci(&> xqctscXiXoltt u, s xaTcco-opicBsts S 
a$Xi(&>) *s$ tZxXopqv kv ftdXira, vyjuv rk^k^ /fcctp&h.t7rm. A AM* 
5 Hag txt lyivzra j KNHM. EpftoX&oy top Troivu tz-Xxg-iov Unx.vov 
•trcty l^ipd^Tivov (a) I7ri Setv dru' xdxth'gr kx a-thZc, t^v fhigtvirgMt 



(a) hrt S-ccvdrv/] Sub mortem, i. e. immincnte morte. In 
this, I follow the other translation, having- nothing certain to 
offer to the contrary, except that I intirely doubt whether 
iTft hath ever before been used in such a sense,' and, there- 
fore) think it a very strained acceptation of it. It may, per- 
haps, with some reason, be taken for firofitcr, as in the 
phrases, W dydtv, and br\ xip)ii, but that, probably, Lucian, 
if he had intended that sensej would have chosen to say, 



2Y . 

irgwUrt* ,; £3d|s $i pai k} cotyh r5r 9 itvuh tfor&eii SiuS-faug 1$ r# 
<£#vggov, h ulg zytuva x.uruXk\oi7ru rupu tfuvtu, cog xux,i7v<&> 
£v}\co(ritey y^ ru uvru tBrgu%ui. A AM. TV *v dh s*e?v@H , 
KNHM. "Oy.n ph (a) kv uvrog Inygwtyi ru~$ iuvrQ StuQiizuig, 
&k cliu, *Eya yvv u$v&) uwzS'uvov, t£ riyag pot irt7n<rovT(&H' ^ 5 
vvv 'EgpoAuog i%ii rupee., Unrig rtg (b) \o&gu% *$ ro (c) uyx.i?gov 
t5 oiXzurt G-jyzurua'7rus'ug. AAM. Ov povov, uXXu x^ uvrof <n 
rov uXiiu. "Hfg o-o'purpu kutu criuvTiS crvvrifaty.ug. KNHM, 
EoiH.sc. 0\pat^ roiyugxv. 



r?r) jtxig®. I should think, u usque ad, even. to, S-uvurc?, his 
very death," a natural sense, but that, then, it should be 
3-xvalov. Yet Stephanus says, that the dative case for the 
accusative, after 'sV), is used, and instances in the expression, 
vwiXupZuvtv int S-uvura, in Lucian, which you may find in 
Dial. XVIII. These I propose but as conjectures; though, 
perhaps, this last sense amounts to somewhat more. 

(a) kv.~\ Therefore,!, e. because you left him your fortune. 
This h is, with a little sort of humour, repeated by Cnemon. 

(b) XuZgui."] Lupus, the flike fish. 

(c) ciyxifgov ra> hx'sult."] The hook, by which he thought 
to catch Hermolaus, was his last nvill, and the bait was his 
fortune, which he pretended to leave him. 



AIAA, i?. Xagwog v^ 'E^pQ. 

Charon and Mercury stripping the Shades, before they take them 

aboard. 

XAP. — Azaa-urs a$ zyjoi vp7v ru -xrguypuru. Mizpcv vfMt, 
&g ogicre, ro o-x,u(pidtov, ^ v7ro<ruQ(>ov est* ?£ c)iuppe7 ru 7roXXcL' 
sij y, rguirij iiri S-uiegot, oixyceTUi TTsgiT^UTr'rV. *Ype7g Jg, rocisrei 
*pu y\Kere 7roXXu STnCbepouevoi zzu^og. *Hv hv ueru rxruv 
fft^yre, o-.c-.u w vregov ueruvoto-ere* Kj puXtzu o7ro<roi vetv xx 
i7ri?u? : s NEKPOI. Ha& *v irotiruyres $vwXo*ir»pgy j XAP,^ 
Eyui uffiv (prura* Fvpvxz iic&uivew %g*i, ru iFsgirlu ruuru 

2d 



iravret sir} r£s wins xc&tu\i7tovtu$' poXig yug av j& xtm ds^et'r* 
ipcis to Trof&pHov. — So/ ol, do Eg/ttS, jU,eX'/,p£t ro uttq rir% ft-s^ivci 
ira, ooCh'iyj P&wt avr&v, 04 oiv f4,)i tptXcs r r ?cj ret (a) itt^X^ mwsq 

((pi'iV, KTToZoiX&j. JJacOt Jg T'AV U7TdoCt()(?UV £<?&$, 2iCtytVOJtr>t£ 

5 eivTZ$, ?£ uvahuuian-) yvpvxs £7rt£u(vety uvxyxc&fyjy, EPM. 
Ey Xiys:^ xocl mto) tartii<ru)[4,ev> — K.ai strop} ri$ o (b) -rtpcorl^ 
6ft ; MEN. Mzvtnrir®* 'iy&ys. 'AAA' fSar q znipa pel, a> 'Eg/ay), 
9§ ro fiuKrgoV) H rhv xipv/iv (c) cz7roppi(pQn' rlv rp}%o)ya !)i kV 
SJtofAiTct* iv <GTO',ajv, EPM. 9 EfA^atygy co Mgytfrsrgj uyo^gav api^g, 

I® ft} tm •7s , p t oeop t tctv iftt wa^ci rov x,v>e£ pviiryv i§* y-^^Ay, a$ l9rj<n&tfrt)C 
i&rmrm. c O k«,Xc$ §g xr(&> rts W j XAP. Xctg.uoXgvs o 
MsyagiT&ct £U*gg«r(§K k ro (piXviiia SiruXetyrov r 4 »4 'EPM. 
3 A7rodv3-t TOtyetgBv to xotXX©-> : t£ ra %eiXq avrolc, (piX'/ipotPi, j£ 
rqv KOfMi% rl',v j&ABfitw.) >tj ro twt ray zrapttooy l^vB-^uet x^ ro ^ip^uc* 
oXoy. "Efcst tlc&X&s' evfyvog ti eviZ&we iJ)?.. 'O ^5 rv,y zrogQv- 
giS# kjovi) Kj re hecdyuct* o fiXoPvgls, rh &>v rvyyjivgic, -, AAMIT. 
A*fii*i%(§>*, VtxAm (d) Tv^ctrj®*. 'EPM.' Ti afiij m A&.p.vnyjty 
ropavra t%m w#pti - AAMIT. T< kv £%$?>> a Egjttij yvp&voy 
Yittiiv rve&vvov qlvo^m , EPM. Tv^ctvvov [/Ay koauasi vexpov dl 

< 2Op&0L%&* w?e u7ro$-<j rcivrct. AAMI1. I§» Pot o zs-xQr(§)-> ecTr'zpp&letu 
'EPM. Km,} rov ritpov a-Tropniipov, co A*fwrt%ei kj r%v v^'spo'^/iuv' 
fi&pqpsi yeigro 7Tdp$y~>s7o-j Pvv£f,i7r£Povrc&. AAMJI. Ovkhv uXXa 
ro eticic/i'.ici zc&vov ,ul ^Z £iV ^ *$ T ^ v *§*?% iou. 'EPM. Ow^j, 
uXXu 7tj Tc&vrez u(pz<;. AAMI1. Eky. Tt \rt -, Xlayra yug 

25 atpqxci , coc, opx$. EPM. Kc&} rw* ZoyAr^rct* y^ ryv avotav, k) ryy 
vvPtV) %} rhy op^yW ^ rc&vra atyes, AAMIT. 9 l$£ poi, tJ/iXo's 



(a) tfrrtrXctt} What we call, in English, moveables; but, 
strictly, such things as can be carried aboard a ship ; the 
word being derived from Itt) and zrx$cj, navigo. 

(b) «rga>ro5.] Menippus, as has already been observed, 
hanged himself. As he, therefore, left the world, of his 
own accord, he is here represented as coming boldly on, 
the foremost to the ferry. 

(c) fcVappV^.] It must be read «Vgp/3/<p^, the Aor l.pass. 
Bourdolotius has it d7ropfiQQ6t, and says, " Sana lectio, quam 
inutiliter tentant." Bat, be it never so sound, I confess, I 
know not in what mood, tense, and person, to find it. 

(d) rve t otyvo$.'\ King) in the original signification of the 
word. 



29 

up). 'EPM. "EpZuive ijSij. 2j) 2s a vu^is* o ToXvcei £%.(&>, ?[$ 
si ; AAM. Aapucriu$ o uGMr'k* *EPM. Nut ioixu$, Olvu yc&g 
cl 7roXXetKi$ ev ru7g zruXul^^uig (a) i^cov. AAM. Nut, a 
'Ep^pv* uXXu Kuoetbe^ui p,z yvpvov arret* 'EPM Ov yvp,vh* 
a fiiXri^s, roruvius crupitus 7re£,Ze°Xqpivov % asl uttoovQi uvruc,, 5 
iwsl jcctrotivcetf to o&oj^©-*, rhv ere gov 7ro2u vveeffoeU f^ovov* 
'AXXu k} rxq setyetyxq r%r%<; U7roppr$/ov*. k^ ret Kqgi/y puree, 
AAM. 'iSk o-o< yt/^6ves, *S og#s, uXrfruc, eipi, j£ (b) {G-o$-#g-;(3)-» 
to7$ #AAo/$ vfx-^oT^. 'EPM. Ovraq apeivov uZupv shut* evse 
'ipZuive* — Ku} cy Ss Toy arXxrov u7ro§-'epsv&>i ev Kputm, j§ rh 10 
puXujciuv ^l ■ao<o<r\ris Kj rh Tgt/^y, pvM ret (c) ivrutptu xopify* 
pv$l ret rcov irpoyovav ufyapuru. KctTuXi7re §s ?£ ysy@°, «J 
2o'f#*, ^ eiTrcre <rs i 3*0X1$ uveytipv%ev (cl) epfgysnj* 1 JjjAoyoT*, *£ 
t«$ r^v av$£iuvlu)v e7hiyqu<§a$' pi&Z on pkyuv ru(pov e7rt o-ot 
i%*ve-uv Xiys' fiugvvet yug Kj ruZru pvYtpoysvousyu* ICPAT. 1 5 
Oiit Ikqov ph* uTToppi^a dc, Tt yu^ av k^ 7ru$-otpi$ *EPM. 



(a) i?**.] Mercury had seen him in the palaestrae, because 
he was the god of wrestling. 

(b) \<ro$ *<?*<&>.] Par-fiondere. I cannot see why the other 
translation renders it simili statura* when the word is plainly 
compounded of to-o^j ccuualis, and eeeQpvi* stater a, a balance; 
or, rather, 'imp u ponder : which signification of 'irvipt is to 
be found in Stephanus. 

(c) Ivlutpiu.'] Nor do I know why this has been rendered 
epitaphia. When the dead had be»en great men, or officers 
of state, their ivluftee* ov funeral garments* were the robes 
or dress that belonged to their office or station, and must, 
therefore, have been grand and costly. So, when Misenus, 
JEneas's trumpeter, lies dead, in Virgil, the poet says, 

Purpureasque super vestes* velamina nota* 

Conjic hint*- • 

And, when Pallas, the general ©f the Arcadians, lies in 
the same condition, 

Turn geminas vestes, auroque ostroquc rigentes* 
Extulit JEneas, 

(d) ivip t ysrnv.'] Benejicum, The word benefactor hath not 
been used by any classical writer, though malefactor has ; 
which is odd. And yet I cannot but think it a just and 
natural word, and the most expressive of ivegyrnK* 



30 



B«£tf/. Xv Sg o woirXog, ri fiuXu; sN H ri ro rgiircttot tSto Qi^is; 
(a) KPAT. "On ivUvjC-ot, a "E^J, *£ i^Uevcru, 3$ i vroXig 
iri^Ti pi, C EPM. if AQt$ iv yq ro rglnruiov h *3a yi* 

5**#^«TdS, ^ (b) fi££v$-vopsvo$) i ru? oQfis lflr»?gK«$, o fflri t#v 



(a) KPAT.] A JI4& hath it NEKPOS. Gr*T\-— And it 
must be right so : for Craton threw down all he had, before : 
upon which, Mercury challenges this shade in armour, 
whoever he was, with his, B*£«/. z J §s o tv*7rX(&>. — Which 
plainly shews that he now speaks to another. It is no 
matter for his name. 

(b) fig6v$vifttvi&>»'] The verb fi^vhiftett is allowed, on all 
hands, to come from fifties ; which, according to Aristotle, 
(as Stephaiius observes) is a sea-bird : 5 £ri d dno t*$ $-axd<r- 
*rvi$ tjavTis -zsoXipioi ocXXyXois, oiov fi^iv&og i£ Xuqo$. Arist. Hist. 
Animal, Lib. ix. c. 8. Which words, fifties k. xa£o$, Pliny 
(Lib. x. c. 74.) renders by Anates h Gavi<e. Now, as 
Aristotle makes the fi^vtios a mere sea-bird, I cannot think 
that Anas, signifying a common duck or drake, can be the 
Latin of it: so that, by Anates, Pliny must mean some 
sea-birds of the duck or drake-kind. As, then, birds of this 
kind have nothing in which a man can naturally be com- 
pared to them; except that slow pace, in which they put one 
foot, as it were, deliberately before the other ; or that cir- 
cumspect look, by which they seem to take notice of the 
objects, not only before, but on each side of them ; or that 
harsh, grumbling noise which they make, as they go along ; 
I say, these being the principal instances in which a man 
can imitate them, fi^ivivepMi (strictly, Brent hum-ago , I-carry- 
myself-like-a-Brenthus) must, in its full sense, mean, / stalk 
along) observing every thing I meet, and grumbling and muU 
tering, as I go $ which signification, in the participle 
JBgivQuifttv®*, is very applicable to a philosopher, as it is 
expressive of his gait, his looks, and his grumbling at 
mankind. 

I did not know how to express the above meaning in 
Latin, otherwise than by fastuose-se gerens, which is the 
sense most usually attributed to this word by our lexicons- 



(ppofTtda*, tU Uti) o rh fictOrbv wdyavct Kvrfkif&iH£} MEN. 
<t>iXoo'o(pc$ «ns, a 'E^* poiXXov %i ymt k) regret as pzsW 
tise U7rohvTov £ rxrov' crj/ei yu^ rsoXXec t£ yeXoice, vtto rw tpario* 
x^vvP^pevci. 'EPM. KaraS-x try ro e-^fiu zrpwrov* elrct k} 
vreeZroL ir&vra — r & Zev, ocr/iv p\v rw uXx^ovsiuy Kopi^eh o^yiv S 
21 ajAc&siav, t£ %v, ^ y~evcho%iuV) k) I par fa tig uiripvS) xj 
(a) Xtysg uxuvQahig, x.ct} tvvoiug zto'kvirxlit.vs. AXXct kolc 
uaruioTroviuv f/.u?,cc ^roXXir^ k) Xyi^ov kit ohiyoV) t£ vB-X%S) ^ 
/uixgoXcyietv' vh Aict, ^ %Pv<riov y\ rxrl, Kj $v7ruietav 3s, x&t 
#you<r%vntc&Vi k} of>yw, *£ Tgt^ijV, *£ paXocicictV * AsA^s yccp\0 
ftS) si Kj fjLuXot, we^iKpvTcleig G&VT&. Kal ro tytvocg o* u,7ro§-%) 
£ rov rvtbov, tcj ro eisG-S-at eg ciueivova thoci r&v aXXav. Qg 

% , T J? v » fi> '' / r i Vr " 

tiye 7&C6VTU roLvrct, i%av t^M>ctivoig ) <&oict -zrevrnxoVTe^os oi^ociro c&v 
rij OIA. 'A7roriB-£{Acci roivvv «yri, t7rti7rt^ nra xtXtvtig* 
MEN. S AAA# k} rov m&yayct rZrov «?TdS-r<r3-6> 5 a 'Eg^SJ, /3#gt/yl5 
re cvra, y£ Xuriov, ag *C?S« Ilhrt pvav rpiytg tW) r%Xci%i<?ov» 
*EPM. Ey Xiytig' 'Airo'S-x k} rSrov. <X>IA« Kai rig o uTroxsigav 
isott; 'EPM. Mzvi7r7rcg irocr}, XctZdv -sriXexvv ray vavTr^yixav, 
tcTroxo-^/si avrlv) (b) iTriKovrc? rn uvwoaS-goi ^no-uuivog. MEN. 
Ovx>, a 'Eppq' ciXXu Tzpiovct, p,oi uvaiog^ ytXoio'rt^ov yag rxro.'* 



.20 

'EPM. f O (B-ihexv? /jt«6vo$.^^MEN..(c) Evys' cLvS-QaTnvare^ov yap^ 



It may not be amiss, here, to observe that Lucian uses 
this participle, not only in a neuter sense, as in this place, 
but also in an active, when, in Timon, he says (and a phi- 
losopher too) *£ fizsvGvipiv®-* rt 7?e)$ aiirov. In which place, 
fie t sv&vlfAev&; having rt after it, retains no more of its full and 
natural signification of Brenthum-agens than what relates to 
the noise the Brenthus makes, and so can mean no more 
than muttering or grumbling somewhat to himself. 

(a) xiytss olxGtvQ®tfzi$.~] Thorny arguments; because they are 
entangled like thorns, or very perplexed ; or, perhaps, be- 
cause one knows not where to take hold of them. 

(b) \7riKQ7ra*'] A cfiofifring-block. 

(c) Et>yg.] If we are to take the text as it stands, Meni/i- 
fiusj here, having chopped off the philosopher's beard, must 
be supposed to turn to Mercury, and say, O brave I for now 
you have-made him-appcar^ov look, more like-a-man, i^roS-g^gv^ 
4Svt2 rh KivdZ^oiv, having put awaij, that is, taken off] his dirt ; 
in which speech Menippus attributes his own action to 



32 

vvv avctmQvivctrt, uToQipivtf uvtx tjjv (a) KivuZ^ctv. BxXei 
{AtKgov atyeXap-cti 9t) -t£)v otypym -, 'EPM MuXi?a. '^nlp to 
(tiravrov yup *£ toivtus S7r^x,£V f hyt 01$ e(p' orco (b) uvureivav 

S06VT6V. T/ TiiTOj K<z} ^Gt,7Lj>V£iq CO ftU^et^et- 9§ Grfa 'lUVOCTOV 

avrodeiXiug $ epi&viS-i §' £v MEN- tV Ev en to fiagvn&Tov lire 
(uuXvis *%**• E?M Tl', cb M'iVW7re; MEN KoXoiKetccv, co 
Egpcii* tz-oXXci ev tco fita, %gKVtpeve'xG'av olvtco. <J>IA OvxQv *£ 
<rv, co MivHrire) uttqG* tjjv eXevfogiav, k} (c) w*6ppjje*/tfv, k} to 



Mercury, as he had executed it under his direction, and, 
besides, would, as it were, pay Mercury a compliment, by 
giving him the honour of it. 

The other translation says, Euge ! Humanior nunc 
apfiares, defiosito hircino fcetore, taking no notice of ayTov, 
and as if Menippus spoke to the philosopher. Besides, 
avutyottvoi never signifies apfiareo. But were I allowed 
to alter the text, I should think the whole would stand 
much more naturally thus: 'EPM. 'O <sriteKv$ ixuvot — Elye* 
iiitQgawtvt&regcv ya^ vvv aMTrefyvaS) et7r6$'zp£v(&> uvrS ryjv xtva- 
fie,uv. MEN. BaAf< pnLPQv aQihapui xj rav oQgvav ; C EPM. 
MctXi?c6y &c. 

(a) xivd^p i ocv.'] JSLivu&pa, is reckoned, properly, to signify 
xvvw fyao-ig, the food of dogs. As dogs, then, are fond of 
keeping or hiding their meat till it stinks, I suppose that 
any thing that is dirty and stinking might have been called 
xivce&e* (though Stephanus gives us no instance of the use 
of the word, except in this very place), and it seems, also, 
that it is for this reason, that the stench from the arm-pits 
(if I may so call them) of goats, hath been called by this 
name, as Suidas and Hesychius say it is. Were I allowed 
to make a new Latin word, and to understand vavo&p&l in my 
own way, I would, from a consideration of the very thing 
Lucian here calls by that name (which certainly is the phi- 
losopher's beard), render it, hirsutiem-olenteni) his stinking- 
shag of a beard. 

(b) o4v#ts*W.] The strict rendering is, sursum-extendens, 
stretching-himstlf-upward ; by which is meant his assuming 
a high or haughty air. 

(c) «r*p|BV/#y.] A freedom of [speech; that is, the speaking 
one's mind boldly* 



33 



wrap Ss c*y, uTrtOy rm fafAuruv rhv Tdff'atvTJiv #flrf£#vrdA0y*«cy, 
xj (b) ivltOirstg) xj (c) n*y<r<l)<ru$, *£ (d) a-fgu'd*?, *$ (e) 0*g- 



(a) **Ta?rASv.] Properly a-fiassage-by-ivatcr-down'ward / 
and so taken here, as they were to sail down to hell. I know 
not how to call it in Latin. 

(b) JLvTrtireiq.'] An Antithesis, according to Aristotle, is 
a figure in rhetoric, implying a contrariety, both in the 
words and the sense, or in one or other of them. For exam- 
ple : ic It is not just that this man, possessing my wealthy 
? should be rich ; and that I, parting with what I have, 
<c should be a beggar. 5 ' Arist. Rhet. Here, parting-with 
is opposed to possessing, and being rich, to being a beggar. 

(c) TrHyrao-eteJ] The Parisosis is another figure, whereof 
the parts are neither alike nor contrary, but equal. For 
example : they will not fight, either because they want men, 

or because they want money* Arist. ibid. Hpr^, thf» want 

of money is neither like nor contrary to the want of men ; 
but both are equally good reasons for not undertaking a 
war. 

(d) ttv^o'Sas.] A Period is a complete sentence. The 
rhetoricians took great pains to make their periods, op 
sentences, full and harmonious, so as that they may be 
spoken with ease, and heard with pleasure, which they 
justly reckoned no inconsiderable part of their oratory. 

(e) ^agSag**-^**.] Eustathius, upon II. 2, says that "a 
Barbarism is a wrong pronunciation of words and tones. 5 * 
Probably, then, the orators in Lucian's days, like some in 
ours, corrupted the true and natural pronunciation of their 
words, out of an affectation of fine speaking ; and so made 
barbarisms. — I have often heard one, who would pass for a 
very fine speaker in a coffee-house, swear aloud, that there 
was not a single tittle of truth in any one Noose Peeper. 
We now are never shocked with the name or idea of 
Tyranny upon our stage; both being disguised in that elegant 
word, Terrany: and some clergymen, otherwise good 
preachers, before they begin their sermons, pray, " Thafc 



34 



Sag*«7fc*s, ^ t' «AA# (a) /3#£u t^v Aoy^v. *PHT. Ejgy j?*, 

U7T6flB-£^0il. C EPM. Ev ^X Sl * "QfE hW 7& UTfoyeiM, TJjP 

(b) cc7ro£aS-£ctv aveXcifteS-U) to uyx.l>gi$v uveo-Truo-B-^ -zrirctTcv 
ro ifiov, £v$-we>> a Grog&ftev) ro TCr^iXiov, Ev 7roc$-a{u,ey. — . 

rh i&ciyavec defyotpivct ; OIA. (c) f/ Or;, a 'EgpJ, u^uvutoj 



" in all their works buggun, continooed, Sec. they may 
" gloryfee (God's) holly, &c. 

(a) /3fl6^»).] Weights. Ironically, because affected figures 
and barbarous pronunciations are the silly and vile levities 
of oratory. 

(b) «»-aS#0g*».] Dr. Potter says it was a stefifiing-board 
laid from the ship to the shore ; which the name also 
implies. 

(c) "On , &c] Because, says he, i" tfiought my soul was im- 
mortal. But, since he here speaks and converses, and, 
therefore, enjoys the existence of his soul after death,- 
what can he mean by saying, he thought his soul immor- 
tal ? Io nwt tlil» ■o.xs.Lo.tcknr'^, o.ffco*» cle <%*!*, -vr-l:io«.t; «acn vmclerstnncl 

by immortality ? I know not whether it will lessen this 
inconsistency to observe, that the Ancients supposed a cer- 
tain state of the dead in dreary and gloomy mansions, 
where they enjoyed little or no happiness, and which Vir- 
gil calls, 

Tristes sine sole domos, — 

Loca turbida 

And, that they also imagined another mansion of light and 
bliss, where 

Solemque suum, sua sidera norunt. 

And, therefore, that this latter state might have been what 
this philosopher expected, and, for that reason, without it, 
reckons himself dead. 

A friend hath, upon this place, observed to me, " That 
" Lucian, in several places, gives broad hints (so much at a 
" loss was this very great man, directed by our so-much- 
" boasted natural reason) that there is nothing left of us, 
a but dust and perishable sculls and bones ; and that, when 
" he speaks of conversation, and punishments, and rewards, 
a 8cc. he seems to ridicule these things as fictions of wets 






X 



mpW tJ> ij/v%b Wtb^eiv. MEN. ^evflerai. AXXcc yk^ 
tcixe Xv7rs7y c&vtov. E FM . T <z -vro7a ; MEN On (L&rixiTt 
ieiwfaet (sroXureXii ?£<Vy#, prfe vvxreo^ \%iw u7tuvtcl$ 
XavS'czvcoV) ra i/aatta rhv xetyxXw x,GCT£iXv t ras, 7rEjrtsiriv iv 

vxXt& ret. •fccipcttTVTriici,' rZ W&w i^GCTrarm rxg vzxg, Wi ryj crd^ioe, 5 
stpyCpiov Xy^iTca- T&vtgc XwriT kvtov. OIA. 2y §2, & Mivi7T7rfy 

*X (AX>fy CtTFoB-OiVM ' 3 MEN. Hagy C$ (a) iG-TTiVCX S5T/ TOV frdvtZTOVj 

xccXicrotvTQg UY^svog ; — 'AAAca f/*iT<z%v Xcy&v, k x^etvyi v.g ax&ireu* 
mzrTTi? nvsov amh yvg fioavrav ; EPM. NW, ;£o SAvMt'ief &x a(p 
hog yi %oepx' aXX* e; f/Jy, \g rv)v (b) IxxX'/ia lav crvviX&orrtg, avpivoi UJ 
yiXaxri Trdvlsg hrt ra Aotuirtft* S~ccvotT& 9 v^ jj yvvv ccvt% <rvv>%,27cci 
crgog rav ywxtxav, Xj ?x 7? outlet vioyvu ovtx-> opotag xkxuvoi. v7r§ 
r&v -ixathm fioLxXiTcii atp&ovotg To7g Xi'Qoig. "AXXot oi AiotpccvTov 
rov piWo^a iircav^G-tv h "Zixvcovi* innatpteg Xoyxg otifyovrx hrt K.£d- 
Tavi txtod* xc/A vh A/as ys, -/} Aapzeria fifong xcoxvxa-ot, \%&$yju t£ I 5' 
$-?vjya rvv yvvat^iv hrt r& AsLfrote-iot, — 2g 21 (soe}g y a> Miu7T7re* 
iaxpvzi' xct$ yvvftfeiv 21 x{i7cu. tA6v&>. MEN. OvcaftSg' uXX 
axxrrr rm xvv&y p$T oXiyov cofvouivav cixrt^ov st 5 ipo), *£ r&v 
xopux&v tvtPio&vjmv ToTg zPiigo7g } <jtot' clv (rvviXQvPitg Qdirraffi fts* 
e £FM. rzvvd^&g si, &i Msy^T?. — 'AAA' lrr.%1 xuTWtwrXivxo&pivllQ 
■ vuiig fiiv umrt .-G-pog to fcxariptoV) iv3-i7scv ixuvnv vrpoiovTzg' 
-;, Vy -zropQuzvg, ctXXxs (c) /xirzX&vG'of.Li^GC. MEN. Ey- 
7:Xoz7n, co Epcty,. — Tlpot&uiy 21 50 jj^g^.— T/ kv \ti Kj ^sAAsrg; 
Aixct'j&jVGiL SgJjVgt. t£ rcig x<x.Toi,2ix&g $M<riv uvett ficcpilug^ Tpe;£&$, 

K; yVT>Z.q } K^ X&ZS. Aliy^WiTVA V% IxcLfU fit®*. 



" and superstitious people. How, then, can he make the 
" dead speak and reason ? By a figure, and in the way of 
« fable. ^ 

(a) 'itTTivrct.'] Because, he hanged himself, as before ob- 
served. 

(b) IxxXna'ccyJ] The assembly of the free-men or people 
of Athens, when met together, to pass laws or decrees, was 
called ixxXviTtcc. Here, the subjects of the tyrant Lampichus 
meet, to form such a free-assembly ; having gained theijr 
Jiberty by his death. 

(c) piTitevrofAifa.] We zvi!l~gO'f<jr. 






AIAA. <£'. KgfltrjjT®-' ^ Awyiwz. 

Both Biters bitten. 

&PAT. — Mo/gi^oy rov TrXvo-tov lylvacKeg^ 3 Aioysvtg^ rov mrdnt 
■%rX%<rioV) tot Itc K.o(>iv&% y rlv rkg -zroAAeig cAtcci^cig z%6vroC) a 
^ys^/tog 3 A(Ji<yici$) <&>\'dTi($f> ?£ ocvrog ccv^ ro 'O^p/xov ixuvo iloo&it 
IvriXiyiiV, (a) *H p avcia^\ % ly® tru AIOF. T/v©- initot,, a 

y KpuTVis-, IfapeLmvov uXXiix^g -, KPAT. TS xA^» zvikoc, e^Tsg^, 
iXiKiQT&t oflzg. Kat rug oix$-ii)cug \g ro (pavzplv tr&evlo' 
"'ApificLv p\* o Mo/p <#©"», il zr^ooiTroSuvdt) ^iTTror^y a(pu}g rm 
itoVTX Grclvrav' Moi^tfcov 3s o 'A^ifictg, it mr^oocni'hbot ui>rv. TotZrct 
pih lyiypocifio. Ot dl lBs(?ct7rivov uXX^X^g^ v7ii^oiXXopzyoi rvj 

IQxoAaxeia* Kcct ol pcivrzig, itri a%o rm &$^m nit put go pivot ro 
^tgAAev, iirt u7ro roav hu^urcav, acyl (b) XciXduUjy ■srccZozg' aXXot 
t£ « nv8it&> ccvTog, uprt pzv 'A^ie'toc -srccpu^i ro x,p j cLr<&*i uprt e)l 
Motpi'x,?' xut ?<*> rothavrcC) %or\ piv &V/ rxrov, vvv §' \n Ix.i7voj 
Tpimi. AIOF. Tt iiv sn^cig'iyiviro, a Y^potr^g ; Ax.x<tcli yct,^ u\tov. 

15 KPAT* "AfA$M ridvuaiv itt/ ptug ipzgotg- ol 2g «A^o;, \g Evvo\utov 
*§ QpxFvxAza sriQivAB-ov, aptyu rvyfivug ovrccg, &2g naffon 
(c) tffpotiuylivoplvMg vru ytn^oct rccvroc. AiwnXiovrig yup^ utto 



(a) *H p etvduq, / \y& erg.] Lift me y or I will lift you: 
The words of Ajax. wrestling with Ulysses, in Horn. Iliad, 
lib. xxiii. by which (when neither could throw the other) 
Ajax meant, either 1 will give you a chance of throwing me, 
by letting you lift me, or do you give me one of throwing 
you, by letting me lift you. 

In Mcsrichus's mouth, the words mean, yours or mine, 
with regard to his own and Aristeas's estate. I do not 
know, why dvunp^ hath been rendered confice, in the other 
translation. 

(b) Xa,>3cc!u)v <&cuhg.~] That is, the Chaldeans, So we 
read, in the Old Testament, the children of Ammon, for the 
Ammonites ; the children of the prophets, for the prophets, 
kc. tlvrog, himself-, that is, even the greatest oracle. 

(c) Txrpopcotnvopzvxg .] The verb (ar^opuvlivopoitj as far as I 
can find, always signifies vaticinor, to prophesy. The man- 
ner in wiaich a word is circuiiistanced, in the text, is ofto** 



£7 

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ttvrtr {fi%iv 3s 'sreivv KccpTigsit ir- (a) Kcripu 'sroiY l <ru i u,iv<& , y xti § 
ctuoci <rv, a) K^arnS) hri^vutis xXiigovou&t* U7.~gSscvc\t@~> g*&«, Tee 

XJ rjflC&TCt) ?£ TQV WS-dVj ^ TVVGriigXV (b) ^WW**? OVO frig It 6) V t%*P#f. 

KPAT. Ovih ya% ttot thtom g'3g/, a.X'X xoi trot, a A.oyzvi$. tN A 
y«£ sv^jjv, cryrg 'AvJ^S-gyy? I^A^ovo^cr^ v^ iya C"S, vroXX&> pzt^* 
*$ c-ifivoTigce t 7 4$ Tlgpcay cty)(S\$. AIOT. Tivx tuvtu 0vg 5 j0 
KPAT, Zo#/#v, (c) Uvrc&zitiicc*, aXihioLv, i&a,\faict.v, iXivSifistv* 
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yttiXxy twv TOiXTay KTYiuccrait) Kj xOug cBifoiTrivzv aiictg, zXy^ovopyp 



the best mean of corning at the sense of it ; and, therefore? 
I am humbly of opinion, as Moevichus and Aristeas were 
no prophets, nor could, therefore, be said to prophesy, that 
ttr^opc&vTivcpivxs must here signify a vatibus pnsdiscentes^ 
because they are, in the text, represented as persons that 
consulted many oracles. The other translation renders it, 
de his 7iihil JirtZcHcverarit diviui ■ which, as a translation, I 
do not understand. 

(a) xot/v*.] The Olympic crown was made from this 
tree. Bourd. 

(b) %*inKot$ ] The Attic measure of dry things. 

Pecks. Galls. Pints. Solid Inches. 



Vic^XoiQiov 











0,276^ 


KvxG@" 











2,763} 


'GlvGctCpM 











4>U.4£ 


KcTvXq 











16,579" 


Sss"/j? 











33,153 


X«m| 








1 


1 5,705 A 


Mzdifiv&> 


4 





6 


3,501'" 



A 'r but hw:. 
(c) ctvTcl^ituv.'] Self-sufficiency : Of which the Stoics and 
Cynics boast so much ; as Horace tells one of them— -fers te 
nullius egentem. It has been rendered, frug$litatem y which 
it sometimes signifies: but, here, the other meaning seem* 
much more applicable. 



38 

rsiv vr^ovdoxM' k 3s to ^vo-iov vravrsg iZhwov. AlOT. EUirtif 
€v yu% iifcov ivQoe, dz%cttvTo <rk roiocvrct, <&ct£ ipvv, ^tsppwixcTis vn\ 
r^vffis, xetSamg to. col^a tm BoiXccvrlar ci?i % tin-on *> 
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X4 TS AxVXX (a) XVTXt (BTCCgS-ivOl, U Th TSTgVTTYIUiVO* «704? 

ipvXxrlov. ICPAT. Ovxxv iptTs ph %%tpvt kxvtxvQx iov wAst^T 
•j di oZoXh l}%%cri xopl^ovrtsi "3 rircv 2L%gi t£ zrotfpwg* 

(a) civTcti.'] These, says he, pointing to them, because 
they were hard by him, as being in hell. 



As history is the best comment upon the three following 
Dialogues,. I have thought proper to present the young reader 
with the following stories, concerning the great men who sj;eak 
in them. 



THF STORY OF PHILIP, 

Philip, king^ of Macedonia, was educated at Thebss, under 
Epaminondas, the greatest commander and philosopher of his age. 
King Amyntas, his father, had been obliged to send him there as 
an hostage. As soon us he came to the crown of Macedonia, his 
dominions were invaded, at once, by the Pxonians, Illyrians, 
Thracians, and Athenians. The Pseonians and Thracians he 
bought, off with money, and then defeated the Athenians and 
Illyrians. He also conquered the Thessalians, though their horse, 
then by far the best in all Greece, made the victory very difficult. 
He likewise beat the Eleans, remarkable for being the ablest cpear- 
jnen, and the Mantineans, reckoned the best targeteers. After 
this, the Th'ebans invited him to head them, in their war with 
the Phocensians ; but, upon his marching into Greece with that 
design, the Phocensians, jointly with the Athenians and Lacede- 
monians, who were all struck with a panic upon his approach, 
sent ambassadors to him, to sue for a peace. On the other hand, 
the Thebans, who had engaged him in the expedition, sent him 
ambassadors also, to desire he would prosecute the war, with all 
vigour. Philip, upon this, took an oath separately to the ambas- 
sadors of each party, that he would act as they differently re- 
quested, insisting, in tkc mean time; on their secrecy : whereby 3 



39 

lulling all sides into a profound security, he seized the straits 
of Thermopylae, and thereby got a footing in Greece, which he 
never quitted, till he enslaved all the states thereof. He besieged 
the powerful city Olynthus ; but took it by the treachery of the 
governors, whom he largely bribed to betray it to him. Two 
brothers, contending about the crown of Thrace, submitted their 
dispute to Philip, He accordingly came to settle it ; but it was at 
the head of an army, with which he took away the cause of their 
contention; for he took their kingdom into his own hands. Thus 
encreasing his power and dominions, he formed the great design 
against the Persian monarchy ; but, before he could enter upon 
the execution of it, was assassinated by Pausanias, a young noble- 
man of Macedonia, to whom he had denied justice. 



THE STORY OF ALEXANDER. 

Alexander the Great was the son of Philip (king of 
Macedonia) and Olympias. But it was fabled that Jupiter Amnion 
had, in the shape of a dragon, been often seen in his mother's 
bed-chamber, and, therefore, was Alexander's real father. Alex- 
ander himself, in order to pass, upon the ignorant nations he in- 
tended to invade, for something more than a mortal, and there- 
fore irresistible, always favoured this report; aud, after he had 
passed from Asia into Egypt, took a journey to the temple of 
Ammon ; where the priests, whom he had beforehand caused to 
be bribed, upon his arrival saluted him as the son of their Jupiter. 

Upon the death of his father, there arose great disturbances in 
the Macedonian empire : for, both the states of Greece and the 
barbarous nations, who were subject to Philip, began to revolt and 
shake off the yoke. — But Alexander, now but twenty years old, 
attacked them with such intrepidity, that he soon subdued the 
barbarians, and came, with such a rapid course, upon Greece, 
that Athens soon sued for a peace. Thebes, indeed, made a stand 
against him ; but, by the utter destruction or that great city, he 
struck a terror through all the other states, and so obtained an 
universal submission from them. He then called the assembly of 
all those states, in which they chose him commander-in-chief of 
all the forces of Greece, for the expedition he intended against 
the Persians. Hereupon, he crossed the Hellespont, at the head 
of only thirty-five thousand men : soon aftei a ivlch, he was met, 
at the river Granicus, by Darius's forces, vastly superior to his in 
number. He himself was the foremost, and. fiercest, in the at- 
tack : but, in the course of the battle', he was Furiously sei upon 
by two Persian officers, and would have been slain, but for Ciirus, 
an old captain, who had served under his father, in his wars. 
This man killed one of the as ulj mder dispatched 

the other. After a great victory, here gamed, he was again met 

E 2 



40 



by Darius himself, at the head of seven-hundred thousand men, 
at the city of Issus. Here again the Persians were defeated, with 
the loss of an hundred thousand men; and the mother, wife, and 
two daughters of Darius were made prisoners. Alexander hath 
always been highly commended by historians, and others, for his 
strict continency and generous behaviour towards these. After 
this success, Cyprus, with the neighbouring islands, and all 
Phoenicia, submitted to him, except Tyre. This city was built 
upon a small island, near the Phoenician shore, and cost Alexan- 
der and his army infinite toil, before he could take it : for he was 
obliged to throw an immense deal of large timber-trees, huge 
rocks, earth, sand, Sec. into the sea, till he raised a firm passage 
above the surface of the water, for his army to march against the 
town. In carrying on this prodigious work, his men were daily- 
slaughtered with missive weapons from theTyrian ships, and from 
the walls of the city: but, at length, having finished his work, he 
took the town, and put all the inhabitants to the sword, or nailed 
them to cresses along the shore. His last great and decisive 
battle with Darius was at the city of Arbela, where he defeated his 
army, consisting of a million ; that is, ten-laundred thousand men. 
Whereupon, Darius fled, and was, soon after, murdered by one 
Eessus, a villanous subject and kinsman of his own. After this, 
Alexander passed the Tanais, and subdued the Scythians and 
other Northern nations. Upon all these successes he grew so 
intolerably vain and proud, that he changed his own country-dress 
for that of the Persian (part of which was the candys, a military 
cassock), and even demanded that he should be adored : which 
when Calisthenes, the philosopher, (who had been sent by his tutor 
Aristotle, to attend him in his expedition) refused to do, ne 
ordered his nose, lips, ears, hands, and feet, to be cut off, and, in 
that condition, had him carried about in a cage, with a dog shut 
up with him. But he pretended that he used Calisthenes thus, 
for conspiring against him. He also commanded Lysimachus, a 
noble Macedonian, and a disciple and admirer of Calisthenes, to 
be shut up with a lion in his den, because he had visited his mas- 
ter in his great distress. With his own hand, he, in a drunken 
fit, killed old Clitus, who had served his father, and saved his own 
life; and that for only comparing his father's exploits with his. In 
his Indian expedition, he took Aornus, a rock that was reckoned 
inaccessible, and from whence both Bacchus and Hercules had 
been repulsed. He then passed the Hydaspes, and defeated and 
took prisoner Porus, an Indian 'king ; whose bravery, however, 
together with that of his army, assisted by the number and 
strength of his elephants, made the battle a bloody one, and the 
victory come very dear to Alexander. From hence, he sailed 
down the Ganges, to see the ocean, but, in his way, took the city 
of the Oxydracse, where he was the first who mounted the wall, 
and, having leaped into the town, before his men could follow 






4,1 

him, fought, and slew numbers of the enemy, with his single 
hand. At length, he was desperately wounded, but, thereupon, 
was relieved and rescued by his own soldiers, who had now got 
over the wall. On his return, he married Statira, Darhas's 
daughter, at Ecbatana. In Media, he lost Hepheestion, a youth 
whom he loved, beyond measure : which so put him beside him- 
self, that he ordered the physician to be killed, for not recovering 
him, and put to the sword a whole nation of innocent people, as 
an immolation to his ghost ; affecting, in this, as in other things, 
to imitate Achilles's behaviour, in Homer. At length, he arrived 
in Babylon, where he caroused whole days and nights, till he died 
of his excesses. 

He was a great scholar (having been educated by Aristotle, 
with whom he, ever after, corresponded), and a very able, as well 
as a most successful, commander ; but was ruined by pride, and 
the indulgence of his other passions. A little before he expired, 
he took his ring off his finger, and gave it to Perdiccas, one of his 
generals : which hath been looked upon as a mark of his bequeath- 
ing his empire to him. His remains were carried to Alexandria, 
in Egypt, a city built by himself, and there were buried. 



THE STORY OF HANNIBAL. 

Hannibal, the Carthaginian, was, perhaps, as great a general 
as ever led an army. He, therefore, proved the most formidable 
enemy the Roman empire ever contended with. He first served 
his country as lieutenant, under his brother-in-law, Asdrubal, in 
Iberia, or Spain ; upon whose death, he obtained the command of 
the whole army, and, therewith, soon conquered the Celtiberians 
and Galatians in that country. He then besieged and took 
Saguntum, a city in alliance with the Romans ; upon their re- 
senting of which, he marched out of Spain into Gaul, and thence 
over the vast mountains, called the Alps, into Italy ; where, by a 
signal victory gained over the Romans, at the river Ticinus, he 
made himself master of the whole country that borders upon the 
great river Eridanus, now called the Po. The next battle he 
fought near the lake of Thrasimene, where he cut to pieces all the 
Roman army, except about six thousand. His third and greatest 
"conflict with the Romans was at Cannae, a town in Apulia, 
where he made such slaughter upon the banks of the Aufidus, that 
he filled its channel with carcasses; so that he was said to have 
made a bridge of them across the river, and likewise to have 
gotten bushels of golden rings, the ornaments of Roman knights, 
who were slain in the battle. After this he took up his win<er- 
quarters in Capua, the second city in Italy for power and splen- 
dor ; where, it is said, he wasted the opportunities of destroying 
Rome, and finishing the war, by spending his time in luxurious 



45 

living, and the company of mistresses. Some time after this, he 
encamped in the very suburbs of Rome ; but, upon the news of the 
consul Varro's having defeated a great army, which his brother 
Asdrubal had been leading t?o his assistance from Spain, and upon 
seeing his brother's head thrown before his outworks, he raised 
the siege, and retired into Brutii, a nook of Italy, where he re- 
mained for a considerable time. After this, Scipio, afterwards 
Africanus, invading Africa with a great fleet, Hannibal was re- 
called to the relief of his country; which command he readily 
obeyed. Scipio having gained a victory, and a peace being made, 
the senate of Rome, by the instigation of some wicked citizens 
of Carthage, accused Hannibal to the Carthaginian senate, as 
holding a correspondence with Antiochus against the Roman inte- 
rest. Hannibal perceived the storm gathering, and, thereupon, 
fled to Antiochus. The senate of Carthage condemned him 
absent ; which he did not resent ; but still resolved to serve his 
country, where he could, and, therefore, went to Prusias, king of 
Bithynia, for whom he gained a naval victory over Eumenes, an 
ally of the Romans. After all, Prusias made a friendship with 
the Romans, and treacherously gave up Hannibal to them. But 
they did not take him alive ; for, before they could, he took a dose 
of poison, which he kept by him against any exigency. Lucian, 
in Alexander's speech, charges him with 'A;r/$-/«t net} $0X01$, 
as doth Livy with " Perfidia plusquam Pwiica" But, by what 
histories they have been authorized so to do, I know not. 



CONCERNING SCIPIO. 

As the history of Scipio is no farther concerned in these 
Dialogues than that it is said he took Carthage, conquered Libya, 
and made Hannibal flee, let it suffice to relate the story that Livy 
records of a conversation he is said to have had with Hannibal, 
in Asia, after the wars had been ended : " Whom (says Scipio) 
l < do you judge the greatest commander ? Hannibal answered, 
*« Alexander. And whom the second ? Pyrrhus. And whom 
" the third ? Myself, no doubt (replies Hannibal). What, then, 
" (says Africanus, smiling) would you have said, had you con- 
" quered me ? Then, indeed, (answers Hannibal) I would have 
* c set myself before Alexander, and Pyrrhus, and all the command- 
*' ers that ever lived/' Plutarch. Q. Curtius, Liyv, Corn. Nepos, 
Justin, &c. give the above accounts. 



ft 



43 

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(a) r«A«T^y.] The Galatians, or, as we now call them, 
Galicians, inhabitants of Galicia in Spain, called, in Latin, 
Gallseci, from their neighbourhood to an ancient colony of 
Gauls in that country. He adds 'Ec-Tspy, the Western* to 
distinguish them from the Asiatic or Eastern Galatians, who 
also were a settlement from Gaul. 

(b) piSipiw*] See the note upon Dial. XVIL 



44 

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'Op.ag 2' ogac, it kxt oXtyov xvth 2niv£yxx' %g viogoov zrt, -zrxgiX&ai 
mi rx T^^xyptxrx^ j£ rjv x^y/iV rirx^xypitvYiv (a) x>xtut%ov, tt) rug 

%0$ovixg t£ wxTgcg /zzr'ijXdov^ xxTxtpofctirxg rbv'EXXudx t? Qrfictia* 
*C7rot>Xiix. Kxi fgccTYjyog In xvtqv %ugoTovq6ih, %x> ifyaa-Gt Til* 
Mccxzoovav *g%,w TZZgtivraV) ayxTcav t&gftstv o7ro<?av o <&aTV)? 
KUTSXt7TBv' uXXu mrsL(rciv i7nvoiicroig rv,v ynv-, xj euvbv jjf^a-oc^gyo^ tt 
ph (crcivlikfv zgc&T'iio'xiut) oXtfxg xycov IciZxXov Ig rw A<rixv, t£ fV/ 

+ 5 n T(>oiwl2 IxgctTirio-st pisyuXy ptei%y. Kx} rw Avdtxv XxZav, *£ 
'iwyixvy 9Cj <&£vyixv y tt} 0A&.5 rx iv zroctv xi) ftugvpevog, v\X$-ov twi 
Iiro"dV) 6*0x Axgttog V7nuav2j pvQixdxg zsroXXxg rgXTX xyav. YLxl 
ro X7T0 t%t%j oh Miv&g, bf&ug /Vs oc%$ l(A>h vbttgyc in} ptixg i.Uzgxj; 
xxr&rzft'^/x. <P«(7/ yzv tb-o^OuivS) ph *hix£Ki<rxi xvroTg run r* 

30 crttxtyag, xXXx (a) <r^iS;xg etiXTr'/i^x/uZYVg tz$ zroXXzsg xvim 

^IXTTXlVG-Xt* KXi TXV7X 21 %7T^o[\tOV XVTOg lT£OX.tv2vViV6)V, f£ 

*riTga<rx.to m §xt x^iav. Kxt Yvx (rot ph rx iv T^», f&yoi tx if 
'AffiXotg ttmyiG-aftxt) xXXx i§ pi^ig 'iv^v^A^ov, ^ To> 3 £l)cixvot 
#g«v iTrotyircipw r%g x^y^g^ t$ rhg ixitpxvrxg xvrav iiXov* t£ If^of 



(a) xxt'&'%*v.'] See^ in the annexed history of Alexander, 
how he quelled the insurrection that arose in the Macedo- 
nian empire. 

(a) r#f 3/**.] Boils, or rather, JlQcit$-?nadt~in-aJiurry : op 
rafts. 



4| 

l%tiP*>**,u>M» *&x>i 2xvi*s Se xx %vnxrx$ p*w>*$ xvhpctg, vvripjoxz 
xbi Txvx'h, evixncrx piyxXy tTTTOfAx^tx. Kx) rxg tyixxg iZ 
97r6iYi<rcc, Kj vxg \y$e%$ npvvxfmv. El Ss k) &ibg ISoW* rots 
*Lv&£C07roi<;, Fvyfv&eoi ixtTvoi) -zsxp* to pzytOog tm "sspxypxTM*, 
xj toihtov ti nrifsvexvTig 7rip\ lfi%* To o isv TiXtvTxiov, \ya> f&h » 
jixo-tXivav itTriQuvov* XTog §g h <pvyyj m kxpx TlpvvioZ ra> BiQvv**, 
xxCx7rsp xfyov i?v, GrxvugyoTxIoy KJ aftoTXTov ovtx. *£lg yxg Si 
tjcpdryiFi TM 'ItccXmv, \co XiyUV on dx 'i*%viy xXXx Trovq^ix, £ 
timet u> j£ doXotg* Nouipov 9s, $ (sr^otpxvlg, *2sv. 'Ettu 2g pot 
«yg/3*o-g tjjv Tgy^ivj ixXbXijff$*ai pot doxu old, \7r0tu Iv KtfcTrv*!, 10 
iTxipxig G-vvm, k} r%s r£ vroX'ua y.xipig S-xvpx<riog x,x&^vTX$av» 
*Ey& ol ii phi pixp^x tx terri^ix ^o\xg^ in) tw ia paXXov m^yitx^ 
t/ xv ft'iyx '(vpx%x^ 'ItxXixv (a) avoup&r} XxZm^ Kj AiZvW) k) t«c 
p>i)C% 1 Txiit^v vxxyo pivog-, uXX' kx a%iop,xy^x toofci jxoi Ixitvx^ 
v7ro^r}ia-G-ov% iS», >£ foo-nrirw opoXoy^vrx. Eip^xx* 2y Jg, <f 1 5 
MiW, VixxZp Ixxva yag xtto zroXXaiv k) txutx. SKI IT. Mi 
ispoTiPov, i!v f&h ?^ ipx xxsc-g, MIN. Tig yx% f<, a fiiXTiety 
4 H5-C019 m \pug j SKin. lTetXt&rng luxiKiuv, egxr'tyog, « 
xxSiXw Kocffiiiiivx, k^ xpxT^xg A&vav piyaXxtg fix%xtg* 
MIN. T* 8v j£ <ri< s^eTV ; 2KIIT. 'AXi^xvdgx ^gy jjV?#y fly#;,20 
i£ S' 'AynSg apiiv&v* %g ihiufept, vixiicrxg xvtov, k^ (pvyuv x-xirxvxy- 
x.X7xg aripwg. Tlocg Xv Hk civxicr%vvTog kiog, %g ivpog 'Ax't^x^f**? 
auiXXarctl) a h^l J^x-fxiav zya> y vzviKYjx&g xvrov^-zs-XQxZxXXiv&xt 
x\im ; MIN. Uq Ai iv[vauovx <P?g* 00 ^jKintav, "Sl^i nprnTog 
yAv xiK^iaS-c* 'AXi^xvc^og' per xvttv Sg cv' iirx^ il S«xg7, rpi7cg25 
? AwiZxg> 4?g bTog ilxxrx(p^or/iTog &v. 



(a) *y«^«T/.] Alexander, or rather Lucian, for hira, 
here supposes too much : for, a great, if not the greater, 
part of Italy was now in the hands of the Romans ; their 
empire being more than three hundred years old, and they 
themselves a most warlike people ; so that it is a question^ 
whether they would not have stopped Alexander's career.— 
XttZai, (hough I had taken. 



46 



AlAA. i$ Atcy'zvvg k} A\i%xv}pv. 

AIOT T< tStg, ot *Axi%xv$£i ; j£ ?v r'dvMetg Z<r7n^ iuitg 

*t9rewrig ; AAEH. Og£$, co Aioyaig" # 7r#£As5o|ej/ 3s, iluvB^cw7irog 
m*, U"rz0&vov. AIOT. OvxZv o iJ Apy.m ztJ/zv$sTo, Xsyav IccvtS <rz 
livcct viov* o-v Se <btXi7F7rx x^x ncB-x ; 'AAE2. O/AfVr*., 'hqXxbn. 
SOv yag xv irifoiizetv "Appmot m. AlOT. Kxt pw k) art^t rig 
0\v{4L7rie&dog r^g pqrsgog c& opoix zsroXXx ixiyovro' igUKOiloC 
cutXuv c&vrvj, Kj j&Xi7Fi<r§-eii h rvj ivvvf lira ^r&> a-i riyj^vxi* rot 
di OiXwrov i%xnxrviT§-xt oiopivov-uro&rzgx as ihxi. 'AAEH. Kziyat 
rxvrx yxxov coo-mo <rv. Kvv $5 oga on £3sy vyiig %ri v ft'<iTv>£y 

'JOkrt ctrav 'Apumiaf -zr^oQirxt 'ixeyov. AIOT. *AAA# ro -^iv^cg 
$tvrcbv %x x^nsiv <?oi, co 'AAs|fltv2^g, arpbg rx enr^xy^xrx lyhtro. 
TioXXot yxg v7ri<7irv}<7(rov ©gov ehxt a-i wpi^avlig. 'Arag ejirl ^*;, 
riyt rhv TOTctvrw *%%w KxraXzXoiTrxg ; 'AAEH. Ovx. oi^x, 5 
Atoysvig. Ov yx^itytixva hri<nti'tyai'ri zri^i c&vrtfg, j} r^ro pcivovi 

\5ori XTrohio-jccJv' HigoijcKX ro; ^xkJvXiov itt^oj^x. TlXijv xXXx rt 
yiXxg, a Aiiymss AIOT. Ti yk^ xXXo a un i u,v4<r$'w oix \ir»!u 

, & EXXxg, x£lt <ri 'srs&gtiXviQirct rhv ctgfcw KoXan&voi]ig, *£ (a) sr^o- 
vxrviv ai^c&ivot) *§ g-^xryiyh iri rug fixgZdgzg) ivtoi ?a xj rotg 
9C0OIKX <E)zo7g ?r(>o<3'i$ivregi *2 vicog 6tKooop&&f>tivoi, *£ frvovreg cog 

20 d^aKovrog vim ; *AXX U7rip.ot, tarxo-i ot MxzsUvzs \§atyx$' } 'AAEH. 
''Ert fy BxZvXavi Ks7 t uxi rgt'rw ravrw ifii^xv virt?%veWxi cl 
TlroXi^txHcg o v^rxj'Pn^Kg (jjy von kydyy aftoXh* uto rav S~opv£ar* 
rcov iv (jsrotrli) \g Aiywrflov u7ruyoLyaov f^ci ) fru-y/itv szzi< cog yevoiuq? 
tig rctiv AtyvTrltuv S*g5y. AlOF. Mh yixdra, a 'AAg|^y^f, 

25 c%&v iv «3s er< vi [AcJgcti'yovlet, k} iXni'Ccvlx*' AmzZw^ y/'Oji^V 



(a) Tr^urrr^"] The pfr&fxoi) or sojourners, at Athens, were 
obliged, under a penalty, to put themselves under the pro- 
tection or patronage of some able citizen, who was to manage 
their affairs, and see right done them, and who, from that 
office, was called <&%ftcirng<> defensor, or rather patronus* 
Potter. So that Diogenes seems to me, here, to he very 
satirical upon the states of Greece, and to say as much as, 
That they gave up their liberty to Alexander so far, that, in 
their native country, they put themselves upon the foot 
only of sojourners, as they had surrendered the whole ma- 
nagement of their affairs unto him, as to a ?r£of«T-*£, 



47 

ytv&S-ai ; TiAyv dAAe\ rctvret ph, co B-uirctre, pi skfcio-^g, O© 
yd^ Bsptg dvsXBuv rivet rm a-rec.% 0*iet7r%sv7civTeJV rhv Atpvyv- it} 
\g ro ifca t5 stpfo -as-xpshOoflav. Ov ydg dpsXng o AietKog. ko o 
K.io£spog svKcurettpgoviirog* 'EkzJvoz oz vioicog etv paBotpt Tzetpa, <rS, 
Trcog (pzpug 07TCT eiv hvoyervfi og"AV svoetipovietv vttZq yyg UTrohi'Z-av 5 
k<p7%xi, G-apetrQQvhc&Katg, X3 v7reto-7Ci?dg, f§ <r etr pan ug >& %(>v<ra9 
roevrov, ?£ sBvyi -zr^ocrx.vvzvret,, ttj Ba&vX&vtz, id Bdxrpct. i£ rot 
(a) ptydXet S-qplet) £ rtphv* k) o^ofretv* k} to hrio-qpov uvea ihetv- 
vovlu, eisozphov ronvicc tevittj mv xs.DaA^ : a-ogQvgtdet \p7VZ7:e^- 
ipqpivcv' k XvTrit retvrd ers vtto mv pv/jpYiv lovret; ri dtex^vsig, » iO 
parens-, %2l ruvrd gs & o-orplg ' A^^eiiX^g l-retioevcs p\ tieo-Bui 
fi'docttx ihect rd .-wetgd rn$ ri/%vis 5 'AAEE. ^o(pog< et-rretvrav lx.eii>@* 
KoXctfco)v iTTir^iTriQTocr^ eov j 'Epl pevov zetcev rd Aptfcjzhvg 
Sidheti) oa-tt ph timers -trap 9 sp% 9 otet at l?ri<?sXtev' ag Js jcotTSfc- 
gVTo p% rjj Txi?) -erect o*st'eiv <ptX6ripia- Bamvavi ;£ vnreuvM, etprrt 15 
ph \g ro icdhX(^. &g ^ rkre pzp($r' "ov (b) rdy&6£, dprt \g rkg 
«*P t d%ug+ f£ rev -&7\%rev* Keti ydp etv v^ rxr dyetOov iyeTr siveti, 
vg pli otle-fcvveiro >£ otvreg Xetp^civciv' yens, & Atcymg-, kv8-p t &7r®* 9 
»Cj riyvimg. TlXyv etXXdrzro ye dnoteXetvxet otvrx ms cc^Ug^ 
ro Av7reio~S-ett a$ ski piytfeis dyet&o7g, k itumpsQpvjG-af ptic^u ys2G 
ip7r^ocBev, AlOr. 'AAA' cip^ot ogdcstg ; *Ax(&> ydg c&i t£$ 
Av7rqg vrfc^is'opeti* \tci\ \v\avBet ye IxmZop(^ k tplsrxt* crv c$ - 
xctv to AvQts vo&p^ %avoov i7rtG-7TsiG-dpzv(5}-> -zrie, k} avQig vr/s, ?d 
rs-oXXdfctg' xtm yetg av wc&ve-p V7r\ roig AeisortXzg ecyocticlg kvi»- 



(a) peydxet S-jjg/#.] Elephants, which were used in the 
Eastern countries. 

(b) rety?M.~\ Yov r£ dya$%) the good, or the Philosophers' 
summum bonum. The Stoics held that nothing was good, 
but virtue, nothing evil, but vice. But, the Academics, or 
follovrers of Plato (of whom Aristotle was, in a great mea- 
sure, one, having been his scholar), maintained that the 
summum bonum resulted from virtue, attended with all the 
advantages of outward things, such as health, wealth, a good 
name, &x. and that there were other things evil, beside vice ; 
such as extreme poverty, bodily pain, infamy, &c. Both 
Plato and Aristotle, and their followers, the Academics and 
Peripatetics, agreed in these opinions of good and evil, as 
appears fully from Cicero's writings. Be Fin. and M. Roliin's 
Account of the Philosophers. 

F 



43 



pt,w&>. Kent (a) y<*£ *£ KXurov Uuvov ogaf, i£ KuXXtcHvvi, $ 
aXXxg f&oXXvg hrl a ogptavlag, cog oiuo-Trcto-onvloy >& uf&vvuivro <re 
w 'ihqctTc&s uvTfig* "Q*sz t«v kri^uv <rv r&vmv fiudify, *£ Wyf 
-E-oXXdniS, cog ityw* 



(a) y*g.] It seems to me that this y«g must be referred 
to We, above, though m^ &c. come between : for, of all that 
Diogenes said to Alexander, his advice about drinking was 
the principal part, as being the remedy, and, therefore, 
upon his seeing Clitus, Calisthenes, &c. approaching to 
revenge the injuries he had done them, he drops what he 
is saying, and suddenly cries, *£ y«£ «£*, referring y#g to 
his advice, Wg, above. 



AlAA. y! . 'AXelcivfyx j£ <&<AfWtf. 

<J>IA. — Nyy ^sv. ^ 'AAsf^v^e, £>t Sv g'f#gy©-» ysydtft ^J £# 2^| 
i>*o$ giv#;" £ y#g #y ers&vjjfcefs, "AfAfiavog ye cov, AAEE. OvS' 
«vTfl$ iyvo%V) # «w<fcTgp, #s O^A/Wwa tS 'AptvvTX vtog eiptr ^>AA 3 
i$i%oipw to ptavTevptct, ecg Xtfatptw zg ret TTQetypeiTct otopcevog etvott. 

* <DIA. n<w? Xzyeig ; X^V^ay \boycn cot to <a-ngi%ui o-smvtov 
i%otn'cilvi0no'ofiwov tiro t£v i&go$viTM ; 'AAES. Oz5 t£to. AAA 
«/ fiupZot^ot xei,Ti7rXciy7)F{ZV pa, y^ k^elg iti avdtg-etTO) o'topevot 0g» 
p,ct%er9-oti. e 'Q$s pu.*v £x,£#tvv uvtcvv. <2>IA. T/yaiv txgctrvrttf 
cv ye ufyofAci'fcvv avdgav. eg clu\o7g uu o'vvYivi%0v)g) T©|#p;#, Xj 

IQweXrapioi) fd yip pet oie-vivat -zs-pevzZXvipivoig $ 'EXXijvav xpUTz7v zpyov 
ij», B«««T»y, ^ O&'&sa/y, j£ 9 A6r t ¥etiav' x} to 'Apjtciaav oTrXtTixov, 
7& rhv Qirlahw (a) iW«y, j£ t£? 'HXetav uKovrif*tg y j£ to Mctv- 
Ttvi&fV ireXreteixoV) $ ©p<£*x$, i 'lAAv^8$, i ^ nWovas? %st^ 
<rotv§Gtt, t#£t«£ ptiydxot. Miiiav oz y k} ITg^r^y, >£ X#A§#/W, ^ 

15 %QVFo(pop&v uvQpaTr&v, ft} kZpav^ kic oW&ct &g ts£o <tS ptvpiei 



(a) IWav.] c O iWa? signifies equus, but jS iVwaj, cquitatus ; 
the accus. case of which is this JWav. 



49 

(a) park K\edg%% eiviXOivres, ItcgurviG-itv, »§' eh %£?£#£ vnouti- 
vdvlwv \\Qiiv htetvav, aXXa* <nrptvii To^evuet efyitvuv&Qti) (p-jyovrcov 5 
*AAEH. 'AAA 1 ol 2kv&xi ye, co trxTi^ 9$ ol 'lv§#v txitpuvltt, &js. 
svitc6Tci<pgdvviTov ri Z(?yoy. Kal op&g % ^tccfivas otvr'dt; . i^s •■crga- 

5flS-/dC/$ MXftiVOf TCl$ vix,X$> ; 'IjCgCtTitV UVT&V. G V% V7T kdd ?>CY\V Ot 5 

*W*#. IC#/ T8$ 'EaAjjv^s §s ; - ts?s ftlv avcti^MTt (b) •-crwgsAssSai') 
GuSm/s*? 3s iV&>$ aTtzeiq o7r&$ per^xB-ov* <I>IA. OiSa: raJvTat 
zr0svr«ft. KAe/V(^ yag ciiri[yeiXi pot) cv cv i® ooowvied oieXacrag 
[Aivu\v $et7rv%vTX i(§onv<?y>$ on ue (c) zrpc$ jag o-otg <aepa\it$ 10 
iTrctiv'scrUi ItoXia'avi* Si/ dl *u ?hv Moi&£ooviz,v}V ftXapvoa x,ara- 
Z&Xcov. (cl) Tcdv^vv, as QotG-t) f&eTeviSvf 9§ Tidpav op&tiv IsrsS-g, x^ 
7srpo<rx.vvs7crB m ctt vtto MetKiiovstVs vtt zXev3~ip&v avipav i%i%$ % xj to 

T&aVTfiJV yeXoiQTCtTQV If&lfJVg TCi T&V veviX^fAiVSJV "E® y Ct XtySlV 

or fit aXXa &Ff&%a$% xhjcn <rv [ku^ujcXsmv '-arena tie vpivxs av^paf) 15 
Kj y&pxg T6i%T%$ yo&iLttVy k] H(pai<?t&va lire pay a7r%y, *Ev 



(a) pera KXed^a «vsA$aWe$.] Clearchus was a Lacedae- 
monian general, who was obliged to go into banishment, be- 
ing condemned to die, when he would not return from 
Thrace, upon the command of the Lacedemonian magis- 
trates, called Ephori. Upon this, he was kindly received 
by Cyrus the younger, under whom he headed an army of 
Grecians, in his expedition into Upper Asia, against his 
brother Artaxerxes, then the Great, king of Persia. This 
famous expedition is called, by Xenophon, who writes an 
account of it, tS KvgS ' AvuZarisi the Ascent of Cyrus ; and 
hence it is, that the word anxBlvrtg^ signifying ascendent es^ 
is used here. This expedition was not long before the 
time of Alexander; and it is thought that the success of 
the Grecians, under Clearchus, and their famous retreat, 
under Xenophon, were the motives of his invading Asia. 

(b) wfltggAtfSov.] I received them ; that is, upon submission; 
not cefii, I took them, as the other translation has it. 

(c) wgos.] " jigbg Comparationi etiam inservit, potestque 
" alicubi reddi fir a, ut Plat. Ep. vii. Ta §g akXa vpntek av 
a er/i <agbg ravra. Et Herodot. Mi pi Karavoyg <argoq XiQiyxg 
" Uv^api^ag: Ne me contemnas fira Pyramidibus lapideis.'* 
Steph. 

(d) x.avdvv.'] ftircova JJ^tikov $ pai loot mov . Bourd. 



iTrvveo-a povov aTtzcug, on oltfzg-xp tj?$ t£ A&peix yw&ixcg xotXvg 

%<?%$ t£ TVS f^YjTplg MVT%, 7^ T&JV §vy UTIO MV Z7T£ fit AjjS")^, Bcco-tXtitd 

yag tuvtcc. 'AAEH. To (piXoKtv^vvov 3e, r<» fcerdre^ hx. S7rutye7g^ 

x) to Iv (a) 'Ofy'hpdxa.ig Tzrgarov Ket^dXeca-B-ett tig to £vto$ t5 

5 Te<p^8$, ^ t6G-«£t# A«£fc7v Tpccv^oiroij OIA. OJx \7cet1yeS iSto, # 

'AAs|#j/5g2' hftOTl fAVl KStXoV StVCil olpCtl KJ T*T£#G*X£ (rBa I 7tot£ 70V 

fict.nXiet,., «J zrgoxivovvivew tS s^arS, <*AA' on trot vo'itsr* wxifcc 
cvvstpips. Oiog ycip eivsat doz&v, st7rori rgaQtt'vig, x} fixWoizv a 
(popaonv rks -zFotepn exxopi^c/aivov, oci^turt peifAtw, ospd^ovTM vri 

IOt&J TgtfVytttfTf. TGLVTOL yiXdg y d V Td7$ opaCt' l£ AfAfAOJV yOYiS, ^ 

'tyiitoQj&oLVTig ihzy%eT6 9 iCj o\ (ar^otyviTKi-, x-oXccxtg* ' H rig %k &v 
tytketfTiv opm tov tS Atcg viov Xu^o^/v^Syreij %s opwov ray Imt(>&9 
/3oy$s7'j ; Nvv fitly y#g o7riie jjjjj TzB-VYixotg, hx, ctsi -zroXXxg zivctt 

T^g TJJV oT^o^7rol^TtV £X,ZlVYjV €7riKipr0^VT0Cg, 0p60VT#g TOV vexfiOV 

l5<r% <E)sh fjcrdiw y-ei.uevov, ^>v^covtx *(3jj *£ t^a^tcorot, x>a?a, vo^ov 
cduurav a-rozvT&v $ v AAA#s ts, k} to x^o-i^ov-, o s<p*!Sj AAg|#v0pSj 
to dia thto Kf,mri7v pcidi&s> vroXv <?e li.g o*\r k g afiypeiTo rav xccrcg- 
Qxuzv&v. (b) Tlfilv yd% e-2okst h&ehy v^o ®£« yi'vecB'cci ctoxzsv. 
'AAES. Ov tosZtu O^ovxTiv o\ av0(>jO7r6i zrepi i/nQ, #AA HqolkXs? 

20 >£ Aiovvo-.y hetu,iXMv Tftfiottri pe. Kottroi ryv^Aopvov iy.eivnv, &$• 
Itipx t&eivwv >a*>ovT(&>^ lyco pov®>> iftitoMzrapw. <%>\A Opot% 
cri tmvtm &g vfig 'A(*fAm(&> Myeig* eg 'Hpei^AfT j^ AiovWrn 

<&t»pC6%d>Xitg 0~S'66VTQV) Vy kx, uWfcVVV], d> 'AA?|^vS^ %di TOV Tl<p'6V 



(a) 9 0%v$e t dx,sitg.'] Not " the name of a city, as is gene* 
u rail) inydginecl, but the name of an Indian people." 

(h) nZv yafy &c] a For every exploit -of yours seemed 
" to fall short, as far as it appeared to be performed by a 
" God. 



B\ 



AIAA. xa\ *A%iXxUjg ^ 'AvriXo%v. 

Homer ridiculed, for making the other world a worse state than 
the present, in the following verses spoken by Achilles to 
Ulysses, when he (Ulysses) went alive to hell, to consult Tire- 
sias the prophet, in Odyss. xi. 

BaAd/^tsv x' l7;ot,pxp(&> lav $-/treU{A£V #AA« 
'Av^i zrag unhide*, co fMi flier®* •fraA.VS eity 
*R 7rclci ygx,vs<rcrt KotrapQ iftwotGriv uvarsruv* 

J ANT. — dec mrpayv, 'A^AAfy, izpog rlv 'Oovarisc, cot e'l'pirxi' 
tfsp} rS H^olvutx, &$ kyzvvvi *§ avetfyct, roiv oi^ao-KciXoiv ufttybh) 
Xeip&vog re Kj <&oiviK®>. 'Hxgoauw yu^ o7rore s(fftii flxtecrzoti 
£7rapxp®> ml) S-qrevsiv arct^a rivi rcov axXqguv, co (i* flier®* 
-zroXvg e/'u, uciKXov vi ^civrcov uv&o'Teiv rm vex^av. Tavrot, f/Jv 
%v uyevvvi rtvx <$>pvyo&-, $uXov 3 k} sn^ot, rQ xahZ$ i^ovr®* (pi'koZoHrt 5 
~i<rcr)$ tvpyv Asys.'v* rov TLn^-Wg Js vlov rov <PiXox,i»ovvoTetTcy vi^coum 
a,7r£vrav, ruTretvu *ra trip) alrx aiav6&7(rB'ai, t&oXXh uiG m %vvn- i #7 
he&VTiirvis zrpl'f ra •o>-gwg«y / «sy« coi zv r® flirt)' og } s|$v k-A'kiodg h 
<rvi <P$tdn$t -zroXvfcPoviov flc&G-iXeii£iv<, &zm -zrp^setXx rov psta r7-,g 
etyetOyg Sa'fsjs B-etietrov. AXIA. 5 Q. -&&} tlU'OP®**, ^AA# rore f&h 10 
&7rei(>®' irt rm evr&vS-ct orir, id to fliXrw ex.eivoov o7roreoov v\v 
uyvoisVi to ovenvov sxelvo ciczdpicv (nf^oeri^ojv rU fliig. N2v ?g 
cvvivjui y,dYij cog sxuvq uiv #v#^sA*js, k^ u (a) ort paPurct 01 javoj 
fa-fyt&owi&irc piTct. vsitgav 2s oftorifAia. K#i %re to xkxx®* 
ixuvO) co AvTiXoftij £rs % icr%vg -zretgsftv aXXcs, k5ijlis§gi cciifavTiglS 

V7rb TO) OtVTM Zotyto OfJLOltt, KJ %>&,? kVlV UX^XCOV liL&tpi^QVTlS. Kat 

grs o't rcov Tpam wt^ot izdiari [as* kn ol rSv 9 A%cuw S-£?a7rs vh- 
c-iV t(rr t yo^ioi dl ux.^iZhsi *} vtx,po$ o[&oi@>>} i' ^h xctxoS) i^ ?§ 
jo*rTAo§. Teivrapte kvicf id ky/Qo^ui, hri pavi &iqtzv&> Z$v. 'ANT, 
Opa$ rt kv <kv rig GrdQot, £> 'Aftihhtvi Totvret, yap zho%i rj? (pvast^ZO- 
'zravrag aTroQvvKrxsiv uttolvIms* "Q^s %£v t Ipipimv r« vofcS^ Kj w^ 
uvici(?§-ui roi$ oiMTtT~Kyu,zvo*$. J/ AAA& ; $ re* o\pag rcov irctiO-M hero; 
<srtpjk a Wph ads j Merx ffiixplv V* i£ 'odvcravg csfti^srm 



(a) on.'] Perperam in omnibus libris excusis scribitur u 
p£ o\ rt polxifx, cum sit scribendum or} pa\i?a } c; maxime/' 
ut dicitur orl rc&%ifc&, " celerrime." Grxviust 

y 2 



52 

(a) •ar«vT6/$. <b*£Zi 2s -RtAooLUvQitM j§ i xotv&tviu rS -3rp&yuwT<&>, 
xj to [m [tovoy uvrov tvre7ro)>favc&i. c Op&$ tov 'H^xA^, £. tov 
MeXzaygov, i§ ctXXzg $ctv(M,u?%s Sv3^«5> «?? &« Sv oiuui, §s|#<VTfl 
ctyiX&eiv) f/r^ uvrxg avuwipij/eie S"virev<rovlot$ olkXy^o^ *J ty&totf 

* uvo^oia-iv j AXIA. 'ErutgtKti [tiv v\ (rsxapuivttng. 'E^ts Sg £?t 
did o*r&>$ t) [tvqpvi Tcoy <&xqca ?ov /si cv uvtcb, oi[ioti, 2g ^ y^i/ exettrov* 
El as. f&q ofioXoysiTe, rcbvry %iip*g Wt> x*ct$r io-o^iuv c&vto -eclc- 
%ovres. 'ANT. Otlx' *AA' cipeivzg, a 'AfciXXsv. To yk% 
uva<pzteg tS Xiyiiy o^&piv. 3Zt&>7rZv yufy *£ tp'ipeiv* >£ avi%er$-etti 

*v diSolxt afftTvy [Mi k} yzXarot otyhapev, ciu-nri^ cy 3 toiuvtol zv%o'[tzvoi. 



(a) s-«vt«5.] For good and all, when dead; and not, as he 
lately came, alive, and to return again to life. 






AlAA. *£'. Msvivrirx >£ T-uvrate. 

The absurdity of Tantalus's punishment. 

MEN.' — T/ KXccistg, co T#,y\aXi- q ri ceavrov odigy. Ins t»j 
jitftvy £$•&>$$ TANT. "Ot/j co WLivwxi, a7roXcoXu vvo t« dityag, 
MEN. Oiirag apyog si, ig [mi iTrtfci/^/etg zrielv, h ^ vh A*'#gt>G-#- 
/tfcfv(^» %0/Ap t? /CSi£t ; TANT. OtJ'Jev o^eA®-* 5; i7rtit(y$sxt[Ai* 

5 cpevyst y&(> ro vo&fp, iTreioav sugotriovToi aitrS-qTui [is, sN Hv os ^tot£ 
h} u^vvotifM) £ &go<7evi[z,6> too fOfAUTi, a (p&ttv&J /3gsf«s attgov to 
j£g7A(§K ^ J<# t# v dctKTvXcov ototppvh, %>c ota o7srcog ccvS-igJ&7roX?,l- 
wu |j)P«v t^v y.s'tpei u.a, MEN. Tepeifioy ri -zracfciig) co TuvlocXe* 
At<&/5> e*frz[t,*t) ti yap diy r% -urinv ; & yct^ capsi 2%a$ uaa ijcstyo 

10 [iXy h Avoiu -&% Ti^-ccprrcii, or:e^ j£ iruyqy t£ 3<%J/jfy Idvvxro' <rv §g 
« y/Vfcq, mag av in yj 01^/dm, n <nriyoi$ 3 TANT. T^t uvto yj 
TtOAocvig !$■;, to S^ijiv ^y 7«v 'fyvftw cog q- co [tot. %<ruv. MEN. 
5 AAA<i tSta [th t&r» ftrt<3-ev<?ct>[i,iv, lire} (pig t£ dttyzi xoam^zg-B-xi. 
T/ §' ky <roi to ?e;yov i^Uf; *J 3sS<«$ [Mi'lyieicc rhs <wotS omoQcivYiq $ 

15 *f;£ og® yte% ojAAov ^gT£i t£tqv oi^vv, n $~gIvutov tyrsvOev etg ZTi^ty 
to'ttov* TANT. s QpS-cog [ch xiystg. Ku} tQto 3' yy [t,zp^(&> ?ng 
xMT^imSy to iTr&vpsly w.ielv, ft,v$h dzopevoy. MEN. A«{f?^ a» 



53 



vq At a* ogt$ rxvavrtov ro7g v7ro tcou Xvttcovtcov x.vvav aedviy^voiq 

ft?i7rO])S~&Sl k TO V^£, uXXct 7V}Y ^t-^/CiV -ZvStp6&Yi[£ZV(5?->, TANT» 
Ov^l T09 iXX&OpOV, 6i MzVt7T7Ti 9 XyXlVO^Ul -ZTieHv' yiVOiTO [AOt 

[aovov, MEN. 0#ppe/, co ToivtuXs* Ey /o"3v, ag %n ^v, are 
uXX(&> -zrierui tcov vexpdv' a^vvarov ya^. KctiTot £ arcWTSg) 

yovrog* 



AIAA. xy\ MivtTrins i£ Alux.%. 

Menippus sees the curiosities in hell, and makes his remarks upon 
them. He is waited upon by one of the judges. 

MEN. — Tlp^bg t% ITA£t#v(§H, co Atxn.1, ta-ipuiyv l (rat pot to, h «3g 
-zs-dvloc, 'A1AK. Ov p^?;ov ? cb Mivi7C7n^ uvrcivlci* "Ora f&zvTOt 
vLi<pot,\cx,',®hYi: pavSavt* Ovrotr) ph oti KspCsgof W*v oirS-cf ^ tov 
?s-op$-{ata, T8Toy 5 og eg iiiTriyae'i, '<§ rhv Xtpwiv, ^ tov UvgttyXeyiOtvl a 
>j§jj lapobxotglo-tdv. MEN. Ol^oc Tctvroi,^ j£ o~l> oTizrvXaoilg. Koct 5 
tov ficio-iXscc si§oy 5 j£ Totg 'Epivvvg. Tb'j T ctv6gd7r%$ pot rgg -zrc&Xai 
$u%ov, i£ puXi^cc t%$ IV/W^a* avTcov. 'AIAK. Qvt(&> ph 'Ayct- 
(Aif^vav* kr(&> §' 'A%iXXsvg' %r(&> 3g 'lltopivivg (utXyiciov* "EttziJcc 
^OivPcrtvsi i\rcb A/as?, >£ Aiopvihvkg, Kj oi Hpirot tcov e EAA$jv#v. 
MEN. Bat£a}, e, 0{&vipe i old (rot tcov jovtyuitm ru xitydXatx ^ctpat 10 
tppiTrlc&i, tbyvatfet, *£ kpiogtyst) XAVtg -zzcivloi, j£ A^(^» <aroXvgy 
(a) etftwvivvb cog ccXn^cog xdonvcc, Ovr(&> Jg, co A\vm, Tig \?i ; 
3 AIAK. ILvpog \?iv. Ovr<&> S$ KgaT*-^' §' vttI% c&vtov E#p- 
oc&vc67T&X(&>' vttI(> TXing^ Mi^ag' lx.z7v(&> §g Hs^|>jf. MEN. 
"Eirci e-gj co KuQct^Ltcii i 'EAA^j spfiirls fyvyvvvlot ph tov *EAA^(7- 15 
7rov\c))y (b) 2;i4 §a ta;v oguv <&Xi7v Z7riS~v{4,£vTo 5 — (c) O/oj Ss ^ 



(a) UftlVYlVCt.'] IldvliS S 5 £<V/y 0^^ VeXVM U^iVVIV66 xigviw 

Horn. 

(b) S<* Sg t^v og^fy.] After Xerxes had invaded Greece* 
with an army (as Justin relates) of ten hundred thousand 
Hi- n> he cut a channel across the neck of the peninsula, 
upon which mount Athos stands, in Macedonia, that he 
might have it to say, he sailed over, or through, mountains. 

(c) Oiog.} What a vile wretch. 



54 

i K^7cig l?i ; Tov 2#pS#v«##Adv Jg, a A/Wg, W?«|#* t uot ftalcb 
xopfa l7riT^e^/ov. 'AIAK. Mv^apag' itaS-gwj/us yu% ctvrx to 
xgc&viov yvvociKtiov ov. MEN. Ovkxv uXXot -srpoa-7f\v\o^ot,l ye 
mrotfleag avdgoyvvuov] t. 'AIAK. B&Ag; 2g trot In ibii\oo j£ risgo-o^iig; 
6 MEN. N'/j Atcc yi. AIAK. Tl^ar^ krog croi o UvQayo^xg i?/« 
MEN, X#?£g, co (a) EtfpegSs, (b) $ "AtoAAov, jj 0, rt av WiX-ng. 
IIY0. N«, 9tj o-v ygj a Mzvi7T7rs. MEN. Ovtt sti (c) X^vvxg o 
f&V)£OS S?t croi $ IIY©. Ov yoig. 'AAA# <pggg i'J#, tin <roi t^adipcj 



(a) EvPtfie.'] Pythagoras held that the souls of men, after 
a certain time spent in hell, returned to life again, and passed 
into a new set of bodies. As a proof of this, he affirmed 
that he himself had been Euphorbus, at the siege of Troy j 
and, to prove it, said he knew the shield of that warrior, 
which he saw hung up in one of the Grecian temples. 

(b) 5 v A^-oAAov.] He was of so beautiful a person, that his 
scholars used to call him the Hyperborean Apollo. Diog. 
Laert. Lib. viii. Segm. 2. Lucian calls him by these names, 
in derision of his vanity, in having endeavoured to pass for 
these persons. But it was not so much vanity, as a sort of 
pious fraud in him; because he thereby proposed the re- 
formation of men; as will appear by the next note. This 
shews us the necessity there was of a real Divine Reformer. 

(c) %£v<r& o pv£>$-~\ i£lian says that Pythagoras shewed 
his golden thigh, at the public games of Crotona; and that 
he was seen, that very day, at Metapontum, another city of 
Italy. Apollonius, too, relates the same facts ; but neither 
gives us any account of the grounds of this fable of his 
golden thigh. See iElian. Lib. ii. cap. 26. and Apollon. de 
Mirabil. 

If I may guess at the foundation of all these strange things, 
I should be apt to think that, as Pythagoras was engaged 
in reforming the Crotonians and Metapontines, two cities 
entirely sunk in luxury and debauchery, the better to enforce 
his new laws, and to give them an extraordinary sanction, 
he contrived to pass for a very wonderful person, or, rather, 
something more than man. His great skill in mathematics, 
too, by which he passed with some for a conjuror, mi^Iit 
have contributed to establish this notion of him. 



55 



i Tsni^ai i%u. MEN. Kvduxc, a 'yx&L rf Q,sz (a) a? txto V6i 
idadtpov* ITY0. Aog povov c&XXct, Tus&Qoi mc(>o7s (b) doy { ucilc&. 



(a) *r r$ri c-ot eidhu.ov.'] Pythagoras did not allow the 
eating- of any living creature, but would have men live upon 
all wholesome vegetables, except beans. Maiiy fabulous 
reasons are given for his forbidding the eating of these : 
such as, that they resemble the human parts of generation : 
that their stalks are like the gates of heli, because they 
have a thorough passage, or one continued tube within 
them : that, if you expose them, boiled, for a certain num- 
ber of nights, to the moon, they will turn to blood. Diog. 
Laert. in Pythag. and Lucian in Btav n^c But the true 
reason, probably, was that given by Cicero : u Ex quo etiara 
" Pythagoricis interdictum putatur, ne Faba vescerentur, 
u quod habet inflation em magnam is cibus, tranquiilitati 
" mentis, vera quserenti, cont^ariam. ,, Lib. de Divinat. 
Several also are of opinion that, under Pythagoras's precept, 
about beans, was couched advice to his scholars, that they 
should not endeavour to become Kvccpsirdu, Fabh eiecti (for 
it was usual to elect magistrates with beans) ; that is, that 
they should not subject themselves to the evils of ambition. 
See Xen. Apomn. Demosth. Scholiast, in Orat. cont. 
Timocrat. Sc Plut. in Puer. Educat. 

(b) $oypdl&.~] The of union* of the Philosophers were, 
peculiarly, so called. 

(c) xityxXxt tokvm,~\ KsfxXhn as Stephanus shews, hath 
been used as a term in anatomy, signifying the extremity 
of a bone, or other part. u Item (says he) superior in tes- 
" ticulo pars mpxXv *%%£#* dicitur. inferior -&i6pr,v.' 9 — Now, 
as there is no account, at least t tat I can find, that Pythago- 
ras thought beans more like the parts of generation of parents 
than those of children, but thai they resembled such parts 
in general, I am apt to think that Lucian must have writ it 
x.s(p#Xcci o£%qaf. For, where has xeQxXk by itself, ever sig- 
nified testiculus? And. if it had, why should Lucian alter, 
or limit, the doctrine of Pythagoras, who forbade the eating 
of beans, not because they resembled the parts of generation 
in parents only, but those in all human, or perhaps, living, 
creatures ? ToKiw is put for ro^im 7 lonice. 



56 

AlAK. Oyr©*> Sg IloXuv o 'E^vine c/S», ?£ ©#Ajk \x,iiy&> % y^ nag 
avriig* nirle&xos) yy 01 aXXot. (a) 'E^Ii §s Gravies i\eh< cog ogotg. 
MEN. ''Ahwrot xrot co A\a>ti, p,ovoi >d Qa^^cl tcov aXXoov. c O ol 
G-7TOOZ .nrteeosj i'e-arsg lyx^vQiag &£?(&>-. o Tats (pAvx-l CllVO&lS <>A©* 

5 (b) t%Yiv0yx.ag 9 rig Ig-iv - } A IAK. 'E^tts^A^, coMivi7T7ri, ipUtyS-®* 
U7ro tvis AtrvYis Tva^cov. MEN. ^12 (c) %aXK67rv fiixnrtfri Grot,- 
B-m criavrh \g rtsg (d) x^aT^ag mQctXsg ; 'EMIT, (e) MiXay- 
%oXia Tig, co M r cvi7T7rs. MEN. Ov pa A/#, aXXa xivo^ofya-, *£ 
ti^(3)->, f£ T&oXXh (f y xogv^a. Tavia tri uTr^v^^axcoav avTaig 

10 x.(>Y,7r t<7iv is*, a^09 ovra. TlXvv <£AA S sSsv as to <7o(pi(rpa covYinV 
itpagaQyg yag TS&vio>U. — 'O YuxfUTing 2s, co Ataxi srS tsoti a^a 
l?i\ AIAK. MsTtft Nig-o£(&> Kj (g) liaXap^ag btiiv(&> Xq^ii r# 



(a) 'Etttu.'] The seven wise men of Greece. The four, not 
mentioned here, were Chilo, Bias, Periander, king of 
Corinth, and Cleobulus. 

(b) Igjfirfij***.] Who-hath-brcke-out with blisters. A meta- 
phor, from the breaking out or budding of trees or flowers. 

(c) xetXxoTra.'] See your dictionary, for Empedocles. 

(d) xgfl6T?g#$«] K^-ni£, properly, signifies c cw/z. The 
caverns of the burning mount -^Etna were, in Greek, called 

KgaTtgeg. 

(e) MeXci¥%i\ict rig.'] After Menippus had asked, n'irx6a>f 9 
it is odd that Empedocles should answer in this nominative 
case. But, perhaps, it is natural, in a cursory discourse, not 
to be, upon all occasions, so very exict as to answer, directly, 
in the case of the question : or, perhaps, the speaker, here, 
meant to say, MsXay^oXia Tig ?. " It was some madness." 

(f) Ko^vtfitJ] Stephanus shews, from Galen, that all the 
old physicians used to call, to 3;<& tcov pivov kxxgivopwev ly^oi 
Mtftov, the thin jluid secreted through the nostrih by the name 
of xo\vla. We often see madmen and idiots troubled with 
this defluxion ; whence we call them drivellers 5 and hence, 
I su; pose, the Greeks gave the name of xogv^a, or driveU 
ling, to madness. 

(g) naXapQzg,] Socrates, upon his trial, spoke thus to 
the Athenian judges: w If death be but a journey hence to 
" another place, and it be true, what is reported, that all 
" who died are there, what greater good, judges, can befall 
44 a man, than there to converse with those just judges, 



5f 

tb-oX^u. MEN. %} 0po)$ IZ%xI/mv <Js7v ecvrbv, it'iev Iv3-*3e \?f9* 
AIAK. *O^S$ rov $ ccXmjcqov $ MEN. "Attmvtis tyoc,\oe,x.£6i u<rif° 
iVs vrcivrav av uq tSto to yv a gurnet. AIAK. Tov ctf^ov Agy*. 
MEN. Kat rx& opatov* etfto} y<£% cincivTis- Z£2KP. Eftl £pTU$, 
*> Mivt7T7iij MEN Kozi [tci\a< ulZa&getTig. ZHKP. Tiraiv 5 
'Ad'Jjyccis j MEN. IIoAAoi rav vwv (ptXocotpiTv xiyxa. Kai re* 
yi rfcipetrct avroi, i£ ?&. fiadi'e'uxToc i\ B'iUcrxiTo rtg-s a.x.^01 <£><Ao- 
rcQot pdXx, (a) zroXXoi* Tot §' a\Xa la^cttcet^ tifAett, oi@-> fat 
sra^ci <roi (b) 'Ag/V^sr^K id YlXcirav oevrog* f/Av uTrowviM pvg%) 
• 2s t%s tv 2/xsA/a* tv£*vviss (c) fre £oe,7riVHV ixpotSw, 2&KP. 10 



<fi Minos, iEacus, and Rhadamanthus, and with Palamedes, 
* or Ajax, or any other who hath died by an unjust judg- 
" ment ?" Plat, in Apolog. 

I think it somewhat probable, then, that Lucian, here, 
placing Socrates in the particular company of Nestor, a 
righteous man, and of Palamedes, who had suffered by a 
false accusation, is a kind of a gibe upon the above passage 
in Plato ; as if he made iEacus (when Menippus had asked 
him for Socrates) to say, " O ! yonder he is, to be sure, 
" comforting himself with Nestor and Palamedes, his 
" fellow-sufferers, whose company he so much longed for." 

(a) sroAAa/.] Immediately after this ^roAAoi, the MS goes 
on thus : SfiKP. MxXcc 3r©AAg£ ia/g*K«. MEN. 'AAA' l^^etx.tcg 9 

OIUC/A, OlOq i -BraLgeC <T6l A^klTCWOS, *£ UXtiTcav UVTQS, fth) &c. 

Gr<zv. 

(b)"' 9 Ag*W?r*$.] This philosopher (if he deserves that 
name) held that the gross pleasures of the body were the 
Mummum bonum. 

(c) Qigzirevei* ixpetdaiv.'] Plato went thrice to Sicily. 
Firsts to see the wonders of the burning iEtna ; at which 
time he incurred the displeasure of the tyrant Dionysius 
the elder, by telling him that his words Tvppuwiao-tV) savoured 
of tyranny ; for which he would have been put to death, 
but for the generous and humane Dion, brother-in-law to 
the tyrant. His second expedition was to take possession 
of some lands promised him by Dionysius the younger, in 
which he was to make an experiment of that famous form 
of government which he hath left us in his works : but 
Dionysius broke his word with him: upon which, it was 



58 

Us q) Ipzs Se rt(p%6Vif<riv i MEN. Ev^ai^sovy go *2mx,£c6TI$< %v&p6>7r(&* 
u rciyi tqimvtcc,. Tlc&vlsc, kv o~i S-ctvptartoy oiovtcci avo^^a yiyevvr 
erB-ai* t^-srcivTa iyvcoTtkvou (a) tolvtx, (dityccfy o'.poit, T*.XyQl$ Xtystv) 
%$lv il^ora. S12KP. (b) Kc/.t civTog i<p<z<rx.ov TocvToi e&-p)>g acvTZg' 
5 otoe. ug&yziotv, a-ovio to zrpjkypoi uvea. MEN. Tm$ §& irot ilriv 
ci <arip\ <?l j EI2KP XcigfAioM) oo Mzvi7T7r&., k) <PctHd^(^ 9 k} o t2 
KXuvtx. MEN Evys, ILtompcvvi^ on KuvTuvfra /ttsrs; t^v o-tuvTX 
rzX f VYiv< y$ %x hXtysipttg tgov kkXgov SflKP. Ti yoi-e, w #AAo Y,$16V 

'3FgUTl0i(L&l o AXXU SrX^CriOV V)fA6>V XO&TCDCUCrO, ii OOKll. MEN- Ot3, 

10 pot Ai • &ri rbv HLgottrov yag >£ IZctpoebvuTrciXov <X7rapti. "zrXvicrfv oIk^* 
cav ccvtmv. "jLoi&of, yxv kx, oXtyx yiXetcrzfrS-oiiy otfAa^oyruv uyAmv. 
AIAK Ko&yo) r,dn U7riifA^ (&v) z,ai Tig yjfzxg viitgM Xu$- o'txtpvyav. 
1u zsoXXa 2' la-ocvB-ig o^si, a M.ivi7F7Fl» MEN. "AnriOt* Kect 
TKVTt yot.% IXOtVCt, GO AlOiiCi, 



thought, he put Dion and Theotas upon dethroning him. 
It is, at least, certain, that he was obliged to a letter, which 
the philosopher Archytas wrote to Dionysius, in his favour, 
for his escape from Sicily and this second tyrant. The third 
time he went to make up matters between Dion, then much 
suspected at court, and Dionysius, who still had a veneration 
for Plato : but, failing in this, he soon returned home. 
Diogenes Laertius, Lib* iii. S. 18, in substance, gives us the 
above account ; in which we see rather the contrary of any 
servile attendance upon the tyrants of Sicily \ so that Lucian, 
here, probably, takes an injurious and saucy liberty with the 
divine Plato's character. 

(a) iavT(A ] These things, which we now see, here in hell- 
Socrates was wont to say, that a daemon or genius signified, 
beforehand, to him, what was to come : "JLXiyi cti xj .wgoo-pxi- 
vety to etai/aoviov Ttt p&xxcvlct xvtw, Diog. Laert. Lib. ii. 
Seg. 32. Which notion is what Menippus, here, pretends 
to ridicule. 

(b) Ku< uvTos itparKov.'] The Delphian oracle pronounced 
Socrates, the wisest of men: which, after much enquiry, he 
himself discovered to be true, in this respect only, that he 
alone had found out that he knew nothing. And this he 
often declared. See Plat, in Apolog. 



59 

AIAA. xS\ Minima £ Ksg'osg*. 

Lucian's death of Socrates. 

MEN. — ?£l K.i(>?>spsi {<?v[ysvvq yd% tlpi a-6i^ uvm j£ etvrog &v) 
1W1 pot -zargog rng 'Zruyhg, oi(&> h o S&jk^&ths, ofton xaryit &?pcg 
vuoig. Elzog Ss ez ®sqv ona* p?A vXo&KTity ^ovov, c&'XXa Kj avQ^M- 
7rix,&t (pCiy/trS-Mi) ottot i&zX&tg, KEPB. Uipp&fav ptv 9 m Minimi, 
sravrcc-Trcc^'iv Iootcu arpiiriQt nrpfMrayr® trpotrtzvoit) Kj % ■^tolvv diottvsti 
<rov B-eivetrev ^qkcov, j£ rar iptyvivm (a) Tnlg i%& rS ?quih keacit 

KO&yW STt dtXftiXXoVTM C&VTO'J (b) %0LKM TO) X&VZIV, X MTiC 7? OCCrO!, T# 

wcSfljj a>Wsg ret figipn (c) s&&te,vS) ^ rci z&vtx -stxthict, a^v^iTo, 



(a) 7o~$ s|a>.] To the world. 

(b) Kc-jveic? dcucM.*] The representing Socrates lingering in 
great fear, at the entrance of hell, till Cerberus comes and 
drags him down by the foot, is a natural allegory, signify- 
ing that Socrates was very loth to quit this life, and did still 
put off his departure, till, at length, death seized him fast, 
and hauled him away, in spite of him. Yet, I cannot but 
think that Cerberus breaks through this allegory, when, in 
his private capacity of a dog, he says, he bit Socrates with 
hemlock; for this seems strained and unnatural. How- 
ever, it is reconcileable to sense, by taking Cerberus, when 
he says, xmu'w ^autav, for death ; because death may, indeed, 
be naturally said to seize Socrates «ws/a» with the hemlock, 
or the juice of hemlock, which was the poison he had drank. 
K&vetoir is reckoned to be rather a sort of plant, like our 
hemlock. 

(c) Eje#x&s.] I know no account of Socrates's death of near 
such authority as that given by his scholar Plato; in which 
that philosopher appears with such intire resignation, exalted 
courage, and majesty of reason, that I think Lucian (who 
also could not possibly have abetter account) a most affected, 
injurious, and envious traducer, for treating his character 
with this indignity. His dying, as he did, seems a strong 
argument that he was (as some eminent Christians allow 
him to be) inspired: for scarce any thing, less than the coib 

G 



60 

f§ ^avrotog lyiviro. MEN. Ovkxv <?o<btg-\g o &v$£6)7r@~> y)v, #£ arat 
aXv&aq ytctTi (pgovzt tx srg#y^T@- ; KEPB Ovfc. 'AAA 9 \%ifci£ 
etvotyx-ettov ct.vro id get, Kctr$&^otrvv€TO : dg Sjj0sv £•« #«#!* «arsico^&ev@K, 
§ ardvrcag sJg< «r«&3-giV, dg $-otv[AUreJV7oti ot 3~£cCTect\ Km} oXag, issi^t 
5 -Zooivrc-jv yi rdv rotxrM iWitv &v z%otpti. lag tS ?o/aix ToA^goi, ^ 
«y^g7oi, t^ ?' g'vSoS'gv, (a) sAgyv;©^ aKg&vg. MEN. "Eya; Ss sr#£ 
rot Ke&TiXqXvS'ivoit ido^ot $ KEPB. Move?, Mzvt7r7re 9 a\ioog rx 
yiv%$) 7^ Atoyivr.g mr^o g'%' oti (t&h dvoty-Aot^o pivot Ivytru fAVio 
d@'dpevot) aXX l&iXxrtoij yiXdvTig ? o'tpdCitv wct^u,[yiiXetvlis 
10 MTrotctv. 

stancy, cheerfulness, and hopes, of a martyr, appears in his 
behaviour. 

(a) gAgy^®-*.] This word, in the masculine gender* as 
here, signifies a proof; in the neuter, a scoundrel* 



AlAA. ki . Xa^&jvog *y Mivi7T7m. 

A scuffle between Charon and Menippus, about the votvMh 
or ferry-piece. 

XAP. — 'Atto^s, d Ko&rdgeirt, tcc i&ogCp&tet. MEN. Boa, st 
t^ro e*et 5} 3<o v, d Xugw. XAP. 'AQrodog* <P/ t ui- dvS~ oov o~l dt$7ro^* 
uiVG-dpw* MEN. Ovk &v XdZotg Tzoi^d tS [W X^oiTog. XAV. 
"Eft §g Ttg h&oXov (t\ i%aw , MEN. Ei plv ^ aXXog rig, k%> o't^cc' 
5 \yd Sg, %*> ifcti* XAP. Keel pviv t*y|# ri vh rh IIX«rtovM 7 d pictgl 7 
iv u?a dnohag. MEN. ILotyd toj %vXa> (b) o-£ <arotTu%ctg 7 o~i&Xv<?& 
to xeetvi'ov. XAP. (c) MaTYLV sv %&% -zriTrXivzdg tosStov wX%t i 



(b) rSfO Aftf. Gr*v. 

(c) M«sW, &c.J Gravius says, the sense here is, "Then 
" you Shall* to no purpose, have made this so great a passage, 
* since you have not brought your ferry-penny.' ' As if 
(I suppose) even his having gotten over should still not 
avail him. 



61 

MEN. e O 'E^uqg vrrl^ \yJ% <roi ty.7ro^or&fj og fit Tsrctgioaxi rot» 
EPM. Npj At a omtfAWi s* piXXo) ys ^ v7npix\lviiv tcov viy-p^oov* 
XAP Ovx. u7ro$vi76p,ot,i o~%. MEN. T»r« ye wcx, vecoXxya-Mg to 
GropS'ueioy. moLP*tf&M m tsXv>v uXX o y$ (&h s«£ft>, <arag av Xu'voig ', 
XAP. S-v 3' »« v^ug cog xepiZpii ^iov ; MEN. v h3s*v ^sv, £» 5 
fi%ov 3«. T* jjv j 'E^psJv S;c^ tSto ^i «5Tfl0*vg?vj XAP. Movo$ av 
t6v%qo~2ig Tz-P6ix.cz <ar£-7r?^vKZvoLi ; MEN. Oy tBrgol'-tu^ co faXfl&S* 

X.2,1 yUp Y>\)y\YjG'U) y^ T^C K.m'KM WtXxZofAHV, ^ %%, cKXcCiOV fttOVC$ T"C0¥ 

uXXsov hrte&r&v. XAV. Ovdh rtovra <&plg tg& ■zzopQpiGt,. Tov 
oooXov uTro^xvoit <n Ser 4* yx& S'tptg aXX&g yivitrScii* MEN* \0 
Ovizxv c'.Tidy&tyi ^s oth^ng \g rev fiiov. XAP. Xstgtsv Xiyug*, ivot, 
*£ TSXrfyag 17?} f&r,v tsret^a rz Aiai&zs <urpG<rXez-e&. MEN. My 
ivoftXst kv. XAP. As7|ev rt \v r« ^njgac %s*$. MEM. (a) ©sg- 
^t*S, ti SiXeis, f§ ?%$ 'Exc&rqg to oufrvof. XAP _ IlflS-gy rSrev j^/v, 
&) E&tMi, taw fcvite >5y^-y5? j 0/# #s xj v\XclXu -zsotpot, tov GrX%V) t^v 15 

hr&C&T&V U7CttVT6)V KOLTviylXxV }£ \%l7X.m7kT0)V^ x\ /&dV0$ UO&V) 

6ipt,6i£pvla}9 iKiitm 3 EPM 'AyvofT^, &» X#g#v, o7ro!ov mvqpx, 
(Hiirop& l u,svG'oig ; tXiv&tgov ax^ivag* x.hdivog &vt£> [azXu. Ovrog 
znv MiV'7T7rog» XAV. K&i fJjv av erg Xa,c& ar-ori. MEN. 'Ay 



But, a friend thinks that this interpretation of Gravius 
enfeebles the sentiment, and is unnatural, and that the true 
sense certainly is: " And so you shall have made so great 
a voyage gratis" Which is the received sense. 

(a) €%^) &c] See the notes upon the 8th dialogue. 



AIAA. *f. Aioyhzs *£ M.av_G-aXXm 

The Vanity cf Mausclns's monument, which was one of the seven 
wonders of the world. 

AlOr. — '£2 K^£a to?* Ttvi (utyot. ty^zvugs >£ <&uvto<)v npA&v Trgort- 
p,oicr$-cci uhotg ; MAYS. Kai \ie\ Tvj fiouptXiiot, /u,lv« a 2**4WSy, S5 
u,ct<riXiv<jcc Kcc^tccg itiv UTrua-Yjg^ jig|a6 dl y^ Av^&v ivlav' £ vi&f 
h Tivag vmnyotyttrnv. ^ ^XV MuXktz lm%w, tu rsroKXa, tzs Ims #4 



f/2 

xttrctfgt<p )/Urtv(&>* Kxi xxXog ^ yj f^iyxg^ ^ Iv tttotepoig xaflz- 
gog. To di it'iyifQV) on tv AXixxpvxcra^ fAvvijAX zirxfifAZyiHg sv* 
Wix.iif*&v*V) yjAiKov &'<t ajiX®* vix^og^ aX\* ts^i vr&g \g xoixX&-> 
t%K<rx.riiLt'iV0V) nrvrm t£ oIvcpmv ig to xx^iZWxtov iixxufAivm XtQx 1 5 
5 xetWtW oiov %oz viOJii iv^p rig uv pxoimig, Ov ooxa croi o*txxtst)g Wt 
mxroig piyx (p^ovilv ; AIOT. Etti rvj fixcriXitx. £>»$, x) ra xd\Xn, 
9ti r£ fixeii tS t^j MAYS. Njj Ai'itti rvmo.g: AlOT. 'AAA', . 
& xotXi Mxva-&)X2) %rz q lo")/vg zri crot iKUw, un i (xo^-pv\ zrdpeg-tv. 
Ei yyv nvx IXoi^Jx dixufh iv^o^Ug <nr'i£t, &x frfcoj lhrs7v mt'y&» 

'® ivix.cn, to gov xqavioy 7&%6TiftY)$tiiri av rz l ( u,% <&xb.xxpx yap a[A'$a), 
s£ yvuvd) *£ Tag oiovrxg ofioj'&g zr^Qxivopw* k} rug oipQxXpxg 
aPygiqfAsQet,, t£ rag ptvxg a#6(risrtpt&£ti0x. 'O ol Tct(p>&», t£ oi 
•zr&XvnXiig ixihei ).iB-oij AXixxj>vx<j(rivirt pt,\v ieag uzv hrtibtxyv- 
crB'etij k} <piXoTL[A,ti<J-~ oil «fpI$ rag %ivxg^ cog oi ri p'lyx elxeaofx^/xx 

* 5 ecvrcTg l?i' ov 0S, &> fiiXrizi. %y o^oo o\ ri UTrohxvetg ocvrx, -zjaIiv 
u jBti t&to (py..) on poihXQv y^soj x%J&(t$opug vttq rnXixhiTOig X&oig 
&i$tyfX£v&>. MAYS* AvoViToc xv pcoi \xifax tzdvrx^ i§ icrortfc^ 
iecit Mxvff , 6)X(&' k} Aioyivn'ti AlOT. Ovx ironf/.®-*, a yivvxiorxn' 
MzlaruXog f&h y&P, ot[&a:%smxi) [AifAvvyJivog mm vsreg yij$, iv oig 

*0iioxtf&6V6?y airo. AioyzvY,g til xxrxyixdo-irxi xvr&. Kxi rdipov 
o f4.h lv AXixxpyxoeea leii zocvrS vtto 'Apmipiriag rn^g (a) yvvacixog 
>& ctdtXQiig xarijXiuxG-fAivov' o Aioyivr,g 2i, r% plv o~c*)U.c6Tog u xeti 
*&x rd$*9 ifa*h * K ciGiv i **& y^P, sptXtv ctvmS t%t%. Aoyov al, 
m&7g M^ig-otg zrtpt avrnzi xxtxaiXoiwiv, kv^pog fit'ov (ZiZiwx&g^ vyy/Ao- 

%5m*p6v, 6,'Kxpm uybp t o&'*cdi?czmi i %£ cri ftnittecros) x^ \v (b) (I&xiqti^-z 



(a) ywf&ixhg Hj xhxQKg.li Some of the heathen kings, 
pleading the fabulous example of Jupiter and Juno, usurped 
the privilege t>f an incestuous and abominable marriage with 
their own sisters ,- I suppose, to confine their wealth and 
interest within their own families. 

(b) fit'Zatolig? %' !j cJ?»'] That is 5 in the esteem of mankind. 



63 

AlAA. k^\ Ni^iag, GsgrtTV, *£ Mm'/t«. 

The vanity of beauty. 

NIP. — 'l3£ Si, M.iwrir6$ xrort $tz.ol(rzi -sroTzpog iip*gplri£o$ 
l?i9. E<7T2, a Mivt7T7»S) » xetXXt&v an do%.£) } MEN. Ttvig ol steel 
Ire ; HgorzgoV} oipott, %£a ydg tSto ei$ivxt» NIP. Ni^ivg *£ 
@>££TiTm. MEN. ttori^Qg N<gav£, #7 tsroTZgog &v o Qsgriririg ; 
Ovh'nrca yds r%r& SijAdy. ©EPS. tN Ey ^sy >j?fl t£t' g;£&>, cri ofioiig $ 
zlui <roi, >£} &3gy Tqhtx,%Tcv ^taty's^ig, qXizoy <rs "Op&vigos lx>uvc<; o 
o rvQXog lvY>n(rev, ct7rdvrav ivfto^oTotrav srgQcriiTr&Y #AA' o <$o%o$ 
lya) } t£ iJ/gdvo$, »Ssy %ug6tv Ipdvwv t% dixsts-yj. (a) " CI got 2g cot, & 
Mevi7r7ri, ovrivet Kj zvftogtyoTigov iyvj* NIP. Euz r%» AyXotfctg j£ 
Xd^ovog, og XrdXhifog oiyjjg vtrVlXiov hl.&ov. MEN. 'AAA ^)iq 
** v^ra yjjy 3 #£ tipcat, xaXXi^og qXfag' aXXd rd pth o<?d optotat* to 

0i TCQOtVlOV, TQtVT? f&OVOV (APOt Ol&ttplVOlTO CiTTO Tg ©5£C*fT« KQOtVlH, OTt 

zv$~(>v7nov t^ civ dX&Traovov ydp otvrb^ Kj %k dv^p^ig $%Ug* NIP. 
ICaci uviv ggy O{&v}(?ov« o7ro7^> ?y, O7ron cvvi^^dTivov To7g A%ccio7$. 
MEN 'Ovit'oetrd ptot Xtyitg. '"Eyat Ss a /SAstt*;, v^ vvv %%&*$' \ k 
htihet oi &i tots JG-<z<7iv. NIP. OvxSv \yh IvJavB-ot svpogtpdrz^og 
tipi) a Mtvi7?7rz } MEN. Ot/rs crv^ grs dxx<&> ivpt6p t $(&> 9 t<ro- 
Itf&jet yctg iy u$%) r^ opto'.ot ciTrcLVTZg* €>£P2. 'Ef&es ph &'tStq 

SKXVOV* 



(a) "Clgz Ss ©<a/.] Gravius hath it, e/ £2g# ^ *•£, See, or, 
consider you $ and quotes a manuscript for the amendment; 
which seems a very good one, because, as the text here 
stands, kiyeto is oddly understood : for I doubt, whether, 
in any Greek author, it be understood in the same man- 
ner. 



G 3 



64, 



AIAA. kvi . Mgv<Wg ;£ Xtigatv(&'. 

Contentment necessary in all circumstances. 

MEN.- — Hk%<?ol*, co (a) Xe/gwv, &>$ ©so? #v ivriv/uiTUotf U7rc$-x- 
Vi7v» XEIP. AXnB-y, tmvt vjtcxG'ei&s, g> MivmTri K.oii rifowa-) wq 
6$$, &6civecT(&> thou dvyciptv (<$>>>. MEN. Ttg §s a 'igaq r» B-atvoirn 
to-%ev, avigd?% ro7g .rs-oXXo'it; %%ipotT(&> ; XEIP. '££# <ar^og cl hx. 

5UCTVVZT0V 6VTM, Q VK YjV 2TI yjOV OL7roXoCVZlV TV$ U^OCVOCClCig. MEN. 
Ojfc V0V %V tJoVTOS, C£UV TO (p&)q • XEIP. O VK, Z MiV 17T7T 'g . Td 

7#g vibv ly&yi <boikiXm t/ ^ h% clttXw yyxpoit uvea. (b) 'Eyu 



(a) Xg/gaui.] Chiron was a centaur ; for, when his father, 
Saturn, was making love to his mother Phillyra, the daugh- 
ter of Oceanus, and his wife Ops was coming upon them, 
Saturn quickly changed himself into a horse, and so begat 
Chiron, partly man, and partly horse. During his youth, 
he kept in the woods, and there made himself master of the 
virtues of herbs, from whence he gave rise to the art of 
healing. At length, one of Hercules's poisoned arrows, hap- 
pening to drop upon his foot, gave him such torturing pain, 
that, though, from his parents, he was immortal, yet he 
begged the gods would favour him with death. Stefih. But, 
as his request is here ridiculed by Lucian, as proceeding 
only from his want of contentment, it is probable that some 
other fable (not come down to us) went of him, in which he 
was represented as he is in this dialogue; and that to shew 
that this life is not the place to be perfectly happy in. But 
Lucian would turn it to its own use. 

(b) 'Eya 3£ Zfi v.] I own I cannot make grammar of this 
sentence, down to avrm inclusive, unless I be allowed to 
change &y~6X%C£vroe, to ixo'teQSvro, and to include some of the 
words in a parenthesis, as follows : 'Ey# 3s £w kii, *§ unoXuvM 
t&v optoi&v, jjA/g, (parks, T^ctpns (ui oo^e&i. *bl olvtca, j£ tc& yiyitoptvoe, 
e&7ra,vTu, $%$$ z%.a,?ov, au7np nuoXx&xvre &UTZgov B-oirt^v) iviirXqo'S'nv 
yiv oLvrm. — I translate this sentence according to this read- 
ing ; but, lest I should be thought to substitute my own mean- 
ing for a better,, take the words of the other translation, and 



65 

3g£a?y vm, j§ ctTttXotvafv ?m opototv, v,x!v, <P#toj, Tgo^fe, (cci agcti oi 
ctvTett, Kj ra yiyvopzvoz ctTretvrcc lf»j$ bkoctov^ coa-iri^ UK&X%$ii9Tot 
S-aTZgov fyctTigv) iviirXio'B'iiv y£v ctvT&v. Ov y&g zv t<5 otvuu au 9 
etXXa. k} zv Tea plTottrfcziv otitic,* to Tipvvht iiv. MEN. Ev Xzyzi$ : a 
Xu'gw. To, h aia %z was <pi%&ts<> &$ % i 7T£ot\opiv(& otvra vkzi$ - y 5 
XEIP. Qvk otA$®$ & Mzvi7T7ri* i ycig \70T0plot esrdvv ovjpoTiKov ft} 
to <ar2ja.yp.0t srjgv z%U to $id$o(>ov zv Q&ti iivett) h zv g-xotu, AXXaq 

TS, Ov'hi 3*%^jfV, Ce77TZP t &V&. &T6 'ZtilVY-V OZi\ #AA UViTTiOZzTg T&T&V 

UTrdvrav lo-pzv. MEN."Og« & Xzig&v py (a) 7riyri-?f\ys crzocvTa, 
k} h to otvTO crot § Xoyoq ^rs^ffji. XEIP. Tla; thto Cpjjj ; MEN. 10 

(b) 'DTI z\ T&V h T& Si* TO OUOIOV US) yy TOtVTOV ZyZVZTO <T6l ■ZTQOQ'- 
X.6PZ5* 1<£ 'IvTCtvQct OpOlOt QVTCt, TS'pOCTKOPYl CpOlCJg kv yZVOiTOj Xj ozvicu 

pZTotZoX'AV yz ^yfiziv Ttvot, id IvTZyhv i$ ItXXov fiiov, ottz^ clpsa 
ctdvvo&Tov. XEIY. Tt %v civ T&clJoi ti$. a/ MZVL7T7TZ ; MEN. Ottz^ 
eipoti' ftoi} (pcnc). fvvztov ovrat otPZTytiG^ot^ t£ uyet7rotv tqis 'srot^gcri) 15 
1% pvibh otbzm ktyignTov oiir&oti* 



compare them with the text, which I have left as I found it : 
*' Verum, cum ego semper viverem, iisdemque fruerer sole, 
" luce, cibo, turn horse eadem recurrerent, reliqua item om- 
" nia, quxcunque contingunt in vita, reciproco qnodam orbe 
" redirent, atque aliis alia per vices succederent ; satietas vi- 
w delicet eorum me cepit. 

The natural signification of ei^a, is temfiestas, a season of 
the year, not hora, an hour. And to take aeoti, here, in the 
secondary meaning of hours, seems to me too trifling - 3 for 
he certainly means the returning seasons of the year. 

(a) -3?EP i i7ri7p\Yfi.'} Stephanus shews that (eregtiriirla often 
signifies, quodam circuitu revolvi, and -srtyirivfleiv lavTa, in 
seihsum incurrere, i.e. secum fiugnare, aut, sibi ifisi contra- 
dictre. And ^eg^S, a little below, he renders, rervoivatur. 

(b) c/ Ot* iij Sec] The particle ^ is so often repeated in this 
sentence, and is taken in such different meanings, that I have 
always known it to create confusion to beginners. I caution 
such, to attend, strictly, to the translation. 



06 



AIAA. xA\ Aieyivtsg, 9 ~Ayrto-3ivit$) k) Kgdrnrtf. 

A pleasant conversation between three deceased philosophers, 
taking a walk up towards the entrance of hell. 

(a) AIOF.— AtTtff&svi$ k) Kp«Tjjj, (?%6>ivv uydfn.iv' «Vs f ** 

&7Uf&zv (b) su9-y tj$s ^6tS"<)?a 3rgp<7rdcr>iVo!>TS?, o-J/o/uivet r%g x.VTtovTXg-> 

etc/ Ting iia-i) *J ri dcxg-og xvrav vroiu j 'ANT. 'Att/^sp, a 

AiOyevtg. Kxl yap civ to B~zxfix vov yivotro. T8$ ph dxxgvovlxg 

* xvtwv opxv 9 TZq %i txzlivovlxg xQi&wxr \vi%g 3s ftoXtg KXTtovTxg, >& 

27? I T^XfflXoV &B-£v7os T« 'E^66», 0(Xa$ UVT&XlVGVTXg, 9$ VTTTl^g 

avisos! etovTxg, %}lv ozov. KFAT. 'JLya yyv *£ ^i^yicro^oci vulv^ a 
si^ov 07T0TI xalyziv*, x,xla Ttjv iaiv, AlOf AiiiyviG-xt, a KpctTYig' 
ioinxg yxg tivx 7xtA,[ylXux i^itv. KPAT. Kxi xXXot fiiv sroXXoi 

lO^vyKxl^xtvov iftiv' \v xvto7$^ iTTirviftoi, 'WfAWohw^og ti o -ZjX%<riog } 
o ifcZTtpog, k) A go 1 xKiqg o lAr-oixg wrx^og, *tj Oqoity& o Agftiviog* 
'O fA.lv &v lo-yy/jVoowpog {Imtpovtulo y*£ v7ro X'^m zrocpx rev KiQxi- 
(Wvots, \g 9 EXiV(/7vX) olusci, fixoi^av) i?&vz ts, s£ to T^xvpa \v txiv 
ytf^otv ii%t) ^ ra srxi^ix ?a vioyvci, x x,xTiXiXoi7ru, mvsxxXmto, 

i ~>£ IXvtm STrsuifAtpiro TY& toX/ayis, og K.iQxtp t ava vTripQxXXav^ f£ tx 
-zjip) Txg 'JLXivS-igag %o£pix "sruvigqf&x ovtx vwo t«>v <&6?>.ifA&v 
cio&iv&v, ovo ftov%g olxirctg hntyiro* t£ txvtx, QixXxg ^ivrt ^ovexg^ 
t^ kvuZ^x tztix^x fAi& iavris s%av. e O a 'Afo-xxvig {yipxiog yxg 

fcSlJ, y$ V*l A/' HK XOSfiVOg TW '(Sty IV \g TO fixp&XQlKOV) HftfaTO, >£ 

c ^ r) iyxvxx.T2i tariQq /3#2/£&;v, 9^ ify'v TOV *7r7T0V XVTU argotretfc&ivxiM 

Kxl yX£ Y%-7T0g XVTM qVV6T$thlix.iti (AlX <5r\vyYl Xf*$0TtgOt $iX7TX- 

PlvTig i/7ro GtpXKog Tivcg <ariXre*G%) iv ?% Z7r) t&> *A%x\y <&pi>g tm 
(c) KxTTTrx^GZ/iV <rviC7r/\&zvj. *0 ph yxg 'Agcr&xrjg Xtt^Xxwiv^ &$ 



(a) AlOr. &€.] Antisthenes was scholar to Socrates, and 
founder of the Cynic sect 5 Diogenes was scholar to Antis- 
thenes, and Crates to Diogenes ; which is the reason why 
these three are joined together, in this conversation. 

(b) iv&v rrjg xxQo<}2.~] Put for Evlv.rip o2h Tiig xx^ol^ 
Steph. 

(c) KaTrTraaoxnv.'] I cannot account for this accusative 
case in «y, the nominative being always, if I mistake not, 
KxTTTrx^o^ the name of a river, from which Cappadocia was 
so called, and the inhabitants Cappadoces. I cannot but 
think the termination «* owing to an error in transcribing. 



67 

vv urixrri uiv vTroovS) u7ro(?usTeci rov A?7cz>ch? xovtov. Ovtc$ oi 
vTrohls ty,v r&gicrrctVs ccvtgv tz iixvugtt *£} tcv Yttttov, 'ANT. H&g 
etiv ts, a K^czryg, ui& .Tz-Xviyvj tzsto yzvzcS-ui ; KPAT. Vu<ra^ & 
AvricB'ivig* O uh yet* hriXavvii, z\>to7>,7rqy J vy nvx tcovtov ??£<>" * 
SeoXr t p£Vo$* 6%dpu\ cl) Ivrnay} ty\ tz'zXty, olttixp^ggcto tkv <sr£aG*«oAyv, 
xj zroc.ptiX$-tv avro'j q dxoix.v n \g yovv oxXct,7cx,g Gi'/^ZTcit TfJ crccgicrtri 
t<jv tTTiXotaiV) Kj TtrfiAtrxu Toy item** vtto to s'zpyoy, vtto S~vuzt ^ 

cQo&ZOTYiTOC IctVTOV ^ICCTTZi'gSiVTCC' 2iiXciVVzT0Cl GZ 9$ 'ligfdU&VS lg TOV 

^M^oovcc oictfA'/TU^ ciypig vt;o tv>v zarvyqv. Opjkc, 6io'v ti lyiviTo' k iO 
tQ dydgog, etXXol t£ I'ttttx poiXXoy to z^yov. 'HyzvxxTZi dl ofi»f 9 
ofsCCTiMc$ &v rorg cixXoig, x£ /|/8 imrevt Kt&vm&t 'O dzyz 9 Opoirr,$ 

«3 Itf<«nr^i X, TZCiVV (ATTCiXog TOO TSroGZ^ K. HO Z$CCVX,l ftCtflUl* %%■ O'TTOOg 

fikdi^itv tit/retro, flivypm S' ocvto aTiyjvs MyfSot inirrts] htts 

eL7roK>cJ7i tjov *7T7rm* coo-7n^ oi ZTrt tojv ct>xccvzru)v iTrfe&ttovt'Ss ctn^o-i-* 
■frodviTi, ftiXig feeze* iZptriv. "£l si ziti) v~ui o&ct,Xm zscvtqv zkiito, f£ 
kpipiu p.yiy^oiv'% aviraoSrm ^3-£Asv> o $zXTi?(5r 'Epuqg u^d^zvog cc-jtov^ 
tecfiicr&v &%e\t -srplg to •■urc^uilov' \yoo Ss lyzAm. 'ANT. Kciy& 
<?£, oTi y.cT\r,nv y %$' knu.-i,%x, spavTcv tc7$ &i\>,otg. «AA 5 a$i}q oip®- 

. ZcVTOlq &VT&S) &(^G'GpGLf£.G}9 17?) TO ^O^^ltoV^ W^OKCCTiX^'oCV JA®PCt,vJ*& 

&g uv i^iTYiOiioig zsAZvcrxipi. Yl&pk tov <&Ak>v Sg, oi pXv zocix.^vov 
Tt, *£ zvocvTiay" \yoo 2i fteiAM mgTro^v h avToTg. AIGF. 2y ^sv, 
& Kgy-TY,*. ttj AvrioSiV'ts, to^toov \tv%iti ^vvo^oitto^jp. "Euo'i oi 
RAZ-ipsctg Ti o dxveifyts^ o Ix, Hu^aiX) x^ A$fiirt$ o 'Ajcu^vciv, %iva- 
yog ay, j£ Au/tzig o -5TA%7i(&> Ik KopivS-g) crvftcocTyzcav o ^sv^S 
Aa/LCig vrrb t£ -zzxioog \k (pccgfAcixay ctTtcQoiV&v o 2s Ac£ t U7rig Gt* 
ioMTce, Mt/jr/g Tvg IrcaQttq* ct7:o7(pd%oig Icvtov o Ss BXi^/lec^ Xipa 
K$Aiog cXsyZTo (a) U7i is xXY i :iivoc^ ^ ZG'/jXa &%p)g h 'J7rzp%cXh, £ 
?,Z7TTog zg to uKPi'vZfct.TOv (paivofrtvGg. *Eya) 2s, x,cii7rz^ Zi21'g^ uvzk- 
{ivovev toottov <z7?o3-dy&i. — Eit<z tco ph Aoipih ahtuffiiva Toy viov,5Q 

Q'J'A c&OlXX [6ZVTSL ZTrafegi $(pHV 9 VTf' SCVTil, Cg TclXoiVTa'iftW CfLX 

% tAt *"> '*£ rgvtyZv ocvTog lyytvY.Kc; . ■;, o&T6httiiO > &e.e&iTU vza- 

vttFKa TZTTcc^ocg ooo.Xi'S ttOLpuviq*" " 2y di\ & 'Ax&pyoiy. (j$svs 




The word must here signify, the Cafifiadocian, i. c. the king- 
of the Cafipadocians. 

(a) KwiexXwi**,} ] From kv^%xnpn x cxaresco. 



68 

u e7Ti7r\d?&9 k} ?ivzy{&®V) ctXag o y-^nctltg^ — O pcly BAs^'W 
e&vTog, zxvlQ Kotlviyegu @ido m &§ gtoXXw rhv uvticiv*, on wqpid}* 
1$vXcx,t\i Toig fMiidh <Gf£6criu,%<ri x.Xqpo9bpf,ci$ gjgj oti] /3t&j7z?3-uii o 
P&ctTctt(&> voulf^atv* — IlA«y eptd yi k tzv tv%J£mcv Tg^ArAjy nz-apic- 

$ %,0V TOTS, SiVOVTig. 'AAA' JjSiiJ pi\v VTA T% fopct '..• iff^jr. 'A ZTCoAS ~S<* 

p£p« ^ u7roa-ico7nh zs-oppafav T8$ k<PiX,y%iA.%9Xg* Bx,v&} -jroXXo] yl, 
yCj ^ctKiXct: fd TfcLvTis dazpvovTig* tarXiv rafv vioyvK))) rUsfai f& vviTrtaK 
AXXot, 9§ el -zadvv yzynp&xoTzg ohvpotT&i* T/ t£t<j ,• 'A^a to 
(a) (piXrpov avTXc sp/«f tS /3j& ; T£t«v %v rov virtipyyp&V' t^ie&tU 

±0 fixXoptai " T/ ootxpviii TjjA/JtSr©-* ifro^uvm ; T/ ^y#v&j£T£iV, 

" /3sAr;cg ^ t<#£t#, "ysp^v tilptyptf®** 'Hcry /&e£(nXiv$ VjrS'a; 

" nrnx. 0i5I^S$, Aior. 'am* 0-«rp««-^^ riTnx. ovJe 

" TSTO. AIOF. "Ap# »» WAWftf, S/TfiJ #V;s£ CT5 TO ^-fiAA^V T£V<p/ t V 

tC ci7roXt?rovTct r&Qvct vc&i ; IITOX. Ot'Ss* rctQrdV uX\ iTt ptiv 
15" lyiylvuv ap£0i Tci IvPivyfcovrei. Biov 21 c&Trogov a7ro jtstXdpi\i H^ 

" oppnoig ziftov* \g vTrzrj'voXvjV szTwy^og af9, aTitcvug ti> j£ urq&vHt 

" YjmXas-. k} czptv2fov fixing * • AlOr. Ehm to^t^ cov. fyv tjffcAfg; 

" IIT12X. Noci. 'HSv yag jj> to tyoog Kj to nfadpxt 2sivo9 9§ QwkI'sw. 

u AlOr. Het^otTiOitu^ oo y*t?ov kj p&upo&z.t6vy nsr£o$ to %*i&y> ^ 
20" tkvtoz, iXixtdrrfi #v tQ fsrogQfM&g. T/ gv U9 rt$ iTt x[yi; tzs^t 

" TMV 9W9, 07T0TI Cl TYiXiK,%T6l QlXofyol U0"19 • Ovq l^fJjV Oi&ZitV 

*' to 9 S-dpozTov*, &)g Tm Iv tw yi?cf> koucm (pd^uaxov,' - — AAA 
dmafiiv, ptv x.ott Tig iptcig virtdriTXiy cog a7roogot<ri9 fiaXivo9Tct§ 7 oga* 
"STi^i to fopaoy biXvpt,l9%G* 



(a) QiXTpcv.'} Generally such a love-potion as is prepared 
by a witch. So that the meaning here seems to be, '* Are 
ft they bejihiltered* or bewitched, with the love of life ?" 



AIAA. x\ AixvT& t y^ y Ayay/ipvav&» 

The content about the armour of Achilles ridiculed. 

AFAM — -El crv potvus) a Aictv^ cn&vTov \§lviv?cc<;^ (a) \pt\l~ 
vac, *h\ xl Ylfitcic, cLttgcvtccs*. rt mtruk tcv O over dot ; Kct -zz-g&yV) 

5>Ts ZugOG-lvXi'l'Cif C&VTOV) 07T0TS Y\Kz fAXV teveroUSVOZ, b'TS 3T|3<5<7g<- 

7?Uv jg|<W«g? kibp&t (rvTp&li&Tvv k} haipov; aXX* virepoTflis&aZ) 
[AfydXot fixivztV] lurqfg&ihBsg, A* I AS". Ehtoraq^ &) ' Ayduz.uvov' 5 
auras ydg pot t?$ {Adtrittf otiTi(&> KotltTfy peov©£ uv\i%iT<x,Q-&iU \m\ 
?o7<; stirXoig. 'AFAM. H|V&$ 3l dvatvrotydivifog iivozi, *£ dzovrtt 
Kfi&lzit a7ravr&y $ A? IAS. N^;.. rayi TOiccvrct' ci/cuei ydg pot qv 
vi ■KF&V67rXix ) rS avz'ytx ys hicc, Kc&i vusTg ol dXXoi <rs-oXv duuv%$ 

O Ss Ac&spTHi ov \yoD GreXXdxig za-^trcc Kivdvvii>ovTc& x.szlctx.5x.o'.p$oti 

V7k\ T60V <PpVy£v* clU'ciV&V vfetX ilvott^ }£ hr4?1fl9H0 r F%Q6S Z%iLV TO, OTTXct. 

'AFAM. AiTia raiyapQv) & yivvoiii^ tw ®Z7iv* q, Ocov croi Tqt 
xXripovouitiv r&v ottX&v arxp&oioovctt crv[yevz7 yz ov\t> (pig&creiy \g to 
xoivov Kxrihro otvrd. A V IAS. Gvk* ctXXd rov 'oJyce-g*. S$15 

(b) avTZTrM'JiQr) ft,6vo$ AFAM. HZvyyvatftv*, 6) Aictv, u oLvfrgavros 
lav &pz%Gy) dafq$ Yibl^H -r^pdy^cilog^ vTrlg k t£ vuqv ettot^&g xivdv- 
Vivsi? v7?o{6i)izr wcii 3tj ZKpciTT}<7Z eg, y^ rotZrx^ Tarawa, (c) Tfw&l 



(a) ^b«aiV«s.] Ajax is described by Sophocles, in his 
tragedy of that name, as having slaughtered a flock of sheep, 
in a fit of madness, occasioned by his being disappointed of 
the armour -of Achilles, and as imagining, at the same time, 
that he was slaying the Grecian chiefs, who, he thought, 
had not done him justice. 

(b) eivT£7reu{tin.'] When avriiroiUpou hath its genitive case 
after it, it signifies vindico-j as tSv xgnpuiav ctvTt7roi£vT&i. 
But, when it is put without such a case, as in this place, 
Suidas says, it signifies the same as QtXovitJcia, amulor ; 
which is justly remarked. » 

(c) Tqoitr] hKetT6t7q. It is odd that Ovid mentions no 
judges, upon this occasion, but the Grecian chiefs ; after 
Homer had, in the eleventh book of his Odyssea, said, 

flxiOiS Ss Tpdw ^iicdcrotv y^ UatXXag 'A^j/ij. 



Homer, indeed, there, gives no account how the Trojans and 
Pallas came to be judges ; but yet Ovid, no doubt, might 
have represented the affair as it was, since Cointus Smyr- 
n<eus, a much more modern poet, found means to let us 
know that, after the burial of Achilles, his mother Thetis, 
publicly in the Grecian camp, offered his armour, as a 
reward to whosoever had saved his body, after he had been 
killed : upon which, Ajax first set up his claim, and appealed 
to Idomeneus, Nestor, and Agamemnon. Then Ulysses 
appeared against him ; upon which, Nestor called Idomeneus 
and Agamemnon aside, and told them that, let them adjudge 
the armour to whom of the two they would, they should 
incur the displeasure of a great part of the army, as each 
had a strong interest in the hearts of the soldiery ; and, 
therefore, they had better leave the decision of this matter to 
some Trojan captives, they then had among them, who 
certainly would be partial to neither party, as they equally 
hated all the Grecians : and 

Of pet OiJCTlV IhtOiV Itt} trQlFt trirOlYlVOVTCll, 

Ov TiVi t)gX, (fiipeVTiS) i7Til {A.O(,\a, ZTCAVTCIS A%OliX$» 

Coint. Smyrn. Lib. V, 

Thus, in plain English : 

Who will upon them a right judgment form, 
Not either favouring; since, alike, they hate 
The Grecians all, still in their minds retaining 
Their wretched downfall. 

But this author gives no account how Pallas was concerned 
in this affair ; nor do I know how she came to have a hand 
in it (Homer and his commentators being silent upon the 
point), except that she might have interposed, as she was the 
patroness of Ulysses (as it abundantly appears, from Homer, 
that she was), or might have swayed the opinions of the 
judges, by virtue of her image, which Ulysses then produced. 
Ovid. Met. Lib. xiii. — A friend hath observed that by Pallas 
may be meant, in Homer, the wisdom and judgment of the 
Trojans, in deciding this matter. 



7\ 



$lkx<sci7$. A"lASt Oi^cc \yco-, nri; u% xsilioixaezv* ciX>C h h\p.ts 
Xiyuv r; arzpi tqv 0siyv. Tov ySv 'odvtrAtt ph Uy) pits-it* %x, ikv 
Svvs&t'uviVy go 'Aydpi&voV) £§' u ocvj/i f^ot 'Adwx tzto hrtrcbrlot. 



AlAA. hoi. Mtwog £ !$&?%{&?&, 

The absurdity of predestination. 

MIN. — 'O t uzv M'jfvg kros 'Eds-gules h tov n.vgt$teyi.%vlM 
%[M&&Xie&a, O y hplijvXos vtto tI^s Xtpetigotg dtx<r7rcs,orB"JiTMi 
*0 olrvgotyyosi go 'E^tijj, wolpia tov Ttjvlv <si'7rol&$z}s< i vtto t&v yv7r&)v 
v.iipi'jSro) Kj ocvtcs to i^ap, ^Yizzig dl et aya6c} 9 cltzui tcecla r&yes 

U TO 'HXvCieV &t$l6V) Kj T»S (ACHtci^MV vJjO~%S Xsfioi&itTZ, UV& 6)V 5 
C^IXXIX STTOtiiTi SCtpk^OV filOV. 212ST. "A'rCXCTdV) & MlVMSi it F6i 

dUoaot So'!# Xiyuv, MIN. Nvv ujaso-a ecvhs; Ov y#g s§5ArJA2y|#/, 
do Ezos~P t dli } wov/jpls oov-, f£ rovxrxs hTixley&g j EflET . 'EAjjAsy- 
poti fAiv' csAA' oga, it diKxl&$ x.cXGt,<f%'/)(T0ft&i» MIN. Kcs/ -zrdvv* 
liyi k-rrtTivuv tv{v afyxv ^ixxtov* 2I22T. "Opj (a) ktfoKgtv.eu [Q 
pit) a Mivo-js' Bp^xyv ydg rt l^crettcJ us. MIN. Aiyz, f&n pczxpa 
ptoytv, 'ottcos *£ t£s #AA&$ oiajcptv6>p,sv y'S»j. SQST. 'Ottoo-os, sVgaST- 
ov zv r«5 /Sfw, •zaOTipct lx,cov zttpsctIov^ r WSJti#A#£"fi pot v-wo tv,s Mot' 
(>&$ ; MIN. l Yyro t^s Mo/pus 5j?A#?;ij. 2H2T. Ovxzv £ el y^pv^o) 
mTTctvlesi it) ot -zrovq^oi ?sx£vrss i/&et$i hcuvn V7rngil8tlzg* txZtcc *g£-'15 
f*8Fj MIN. N«i, tjj KX&Qoi, r, hu&s'm fc-grafs ywqQivlt roi -zrg&z- 
1s«. 2QST. E< kv T'.s uvoty'/iXG~3~zis V7? aX>,% (pevzva-Ziiv Ttvei, k 
ivvdfAivos uvliXzyztv htetva fitottJifAivos (olov, ^tfAtesi $ de^vipo^eg, o 
juiv otxxs-y iTU<r$'Ut } ) o dl rvpdvvtf) tivx, alridtrn rS (pavx $ MIN. 
Aj^Aoy as tov 3<KflC5*ivj vi tov rvpxvvev' $nu %%l to tttpos uvto' £?ni-20 
QiTU ykp^ izto ogyczyov "ov -zrpls tov S-vpev, t& ^qcotgos n-cc^xcyovlt 
rnv afaiocv, EHET. Evyz, co Mivas) ort k} iTrthovtyttevy t% 

(a) ot7rdy^tvxi .] Answer me. This, in efTect, means dis- 
pute or argue with me : for, the method of arguing' by ques- 
tion and answer, laid down by Socrates, and of which 
Sostratus here gives us a sample, was in great use, long- 
after Aristotje invented syllogism. 



•sra 



72 

TU Polity '[AO&I i. *HV Ss T^, &7ro?lt\o&v\og T% tfs<75T0Tfcf, Jj'fcJ? flftVT^ 

vgvcay $ apyv^ov KOftitav, tivi t^v %dgiv /Vsov, ^ r<W ivigyzrw 
avaypxTrlzov -, MIN. Toy iarifA-^/avret, a> S^s-gam' ^cifcoyo? y**g 
Ktuiffctq ?v. XfiST. Ovxxv opug, --wag doixa TiswSg xoXdfyjv vpag 
5 ysnif 5T«? ygyd^tsva^, #y « KAw^j sr^oo-sr^rrg, ^ t&t#$ rtfAav rz$ 
$ia,x6VY}Foi[6 r iy%$ uhXorpioig oiyaQoig j Ov yd(> oh ixuvo U7niv tftoi 
Tig aV) oog dvjiXiySiv dvvctlov nv roTg [tild Tffdvrfi dvdyxqg sr puerilely - 
uhoig. MIN. '£2 2#fg#1g, -sroXXu tdotg uv k} uXXoc % xccvd Xoycv 
yivlftlVM, u dxp^&ag l^Qd^oig. ITAijy dxxd <rv tSto oe,7roXocv<riig 
10tj$$ I?rggJI«ff'g6»5, diOTi & Xyeljg povov, dxxd v^ (roQig-Jig Tig nvxi 
$CKi7g.—*A7rohvcrov avToy, d) '£^3, »£ ^fcgr; ttohc&CfirS-a* — -Ogs* 



AIAA. >&'. Mivi7T7T(&> 9 % NtKVOflOtlTtCt* 

MENinnOS, 0>iAQNlAHS. 

This dialogue contains a great deal more matter, humour, and 
invention, than any of the foregoing. Here, the imposture of 
conjurors, especially of the magi, or Persian priests or magi- 
cians, some fictions of the poets, some abominations of the 
Heathen religion, some absurdities in the doctrines of the philo- 
sophers, and the oppression and villany of wicked and tyranni- 
cal rich men, are most humorously ridiculed, and severely lashed. 

MEN. (a) '& X«,7gg ^gAftj^ov, -zs-^oitvXd B- Wiag if/Jqg. 
£lg acrpiiyig er' gVg^y, \g (pdog ^oA^y.— 

(a) ? & X#?££, Sec] These iambics are spoken by Hercules, 
upon his return from hell, in the tragedy of Euripides, called 
Hercules run mad. These very great persons of antiquity, 
Hercules, Theseus, Ulysses, iEneas, being, as Virgil says, 
Fauci quos acquits amavit 
Juj tiler ) aut ardens ev exit ad athera virtus, '- . 
And 

Dis geniti. 



73 

$>\A. Oil MivtTTTTog krk hiv o kv&v -, Ovpivh <»AAc£, (a) u p'4 
lya zretpciZxiTra Mev/jr?r«s oXtf ?• T/ 2' $h}t£ /3sAst#< to uXXozoToy 
t5 ^/»*Taf, (b) snAo^, ^ A^fls, *£ Asovli,* ngoW/sav 3g c*6#$ 

%£Qvov k gtiQ'w&'o & TV W*X&* MEN. 

(c) ''Hssal nk$oy Kzvffcmoti ?£ f^ots^ .isryAflCs A*T#y, 
f 'lv' #e^$ JC&^h MK'iS'ote ©s#y» 



have all made the tour of hell, and are distinguished, as the 
most exalted heroes, by the privilege of their having been 
allowed to visit the dominions of Flute It is> therefore* no 
small humour, in Lucian, to dub his Menippus a hero of 
the first magnitude, by exhibiting him as having attained to 
that singular and most exalted honour, and having conferred 
with Tiresias, as well as- Ulysses himself. 

(a) u jw lyso) Sec.] If I do not mistake all Menippus's. 
This, in the Greek, is a sort of a cant, or, at least, a common 
expression ; which may be imitated in English by this : If 
I have any skill in Mcnippus's. Grsevius, by the authority 
of a MS) puts a full stop after -^ci^ZxWco^ and writes it 
Miwrn-os'ohog, He is all over Menippus. 

(b) <©7ao£.j As the lyre is to be referred to Orpheus, and 
the lion's skin to Hercules, who both went to hell with these 
respective habiliments, so is the w?A€$, or caft, to be attri- 
buted to Ulysses, of whom Hofmannus says, " Idem, ut 
nobiiis exprimeretur, pileatus pingi est solitus, quemad- 
^ modum Sc dioscurorum nobilitatem pileis novimus adum- 
" bmtam." — Pierius Valerianus speaks to the same pur- 
pose, in his chapter Be Pileo, which I will not allow the 
witty reader to call his Chapter of Hats. 

(c)' v Hx« nx^w, &c] The words of Polydore's ghost, in the 
beginning of Euripides's Hecuba. I cannot find the two 
next iambics, in which Menippus answers, in Euripides ; 
aad, therefore, am at a loss how to reconcile the expression, 
*J ^rpoidhg tQ v& oixiov, in the latter, to a classical way of 
speaking, or, indeed, to any satisfactory sense. The other 
translation, by Thomas Moore \ whom I take to be the great 
Sir Thomas Moore, of England, Erasmus's friend), renders 
those words, Atque aud:icia quam firojuvenia haud paululum 
imliQtentior ; making rS n& the genitive case of srAjov, consi- 



74 

<J>IA. H^iijtXac^ IXtXyQet M r iVi7T7ro5 v(tci$ c^tto^xvoov^ kut* i% Inotp* 
%fiS dvot&iGiiuiKiit J MEN. 

Ovx.' <sjAa' W (prrvxv df^qg (C ISg|«Tfl. 
<X>IA. T/$ d* » eciT,'oi rot tig xottvfc *£ arasgacS^s Teivtns fltVflSjj- 
Spin $ 5 MEN. 

Nioryg (t. 3 iirijiqi) y^ S-gdros t% via ■-&Xzoy. 



dered as the neuter gender of the comparative zrti&rv ; so that, 
in the strict rendering', he must mean wkUv vs«, imjioientior 
Juvene ; that is, as I take it, stronger, or more vehement, than 
a youth ; that is, than the eagerness of a youthful mincL But 
I cannot see how .wAsw, being the neuter comparative of 
rfrflAwj, can signify impotcntior $ or how (should it he taken in 
its strict sense of plus or majus) it can govern the genitive case 
of ?2 n* -, because I can see no consistent meaning in aulacia 
major juvene ; and, therefore* think the above sense can 
.scarce arise out of those words, strictly and truly consider- 
ed. — Grzevius renders u.e whole line, Jwvtnta, magisque 
juvenis animus me i?nfm!it 9 making -zzhicv an adverb, to be 
joined to br?gg. IIA^v is often taken adverbially ; and if, 
according to this design, we should literally construe this 
line thus, Juventa incitavit me, atque animus, or fiducia, 
juvenis magis " incitavit me," it would, I think, be sense : 
but, still the manner of expression seems singular, aukward, 
and unclassical. — Not much less so appears to me the tak- 
ing of i&Xm fovpliirima, as I have done ; and, I think, I make 
the expression still harsher, and the meaning more unnatu- 
ral, when I consider &hioy as the neuter gender of <wAftft 
plenus, and understand, by -zrxiov r» %i& Jitll of the youth. But 
these are the only lights into which, beside those set forth 
by others, I can throw this sentence ; and would be glad to 
change any, or all, I have mentioned, for a better; as none 
of them satisfies me. — -The MS has it, *£ B-gdrog tS up <&xiovi 
which will make tolerable sense thus, " Youth excited me, 
" and the courage of my mind still more.'* The MS is 
quoted by Grxvhte. 

Ope friend* would render it thus in English, "Youth, and 
u boldness ^>Aov greater than that of a youth, hurried me." 
And another approves of zrAsov ny, "full of the youth ;" that 
is, " full of confidence :" because youth is apt to-be con- 
fident. 



<£1A. fl&vGtti) fAMKUQii, Tgtzyct^aiv} j£ Xiyi xrwrt iras etvXatS) 
(a) tcsilocZdg cc7ro tcov tatp&iim) t/$ v\ <?o/\-^ ri <rot rvjg tear a Gregztag 
id'sv)<rsv ', v AXXo)q ydg kx, v^iid ris> IrSg efiVw#7*(§H i ooo$» MEN. 

(b) ^Q> (ptXoTvisy xtfi® pi narhyxyvt zi$ dt$&o, 

OIA. Ovr(3H' «AA (c) vi zroi£ot,7reiiii$ $ Ov yd^ a,v %7&$ tpAfiirg&G 

lppet-$/q$u$ vr%o$ avdgas <piXvG> MEN. M^j B-^v/ad^g^ a iroupy 
viast yd^ Eyp<9r/?jj ;£ 'O^ioigai o-vfysvaWv^, &?^ oi^' aTT&jj asys^rA^c- 

S^y T&V STT^V, ^ CCVTOfLOCTCi f&Ot rd {AST QO, I7c\ TO $-0jU,G& igfcSTXl*— 

"Aroti %\vi [4,6i, -5TG)$ rd hni^yw t/C*h *$ ri motxa'tv h TV\ VFOXU} 10 
01 A. Koavov 4'Sav, aAA 9 ola k} <&p} ?5, dpvrd^iferiV) hrtopy^i. 
ToxoyXv®£riV) (d) o&oXofxriSQ'iV* MEN. "AQXtot x* jcajco^xtpovsg* 
•v <y«£ icatnV) eta sv&y%og iczxvQ&jrczi -zrci^et. rotg xa,ra } Kj oi& s 

Ki%StP6l6»l/lTs6i rd t yY$l7fAMT0t KXTM ?6dV --Z? A.*07&>y, Uj fid TOV Ki(>Qs- 

^ov, evhpt'a (A'tftoivvi r£ ^txfvyuv uvrttg, OIA» Tt(p'/}$; Atdox.-l5 
rat ri vi&>T££ov roTg xcir&j snp\ rav IpS-d^z •> MEN. Ni Ai'x r^ 
<Gr«AAfl^ , ctAA' k §~i[6i$ zx.pzgziv xvra <®gog dwa\>ra$i k^lrd aTroppqrte 
IjrciyopivstV) fin text rig (e) i/adg y^dx^trxt ygetQhv dvzZuoiS Itti tS 
t J*oL$ct l uciv§-vos. 0IA. Mjj««jfc£#s ? co Mgv/wsrg, <©•£«$ rS A<a5, ^-i 
<p0«vjjc7S riyy Xoycov tptXan c&vogfr *zr(?o$ ydg u^orx crt&Trtiv lpz7g y rd^Q 
r #^A#> j^ wgog ptspvnMWM. MEN. X^AfSTdv ^sv iTrildrlits 

(a) Kxre&Zag.'] Coming-down ; because tragical iambics are 
a lofty language. 

^ (b) y Sl QiXota^ &c] Menlppus here says, ? £2 (pixim, from 
himself. The rest of these two verses are spoken by Ulysses, 
Odyss. A. v. 163. — But, it is to be observed that, though 
Lucian here uses the word ftxims for amice^ yet, almost 
every-where else, it signifies either amickia or amor. 

( c ) ji •] I take rf to be, here, interrogative, as in Dial, xxxiii. 
§ dfyoiq; nam existimas? 

(d) oZo\oraTS<?tv.] The verb hZoXcf&Tw is, as far as I can 
find, always rendered by fceneror. Nor do writers of lexi- 
cons give us more of its composition than &&•?, although 

^ it be plainly compounded of that, and foytfc pondero, and, 
* therefore, must signify to weigh $he very J'arthings ; which 

is justly said of miserly men, who are anxious about the 

moat minute parts of gain. 

(e) ipxs y^os^sT^.] A Greek idiom: tax* is understood. 
In Latin, it is expressed, Tibl dicam scribanu Ten in Phorm. 

ii 2 



76 

T%7ri7ctyfxt&) J§ £ zretvl-i ct,<7$ci'Kz<;. Ylxhv dxxd <rQ yi tviKat r$X- 
jKvfilw. — - ; E2o|gSji, iC T*.$ <urX%(ri%$ t%t\&c^ y£ -zroXv^Yipdrxg) *£ to 

" %gVG-t6V KCc] 'dzhUfOV) C077Ti^ t\v AuvdviVj tyvXttTlovlug . 

2. <f>IA. Mh -srgoTzpov U7ry$ y a 'yotfrl, rd ^idoypivct*, <&%iv mil vol 
5dizXfa7v) d pdXtr. dv v,dlc-jq dx>*<?utpi <n$' y>Tig ot\riot> o-oi tm xoc&o^a 

lyiviTQ) Tig Ss e zis <aroguag vytpdv* tiHF %$& d ii gjjgg, d Tl 'ix'trot* 
<&(&£ ccvroig. Eitclg ydg oh (fiiXoKciXov ovrct o~l, pv\h\v toov d\iwv 
S~'zot$ i dxo/,g iuci(?eiXt7riiv. MEN. 'Ysra^yjjlsov x) tccvtu, toi. Tt 
yug dv j£ -zrdQot Tig ) oifoti (fitX®-* dvhg fitd?oflo ; — Koci §:} t^oiTtf, 

10 <roi diiipi ihv yvdpyv rhv Iphv, x^ o&zv co^piQw -sr^cg rhv xocldQot<rtv. 
Eyco yd^ dftgi ph fv araio-h £«, dx^sov 'Opigx y^ 'Ho-io'^Z (a) «ro- 
Xzpxg x^ g-do-ttg ^lYiygp'ev&'v, £ povov toov vpt&i&v, dxxd x^ etvrav 
tiovi rav Gsavy i?t $1 x^ (b) p,oi%iictg mvtcov-, tu fitag, x^ dp7rot,ydgs y$ 
cix&S) x^ zrcvri^Mv l^xdo-iig, xj ddzXtpav (c) ydpxg, -zrdylot, toivtoc. 

\5 Kyhspqv itvcct (cl) xctXd^ x^ » Tvctp^iZyvg zxivxpviv Tcgog uvrct* Unit 
oi ug dvogag viXitv ijp^dpnv^ as-dXtv ccv ivloiuS-oe, %k%cv tuv vo'p&v 
ruvavzlx rolg (urotnlaiig kiXivovtwV) p^Ti pot^.vuv, pin g-o&7id^uv } 
pin dpndtftv. 'Ev piydXy £v xot$-g?i>cziv dpty&oxiot, kx, ii^oog 
on xgvo-eziurtV ipctvIS, Ovrs ydg t&s ©2^? uv zrfti qyxpvjv poi- 

20 %ivGot,t, y\ ^ctc-ioiiroti ^rpog uXXnX'd<;^ si ph cog nsriQi xaXav rxrav 
iyiv&Fxov %t dv t%$ vopo&ireit rdvavlta, TXTots (ttoc^onvetv, i\ pn 
XvciliXuv v7r$Xdp£tav6V. 

3. 'Efff/ §8 Soj-TreggVj 8So|s p*t \xQovtk fo-apd r%$ x,&X%piv%g 

TXTHg (PiXoO-oty'dg) iFfcitgtFMt T2 IpOUjIoV) J^ O^ivfrwott CtVTCOV Keypad 

SSpoi, oTt fixX.oiVTO, y^ tivm ^ ov d7rXvv f£ fiiZottow \)7rthii\ou T% fi/%, 
TcivTM plv ah Qpovav -srpoffiauv avroTg. 'EAsAj^gfV a IpccvTov, \g 
uvroy (part) tq (e) .-zzryg Ik t5 xa,7rvS fitu?opw(&>. Ucc^d yd^ $h 
?%Toig puXic-ct, zvpitTKov l7ri(rK07rceJv rhv Uyvotocv *§ rhv dnoQiuv 7oXsiova y 
CfjTi poi rd^i^cSr ftpva-isv dfriou%cx.v htoi tov touv i^iutsov fitov. 
(f) 'ApiXa (g) o jth c&vtqv zrapfvii to &rdy '$iG&ui, xj povov tzt* 



(a) zrtxlpve, Sec] Such as of Jupiter against Saturn. 

(b) poi%tfag.'] Such as of Mars with Venus. 

(c) ydpt?g,~\ Such as of Jupiter with Juno. 

(d) xetxdJ] Virtuous, For the Stoics called all virtuous ac- 
tions xotxdy and the contrary, aicr^d. 

(e) srSg.] Senarius extat proverbialis, Ketmov yi (pivym ug 
to tstv^ -zn£iz7re(rov 7 in Plat, de Rep. Cognat. 

(f) 'Apixsi.] Properly, Ne cura; and hence ? etenim. 
Steph. 

(g) o ph.] Aristippus* 



77 

\x -gravies p3 t*v*f txto ya% uvea to zv^xi/xgv. (a) O 2a ri§ 
qtcKctXtVi urovth ru m-dvr^ j§ p,o%B-i7v) >d to eapot xatavxyxdEfiVj 
fvvrmlce, Kj uvfcftMla, *} zreia-i ivffupsrtivt*) X} Xen^opovpzvov, o-vvs- 
%lc iTTippet'^^Sjv rc\ <arcLv$ni&(& Ixsivac tS * Ho- to ox -&tgi ?%$ dpZTvig 
(b) sVjj, *J rev td^arcij Kj ?W Z7ri to azgov uvdveuriv. AAA©-* 5 
mBr*QMfGtv %infMT0v zragexiteiiTO) k) uhidfyo^tv i>iz<rB-ai rm ttrvcriv 
avrav* e O 3a t<5 cxZ srdXrj uyoiQlv that v$ rov srXxrov cevrov aTrttyoei- 
viro. ITagi ph yu(> tS (c) xocrpx tI %gb v^ Aaya<y, ovyi (d) thmf. 



(a) e O §a.] Any of the Cynics. 

(b) sW] The following are they : 

Ttjv piv TOl XoeXQTYiTU xj I'Xc&iiv Ifiv iXte&oil 
Tr.t^icog' oXiyv) p&v oboq, f-iothd §' tyyvGt voeki. 
Ti}$ ?' apzT~i5 Iop&itcz, Qioi GrgoTrdgoi&sv e&rixc&v 
9 AfravetTti' ftccxpbc oz *& bp&tog olf&og m avrw 

KsAl TpYffcVS TO <ar^O)T0V' i7T^V U$ OlXgOV SXqeti 

Viiidtq §' STTSira sraAs*. Hesiod. Op. de. D» 

Thus, in literal English : 

Vices, in throngs, we may take in with ease; 
Short is the journey, and full nigh they dwell ; 
But, in the road of virtue, toil and sweat 
Th' immortal Gods have laid: long is the path 
Thereto, and up-hill straight: and, at the first, 
? Tis rugged all : but, when the top you gain, 
Thence smooth it lies. By a Friend. 

(c) xorpx.]- The ancient philosophers affected to explain 
the manner of God's making the world, and disputed, to 
maintain their several opinions, upon this point, with great 
heat and obstinacy. 

(d) iSg«$.] The word tbiae, was commonly used, among the 
ancient philosophers, to signify that general notion a man 
hath of any kind of beings, or things, as one hath a general 
notion or idea of a horse, or a tree, under which notion or 
idea he doth not represent to himself any one particular 
horse, or tree, but can equally apply this idea to any one of 
either kind in the world. But Plato, and others, in imitation 
of him, have used the term \lz* to signify causa ; and that. 



78 

t£ (a) acr&ptoiTM, %} (b) ctropx?, t£ xsv#, «£ rotSrov rivet o^Xov 
ovopotrav ocrv)/u,$pxi c&et^ etvrcav qxxov hotvliav - 3 Ken ro zrdvT&v 



upon this account, God, before he had produced things into 
being, conceived and formed ideas of the several species or 
sorts of things he was to give being to, and that, from such 
ideas formed in the divine mind, each species of things took 
its existence. Hence, I say, this word <&& hath been used 
to signify causa ; and hence Diogenes Laertus, talking of 
Plato, says, Tetg Ss ihiU? vffeetroti ctiriots rivet? f§ &£%&$ t£ 
rotetvr ilveti rot Qvcru cvn^caret atrni^ l?iv uvtx. " He lays 
" down ideas as certain causes and principles, from whence 
" the things that subsist by nature are such as they are." 
And whoever reads Plato's Parmenides will find that he 
useth the term \Uot, not only to signify the several species of 
things, which he lays dovrn as secondary causes under God, 
but also to signify the first cause , or God himself. The 
ideas here mentioned are those supposed to have originally 
been in the divine mind: because Lucian, in this place, ridi- 
cules the vanity of the philosophers, in pretending to account 
for the original causes of the several species of beings that 
are in the world. 

(a) israfutTttm'] Plato also asserted the doctrine of incorpo- 
real or spiritual beings: Aoku §' etvru rlv ©sov, &s xj rhv 
"fyvWh 6tG-apot\et iheti : " He thinks that God, as also the soul, 
" is incorporeal*' 11 Biog* La'ert. Lib. iii. Segm. 77. 

And Plato himself, in his Politicon, says, Tk y#g ue&ptot- 

rot xdXXisa ovret •?£ piyiset Aoy® povav, aXXcc 21 x^iv^ 2n'x.vvr&i l 
" For incorporeal beings, as they are most transcendently 
a beautiful and ample, are shown by reason only", and nothing 
" e!se. M 9 

(b) drips?, i§ xzfel.'] In these words he alludes to Epicu- 
rus's manner of accounting for the origin of the world ; 
which was that of asserting that, from the beginning, no- 
thing existed, but mere space, and very minute particles of 
matter, which he called atoms, and which, by accident or 
chance, joined to one another, and, in that vast void, formed 
themselves, by the help of motion, into the present order of 
things ; that is, into this world, such as we see it. See 
Lucret— But, what first put these atoms into motion, so as 



79 

duvet* uto%0!Tcctcv ) oTiftrzpt t&)v tvecvlt&tetrMf ZKOL^QSy aiTcov Myav, 
e<pco?a vizmTczg >£ -zriQccvkg Aoyug Ittgo/^sto, (a) &)?i pin tg> B-zppov 
To civto zreaypet Aiyovri, pt>wvi too y v XZ 0V #>UAeyUv -X iiv ^ % Tccy ? a 
ttiiroi catpajg, oag kx. at wots B"ipiiov n Stn Kj ^vxpov iv tkvtm 
%0'ivt». 'ATi^vag hv '(ttxo-^qv To7g >«£*£&&-* tztois cpotov, aori 5 
ph httvziiw, eipn 2$, kvkvivm iu7raXiv. "Eti oz <aroX\% t5to 
\kiivm uToncoTi'^ov. Tks yag ctvT&g T%T#g iy fiitncov &rtf%pffa, 
hzv7i^roP,a To7g avr&)9 Xoyoig tttlndsvovht/* Tzg ySv xeclx(Ppo''Uv 

ZF&£flC*v£w7«S ftgfytt&TW, l&t^&V U7£$l% £%CUlVgg #V?£f, k) TXi^l TGZMV 

$ixlpipouiv%$, id \it\ utorS-Si 'sre&idivcvroig, Kj cmcivToi, hstca t%tmv 10 

V7fOU2V6VtCtg' T%S TS T>]V Q$Z>OUl et7*0<oO&AA6l&Z?%g 9 aUT%$ ivZZOt ^aVTO, 

iiriTqdivovTaig' $6vr,g ts ccv ffaZOov cirravTcig xocTnyoppvTGCg, \dict 1\ 
porn Tavry VFgo&iiPTqUiiv&g, S^jjAsi? Hv k) retvTvig TY,g ZA7rio(§-> 9 

iTl fAUAhdV td'JC^paiVCV' JfyZftM 0TdPCC^V^^v(^ tpi&VTOV, CTl {AITM 

m*XAm >dj croty&tvi t§ <r$eo3cc lm ffunttu itaZtootipivav, tkvonTcg rsl5 
iifAL) Kj rkPw&H 'zrt kyvmv f&sptegftpfi&i* 

4. Koci .uoi <®6TLc}{&y%V7rv : 2)ni txtuv zvix.cz, sjafgy \g BmQvamvsc. 
leaflet, it^ve&t tiv®-> Tm Ltciyav, tcov Zo)Pod^PH [axQyitcov f£ 

Ol6i$i%6JV. "HkXOV y 6ZVT8$ i7T6f9eti? TS *§ Ti7,ZTCii$ TtS-lV CCV6iy&tV 

ts t5 «3s t«$ t srvA-ct$) y$ xaldytiv oit uv (&&\ca{\oii arCpaA&g* ^20 
oTic-a uv0i$ avG£7r2U7rui), s, Ayi<zQV kv viy%/&riv ilvoit^ Ts-ocfid tiv©>> 
?%tuv GtciTrpx^cifiivcv T;jv x,XTeL^X(Tiv 9 Ia&oviol -&x,pa Tsi^scr/civ TGV 
Boi&TioV) uaS-uv -sreig olv-tx^ mti f&ufltwg Kj goQS^ Tig l?iv o api$-®>> 
^;(^5 k} #v civ Tig zXgito ib (pQovcov. Kcti ^ ? avot.7r/$Yi<rczg (b) cog 



o join one to the other? Must it not (even upon his own 
hypothesis) be the almighty Power, or God? 

(a) <yV«.] This sentence, down to Aiyuv inclusive, seldom 
fails to puzzle a young reader. Wherefore, I give it, in 
literal English, inserting explanatory words, as follows: 
" So that I could contradict neither one philosopher, main- 
" taining that the very thing in question was hot, nor another, 
" asserting that the same thing was cold. 55 

(b) ug iiftov T^s-s.] Stefihanus judiciously observes that 
?#*>, here, is not to be taken for possum,- but that the phrase 
is of the same nature with these usual ones, ag s*«f-'oj sl^sv 
tefeixs, and ag 'U&g-og il^iv pccuv i g ) as every one had of worth, or 
of strength. So, here, ug u%ov Toix%g signifies, as I had of 
speed, that is, according to my share of speed ; for, I suppose, 
Stephanus means that, strictly speaking, t«#ss is the genitive 
case of a quantity understood. 



so 

si^ov ixyj&Sy gre*voy si/^v ^m*v\w(&>, EA^j Sg, 7v[y!vopx! nvt 
tm XxXoxiav copM dvd^ij y^ &ecr7?ecrlci) tI)v ri%vH-v 9 i-oXim (ilv tw 

)CC{t,lY}V) yiVZiOV Ss (AXJiX PSftfllv xxhlftivce' TZVC.U.Z Sg JflV xvtco MtQpo- 
ZxpJ^dvYig. Aty&U$ Oi Kj XxB~w{] il'7XS) (,toXl$ STV%6V 7«CtpJ XVTX, 

5 tiff QT'j fixXosJo purS-a), K.otQiiyy t <76icrS-xt pa 7%g $$2* TlxpaXxZav ?g 
pe a civtipy zrg&rx (tev yui^xg evvea, ?£ u'xt'aj-v apex, ty\ crexivy 
xp^dtttv(^y eXae, xxldy&y Int tov E,v$j>xtyiv eahv sjp^g xvxleXXovlx 
rcy qXioV) pneriv Ttvx pexz^xv IrriKeyav^ fig % trZoSpx xxIvjkxov* 
£2(Tts^ yd^ oi (pxvXoi too? zv Toig xyoocri Kqgvaav) evirgoftov ti f£ 

}q4*« xeQxXlg IpQeyyertf -&Xw» xXX l-tcet ye Ttvag IttikxXiI^cci 
cxtpovxg* NIitx yxv tw Hrqanv T^ig xv pK at^og to vr^otraTrov 
UTfCj/lifffug.y lirxviu zrd.Xiv, koivx rav xvrxddvlcov v##£%Ai*ivi&. 
Kx} crfltoi ph v,p7v rot XKfloopvx, wolov el ydXx^ yj peXUpxTOVs fCj to 
rS Xod<T7r& v$a/£ evw o\ V7rx&e t i©-> \%\ T/ t g- wo'ecs. 'Entire xXtg 

l5fi#& tS? f&^oriiotiTviviaqy wig} pticrccf (a) viiKTxg Irt rov Tiypqla 
-zsolxpov xyxycov^ ex>x$"fpe ts (ai 9 j£ X7re(tx%%% t£ Tzeprtyvio-e $x$i y^ 
trx.tXXv>, y^ xXXoiS zrXttOTtv, dux y$ Tv,y iwulow Iziiv/iV vTTOTOvQogv- 
cxg. Ehx oXov pi (b) JtoflctptotyivTug, t£ ZJetiXSaV) ax (avj 
/5Xx7TTotpev v7ro toov <Pxvtx<7(AXtmv, nrxvdye'* eg T'/jV oizixv, (c) i)g 

OQSf'z&dv xvxto^i^ovtx- Kofi to XoiTrlv dptpt gtXxv uy^AVt* Avrcg 
ph hi pxyizyv tiv zov eoXviVy to, sroXXd loixvTptv rtjMqbmti, Eul 

21 TXTOlFt (pipaV hiVKlVCl7i TM fSflXod j£ TYi Xicflq, ^ TUT^OtjlTk TV} 
Xvpot* f^ (GFXPiKl'hiVG'XTO, VV Tl$ Sgyfl Cti pi TXV&ftfy MiViTTTTOV ulv 

(Avi XzyiiVy 'HpxJcXzx ol) v. Oo^vo-rice,) § 'Oatyta. OIA. e 12j Sij r/ 
ovT^ro, a MiViTrTrz; Ov ya^ g-vv/yimi tw xirtxv ut$ tS vyjApczi^y 
fe'rg toov hvopdTav. MEN. Ka} phv (utpo^^Xov ye tz-to, y^ h <srxfl&- 
Xcog dwUpyflev. "Emi yd^ k?oi -zrpo if&&i> ^oovleg \g ctax (cl) fcocle-- 
X^Xvhcrxvy iyeTTOy ei ^2 X7retx,d<ru$v xvToTg^ pxd/cog uv rhv Tis 
A)c&yM (p^vp^dv oiM*Kci&ei?) Kj d^oj>JjTag -zrotpiXh!)>y dfe <rvvY$i5ipov y 



(a) vvx.Tag.'] The plural number of vv% is frequently used, 
instead of the singular. Ste/ih. 

(b) xetTctpxyevo'KS.'] I think, if there were such a word, in 
Latin, as magi/leans^ or, in English, as bewizarding, each 
would more exactly express xxTxpxyiixrxs than incantam 
doth. 

(c) &'s sl^dv.] As I was. That is, just after being rubbed 
and purified. Me is understood ; for. me habeo^ in Latin, is a 
similar expression. 

(d) xxriMhvQiTxv*'] Attice, pro kxtiM^vHicxv*. 



81 

(a) UpeTcCy *§ ffiSXJKgallM) t£ aXXot oW trplg %\% Tihflb £g4*7jK#> 
'EtcZecXofASvot %v U7res,vrettu ■5ra%zcrx.iV£&<7[sAvct ) htm oyi v^ avrot 

(b) Baivopzv ei%vvft,MOi) 3"#Ag£ov x&Ttz ddxgv %iovti$. 5 

r«/t6gy I? to g'A(3^ ^ riv Atyfcyajy, k *)y <? Ey^^Vjj? «0«ey/£gT#/. 
IliexiaS-iVTSs §s ^ T#t>7jjy, u$inv£pb\$ct ig t* %^^ov sgtijfe'eyj *$ v*«2g$ 
9u aviiXiov. 'Eg ^TTflSaurgs (#ye?f"« Ss o M^gaSag^atj^) fiiGgov ts 
a)pv%oi[Ai&oi 9 f£ rot jfctjAtffi gV^#|ffl&/6figy, «£ to a^&& <srg£/ Toy ^odgayiQ 
i77rii<Toiu.iv. 'O Sg t6ftjy©° gy toc-xt® ixoa K&topzvqv i%m, (sk it 
yptpitf f$ QwYiy nr apply id ig oz a$ oiog rs if* «sy#«pfl5yfi>y 5 oe&tpevag 
Ti op$ tarcLvT&s gWSaaSTo, it} TloiVag, Kj 'Egmv*;, (c) *£• vv%i'av 



(a) <s$sa*, *? piXi3ce t xrot.'] These words are spoken in 
ridicule of Ulysses's preparations, in Homer: 

\Ey0' Iffi'tet ph JJ^ip'i^V,g EvgvM%<&> Tg 

Ei^ay.- — — 

And, 
Tlgaroi piXucfaz*. Horn. Odyss. Lib. xi. 

(b) Butvoptv, &c] This verse is also taken from Home?* 
ib.— -Stephanus observes, concerning the word SfcAggay, in . 
this line, that it is generally explained by hvypov, wet $ but, 
says he, " Commodius uberes lacrymas ibi intelligere pos- 
" sumus quae magna ubertate ex oculis profunduntur, ut 
a frondes ex arborihus." Perhaps, he would have account- 
ed for the metaphor still more naturally, if he had said, 
" Ut gem mas ex arboribus, as buds break out of trees. 

(c) *$ vvyjcv), &cj Here is an heroic verse, which, whe- 
ther it stand thus in any poet, is what I do not know. I 
am apt to think that Lucian pieced it together, out of two 
fragments of different verses, as he hath done that in Charon: 

Nijca ly ccu(pt^vr^ fictG'iXsvg oi rig ivfttrai ihaCi, 
But, it seems a little strange to me that he should make use 
of the epithet u.\nww - 3 and, till I can find good authority 
for his so doing, I shall believe he should have written it 
bruhw) because Homer, II. Lib. ix. hath it, 



» 82 

c £^o5T^y, y^ uWitvviv Tlsf>cre(povttctV) &ct.(rft,p,t{9v$ uptcc /3ap%upix,d 
Tttoc j£ cLtrQUu, ovopiccrot) ft} 7&oXv<rvX}\(X,*>oc. EvGv$ %v tnrdvlct Ixilvot 

l<r&?LcV&TO, Kj V7T0 TY\% Z7Ftt0i1$ THOcOpOg UVtppqyVvlo, >U jj yXoCKVl T8 

5@poj7rbv* 

(a) "eSJsjc-sv 3' lirtvteQiv uvot% Wt^m 'A'idav&ig. 
Y.ot,Ti<p%iviTo ydg 'ion tu e&Xiis-M) y^ y\ v\tfAVfy >d o Ylvpttyteyi&av* 
k} t& IlA£T#y(3^ ra fiuG-fauct' KatTsAdovTSs a (b) opt&s S*# rS 
%eze i te,6tT(&>i tov f&lv ^Vxcd^ce.v&vv ivgopzv ridvecora pttx.g% Jg?v vtto 

IOtS di%g. 'O Oi Kg^'o5^©M V>.dx,Tq<7i [AiVTOh *£ (c) iBrMgiKlVqo-i' 

Totyj) ot px xp j &<ra,vT(&> to Ai>g#y, vs-ccg&ftgfiftx IxotiuviOY) vtto tx 
(/Ax%s* 'Etts/ §g .urgog rjj >.i[avo ^aS-o^sv, {Aixpx ply isV iirtfiotia>6Y t - 
fASV ViV yap yjSsj asrTCviPiG to Tsoptopuov^ *£ c\[AUyiq uvuttXzov. Tpozv- 
pcccTiui Ss -srctvlif hr&t'ktit, o ph to e-xgA©-, a 3s TJjy xiQeiXtiV) a Ss 

13 C&XXO Tt <Tvf\lTPl(AfAlv(&' \^o) OOZiTv ZK TtV(&» OtoXlftX tGrCtpOVTSS. 

"Of6&$ §' ay o /3sAt;^(^ Xaigflv, ij siSs r*jy AgayJ^y, ofatefe fit roy 

H^OiJCXix ZlVXi) lcihi%0iT0 [AZ) Kj Otl7rop } 8flZVG'i Tg aW^gy©-», ^ 

cmoQcio-t iiKripiuivt to dTpctnoy. 

6« c E^"g/ 3s w«£Sy sv to; a^oVa, -zr^a ply o MtOgo^ag^dv?);. 

*^ hiKoptiiv d lyoo KciTOKtv z%ousvog etvTH, ict)$ erp^og Aitpavot pity troy 

atytnyxpiQa tm artpoozXce fcoird(pvTov. ''EvQx 2J <srggjg7rgTay1a ipag 

(d) Tgr^yv^oi* T&;y vz%>p&)v at o-xtcit* K.&T a A/ye y di rarpotovTiq^ 

wctpiysvofAtfrcA 7tpo$ to TtsMiva ^iKKfqQtov. 'ETvyfcxvi al o ph l7r\ 



And again, Odyss. xi. 

and eveiy-where else in the same manner. Besides this, 
the epithet gW/y^v, horrendam^ seems much better applied, to 
Proserjiine, than #<Vg;y>jy, excclsam. 

(a) ''Energy, &c] Horn. II. Lib. xix. Upon the shock 
given to the earth by the battle of the Gods, near Troy. 

(b) fyww*.] Nevertheless. That is, though every thing 
appeared frightful, to deter us. 

(c) w#gsx/v«c*s.] n*g*xmft> is generally taken in a passive 
sense, and signifies, indecore-moveor ; and, from thence, it 
signifies, mente-emoveor, or infur or em-vert or* Steph. 

(d) TiT^yvloct.'] Jesting upon : 
-^vftv 2g x.ot,Toi yfiovog ivTZ ttXTVOS 



^Qfcsr* TtTQiyvl*. II. xxiii. v. 101. 



(a) 'AA^fo^?, *£ Epivvvsg. 'JLrep&ffov oi -srgociiyovTO -EroXXoi runs 
IfiZ/jS aXvru [4,xx,£c£ SsSsf«V0*. 'EAsyovro 5s ei>#i u,tiyo\ x} *roe- 
vo%o<rx,6t, *J TiXwcci) t£ xaXctKit) k} <rvx6$clv7Git) k) raiSr^ of*iX(&> 
rm -auvTci KVKOJvrav \v t&> /3/a>. Xct^tg 0* «;r£ TrXxeiot) y^ ronoy- 5 
Xvtpot -zrgotriisa-xV) coft^oi, >£ /arpoyatfeps?, j£ zr do ay got, (b) xAo«» 
f»«^^ fitvraJv *£ xog«x.« dirdXciMTov imKiift&Hs* Etyig-arzg %v 
i/tcucj zwpoopiv Ti roi yr/vopivxy *J wzoftiv rcov aTroXcyxpiv&v. 
KcLTnyogzv o*l avTaif xaivot %m$ k^ ^roc^ec^o^oi ftro^tg* OIA. 
Tivig xtoi zrplg &i*g j ^^ 7^£ ojcvi<ryg *£ r&rt htfu*. MEN. 10 

Oi7§"cl <GT% TCiVTttCr} TUS 'ZZP^g TGV yj A^CJf «^r«TSA»|tt£jl^5 CjCiOig CCKO T60V 

r<aicxT6)V', 01 A. I7«'vv ^gy »y. MEN. Avrcot roivvv, hriibuy 
unoGdvc'jpiv, KecTviyQ£S<ri n } y^ Kccrapx^rv^tsG-*) ^ OkiXiy/jacrt rot 
i&fnrpczyftzvx ifAiv Trc&pii tov fit'w Kj <r$c&{& T#M£ ccvt&v ct^toTri^oi 
S«x5o*<y, UTi kit ff-vvSa-cti) Kj fAr{o'z7r*?l kQisdplvoct. rav capvcTavAS 
*0 §' kv Mivag liri t ui\ag l%{\d^m k'>ri7ttu.7rzv £%asw \g tov tcov 
ao-i&eSv X^i ov ^ ^ i>CY t v v<Pi%o } ''7ci xxl' kh'scv T&y TZTttXf&nf&ftm* y£ 
fA*\i?oi Iksimv Jj'tttsto, t«*»» Wi -arXXTGig ts jc} ae%cag rirvtyapimV) 
f£- ptcvovvfci £ tvrQOcrxvvur&xi X&P4U£}tW%@Jtf t»y ts ohiytft^vtov 
kXccfyvzixv otvravj *t} rm vTriPo-yiav {tvG m c&rlop,iv®->, *£. on ^jj20 
spiprwrO) B'r/iTci'n ovrsg cci/Toi, y^ 9-vvitmv kyctGuv TZTvp/qzoTig. 
Qi oi uTroovG-xiczvoi rci hct t U7rgot, iKiivot, TrctVTct, (srA^Tb'$ Asfk', y^ 
7»€ru, ;£ dvvx<9iiocg) yvtcvoi iiiru nnvxo&g, w#§g*W*sw#i'} sttrvrip 
tvjol oveigov civecTtiiATt ot^o { usy »i riv ^-^^' 'tfev vyheLkfLtniw? &?i zfays 
i-xvB- ig$f, bTTi^iyrcct^ov* «J errtvec yvagiG-octpu xvt&v, ns-goo-fav av2$ 

u ztpvtra tots, (c) «y/«^ sroAAc/ ^sy ©*>#£? £^i r&;y X£a^p^v 
44 -zra^g^^s/c-^y, r«y <zr^(3c-o3oy «yT8 srs^/^;?dyTgjj &vxp,ivoi ?i ?& 
u &7royjhZiiutvoi srga$ rxv ojkitw. 'O dl uoyig dv <sroTi .cIvxtiiXms 



(a) 'AAafis-apes."] The gi^ammanans agree that *AXeL?0£ sig- 
nifieth an evilgeniu$ } who inflicts upon men &^x$ct) not-to-bc- 

forgotten ; that is, grievous punishments. S^/;//. 

(b) itXtth) kj x.ipnx.oe.'] K.Xotcg, a xteiay claudo^ a neck-yoke. 
Stefih. — The xogufy was, probably, some massy iron, having 
a beak like that of a crow, and thereby fitted to pierce and 
break through any thing that was solid and strong. We call 
that sort of iron handspike, with which we break up quar- 
ries, w a crow." 

(c) >jy/*#.] Quandoy or quum\ hiKx> |«m, orcrr 

1 



81 

*fl< 'StxsXt&Tw (a) AioyiKTiOVj zs-cXha i£ ctvoo-tot, vtto rt At&>v(§" 
stxrqfogrfigVTM) *§ (b) V7TQ t5$ f«£$ *«T« 4 ftC«gTt;g}jdgiiT*, iret*i>.§wi 



(a) Atftwh&j This was Dionysius II. of Sicily, a most 
inhuman tyrant. After the death of his father, Dionysius 
I. he gave himself up entirely to revelling, and the massacre 
of his subjects. Upon this, Dion, brother to his father's 
second wife, a man of great humanity, learning, military 
skill, and spirit, formed a design to dethrone him; but, upon 
the tyrant's discovering it, he fled to Corinth $ and, return- 
ing thence with sufficient forces, deposed him, and made 
him fly to the Locrensians, a people of Italy, then in alii- 
mnce with hif»; Here* by villanous methods, he got the 
supreme power into his own hands, and then rioted, ravish- 
ed, robbed, and murdered, as he had before done, at Syra- 
cuse. At length, when he was determined to make a gene- 
ral slaughter, his forces were opposed and routed, and he 
himself was obliged to fly back again to Sicily ; where he 
surprised Syracuse, and, once more, made himself master 
of it. Upon this, Dion formed a second conspiracy, which 
took effect : for he obliged the tyrant to fly to Corinth, 
where, that he might no longer appear formidable, and so 
preserve his life, he turned buffoon and school-master. Diod. 
Sicul. Lib. xyi$ and Justin, Lib. xxi. — His being reduced to' 
live the life of a school-master seems a manifest judgment 
upon him, for all his wicked practices. 

(b) Wkrjfo ?6M~\ Probably, Lucian here means to insi- 
filiate' how contrary the strict morality and principles of the 
Stoics were to the enormous practices of Dionysius, who 
thought himself, as it were, licensed to do what pleased 
him, from the doctrine of Aristippus, who frequented his 
court, and, being an Epicurean philosopher (that is, a wicked 
madman), held that nothing was good but self gratification 
or pleasure 5 nothing evil but pain of body or mind: a mon- 
strous doctrine, that plainly encourages men to let all their 



85 

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?y,S KctfcioU-te* Aiyuv ztoaaoTz uvroy tvv (a) tPiTruidiVtiiv&y <sr|o£ 
deyvgidv yivi7$cit Ss^y. 9 Aare<rayTfi$ ol of&&$ rS 3<*«f»}{/»> tsr^ci' 
to Jt«A««fij£«y dq>iKWfi&ot» ' J £v$-M d\, a <£>/Af, 2roAA« ^ f A ft; Vet 5 
?.v <xK$?uiri) j£ list*' uxflym n yk% Ipi -tyitp®* jxygrd,>£ tlpwyn 
ray brt t£ trvfa Qirr#i&ivMv, t£ (b) rfiSAflMi *J xv^w^, ?£ rg*;£d/' 
(^ si X/Jiwiga \<T7T6i^»m^ £) i Kgg£«£©- IJaglaftsrri* tK6/\a?oni r§ 
iiffid swtsj, /3#<r*Afc7$, §Sa<jj, c*#t£#^-#/, «psvjjt£j 5 wAStf*/©*, art^M* 

^ty i$GVri$) 67T&CGI foeC* ?&V ivHtyX^* TiTiA%VTY { X.C>T&)f* bi 0% 

hixaAVTTTovTo td airiegifpvrtf it $1 ft} nr^QhinQtWy pxhct S^Ao- 



depraved and violent appetites loose upon one another, 
loosens all the ties of virtue and bonds of society, and tends 
to make mankind a multitude of fiends and monsters. 

(a) -zTiTFeuhvphmJ] Plutarch says that Dionysius's palace 
was very dusty ; because many mathematicians, who studied 
there, drew their figures in sand. He certainly was a lover 
and encourager of learning and learned men : for he heard 
Plato, with great pleasure, and esteemed him so highly as 
to promise him a considerable tract of land, to set up his 
new form of government in. Archytas, the great mathe- 
matician and Pythagorean philosopher, had a vast influence 
over him : and Aristippus used to tell him, to his face, that he 
frequented his court because he wanted money from him. 
X^aucLtm $topivo$ -zrscgx <il i'x#, says he. To which, in parti- 
cular, Lucian probably here alludes. See Diog. Laert. in. 
Plat, and Aristip- 

(b) fg&Xcit) f£ K\>$c*m$?i 2t£SoA/i properly signified a 
wooden instrument, with which, by the help of wedges, ship- 
carpenters brought tire planks of ships close to the timbers. 
It was so called from f\?s£>#, verto, and was also made use 
©f to press men, in order either to torture, or put them to 
death. Steph, Jf0pm was another instrument, " quo vin- 
" ciebantur aut torquebantur nocentes," as Stephanus ob- 
serves : and, as it was so named from Kwra^pronumfacio^ or 
incurvo, it probably was some sort of an instrument that 
brought the neck and knees together, resembling the punish- 
ment of tying neck and heels, used to our soldiers. 4 



86 
vrgt7rkg *r$, ^ KoXxKivrtx-Gv' *£ t^i/Vac, «-#$ «»£* jS#g*7j cms, ^ 

V^SfOTTTflfc* fSTX^CC TOV fiiOV ;— — To*$ (fcigVTO^ -VriVi)7tV nj&iTSMiX TW1 

8. Koj/ ^*?y x-oLKtlvet u$ov ra pv&adfy rov 'lijovoi* t£ rov S/o-v^oe, 
* *7 T * v Q>pyyto Tarra-Xov %,ae,Xi%&s £%ovrcc, x^ tov yiytv^ TirvoV 

*Hga,y~X$i$ *iir(&*» '"Ekutq yu^ tcttov hn%m uygx. Aithfrlvrtf SI 

Kj TUTUS, U V§ TffidiOV iTvzWo^W, TO 'Av^^CV iVQlJy-OLtiv T8 

Kvro&i tz$ nft&ixs rs, Kj rug tytrtttt,^ Xj tov aXXov outXc^ rfo> vm- 

cvnfW-oTcts, K) pidXtecb rfc$ Aiyvrrliav avrxsi Sioi to ttoXvccgxlg 
r*i? (a) rce^t^iiocg^ To pUrot GHeyiv&rxm Hk&?ov 9 k <&tLvv r* J* 
jct^tov' ctTrecvTis yk^ cir<i%v&$ aXX-JiX'oig yivavrxi oLioict, tcov hr'wv 
yi[vfMto{*ivuv* <arX* t * .p.oyi$ k} 2tk ccXXx uyafavppyTis ccvrxt 
\$iyr*arx.6ftfv, ' Exuvto c Ut xaX^Xo^ a/Axvgoi i£ utftfctti £ %2h 
in rat zrct% nplv xuXav 0'jXdrlovlig. "&*§) wXXav h rctvTcS 9 
vxiXsrwv Kitfiiv&V) ft) wdyr&i ifAoiuV) t£ QoZigov n x* iidtcevof 
#*3dfxcTA/v, *J yvptvx$ t£$ o$oi\xs zrg&$xtvovTM) fac^yy far peg iuetv* 
TMy m rivt i&Kgtmiftt Toy OipfftTW &,%* r£ KctXts Uipz&g, $ tov 
*QfAir#$Tqv If ov> ano in (b) $>atxxoov SxjiXwS) n Uvpptctv rlv fidyapot 
»7ro r$'Ay&uif6vov(&>i Ovalv yu.% \ri ?&i <nrccX&iav yvapicrpdrM 
tevroi's -zrapitciviV aXX ouotet tx o^x ^v, aatXocy td (c) uvi7riyQa$cc* 
Hj v-T* %0iwt; in oictKgtMcrlT&i ovvo:p,ivc&» 

9, Tayti^Td ix.ihcc cpuvtl tiixu pet tcov k^pd^cav flf®* 
^^.crojUTrjJr^vi pccxpai -zrgocriGiKiv&t, (d) %6%nyiiv ci *£ iietTctrletv txa&m 



(a) r*p%jtt&$] The ancient Egyptians embalmed their 
tlead in such a manner, that the bodies remain entire, even 
*o this clc-y^ as they are frequently found in their tombs. 

(b) ®6H(i)cM fifitVkXUt ] Alcinous. 

(c) «vstt*./yg#<p#.] TituMs-carmtia $ that is, ivanting-marks- 
efkUsiiucticii) whereby they may be known from any other 
bones. 

. (A) yje^y^'1 7b do the office of a yj?^y^ who was the 
person appointed to manage the Athenian players, dancers, 
and musicians, and had the direction of their dresses and 
performances, either on the theatre, or upon the public festi- 
vals and solemnities. He also was to find them in all neces- 
saries. Potter and Stefih. 



87 



%<?et. Toy fAv yk% XuZzcra v\ rvyjn, ficcvtXixas $H<rztvM<ri nugccv 

dtocdii^xTt' tm Pe oixirit c^ifAot -zngtiQiiJcV rh dz rtva xaXov uvoti 
\x.Q(Tit'/[7i % rov 5g ci/&6p0ov Kj yiXclov (&cc^%G-x.iva<j? (5rxvlodx'7ry l v y«g 
upoLi 5s;"v yivsrSctt rv,t $•'&)>, UoXXuxtq ol dice p&rr)$ rq$ vrdtZTrvfe 

f&lT&xXl TC6 him Pfflb&MTM, kx. \diK70t, i$ TO TSA(§^ OiCt,7roft7riV70a 

m l7d%dY)G-&v' uXXoi fiiTett&Qrto-XFet, rov ph (a) Kpc7<r6v fydyxXM 
rvv t% olx&ry Kj ottftuxxdrx (?kivw civuXxQuv' Toy ai Mcauvo^iov^ 
?ix$ h ro7i etxirais ^ro^7nvQv\ot,^ tJjp (b) UoXvx^r'd^ rvoxvyidx 



(a) K£o7«r«v.] See your dictionary. 

(h) TloXvy^ccr^,'] The story of Polycrates is very extraor- 
dinary, and is related to this purpose, in the 3d hook of 
Herodotus. — He first seized upon Samos, then conquered 
many of the J£gean islands, andtbok several towns upon the 
coast of Asia ; and all this without the least interruption of 
his success. Upon which, Amasis, king of Egypt, sent him 
a message, to desire he would throw away whatever he had 
of greatest value, and the loss "of which would most afflict 
him; for that his successes were too extraordinary, and 
must be followed by some terrible disaster, jf he did not 
inflict upon himself a share of the misfortunes which neces- 
sarily attend this life. Upon this, Polycrates took an emerald 
signet, of inestimable value, and, getting into a boat, went 
out to a good distance from Samos, and there dropped it 
into the sea, before many witnesses. In four or five days 
after, he had a present made him of a fine fish, in the belly 
of which was found this very signet : of which surprising 
piece of fortune, when Amasis had been informed, he in- 
stantly sent ambassadors to Polycrates, by whom he re- 
nounced all future commerce and friendship with a man who 
must come to some dreadful end. His apprehensions w 
in the end, verified ; for Oroetes, governor of Sardis, under 
Cyrus, having, by way of a lure, invited Polycrates to come 
and accept of a great treasure he had at his service, where- 
by to push on his conquests, Polycrates thereupon created 
his secretary, Mseandrius, regent, in his own stead-, . and 
went to wait upon Orestes, who instantly seized Ind crucified 
him: and thus did Maeandrius get the possession of his 
crown. Herodotus mentions nothing of Mx&fldrius's be* 

12" 



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VtU?*)V, >£ ci7ro2v<rxui)tos to c-^pix piSTX tx <h&[A.&t&>, tic-Trip jjy 
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5 FVVYIS, ZTTU^XV (b) UTToUTYi TOV XOPLlOV Wtfolo'eC V) t£«£1J, U^Ovlxt yi) 

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tw o^XLLXTca^xprt pilv K^tovlxg, htoli 2s Ugictpvs yiyvopizvxgy 
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crspuiug to tS Kixp f 07r(&> vj Epzyfi'wg cyy.vix ptUYiG~xpsv(&>< i ftST 

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20 10» OIA. E/7Te pcoty co Mzvt7r7r£y ol Ti$g ^roXvT'sXs7g TVSTMg i£ 
v-^Yi^xg To6p%g s%ovTSg vtiIq yjjj, t§ fiXotg, >£ ilxovag> £ STtyox^- 
fJixToi) ifSsy TtpiaTSpot <tsoi£ oivToTg ttert r£v i^toJTOOv vsxgav $ MEN. 
Atipug, co iiTog' si yxg zSislcroj tov Mavo-ahov xvtov 1 xiyoj Se tov 
K«^tft 5 iov sx t£ Tci<p% Grsg&ortTov* iv otdx y OTt ifx civ STrxVCOf 

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nta Upa Tm vsxgaV) spot <$oxu\ toc^tov uttoXxvcji tx /liv^uoctoS) 
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\ToiipSi o Aiaxog wwo ^gr pno-y ixelfZ tm to7Tov {oideoct 5s to piyirev 



traying him to Oroetes, as Lueian gives us to believe* in 
Charon; and I doubt whether any history, we have now 
extant, gives that account. 

(a) xeufa <Grci(i>£rn.~\ That is, " when this life is ended." 

(b) dvrxtTvi i Tv%n.~\ That is, a when, at the hour of death, 
** men must part with all their worldly possessions. 3 ' 

(c) nSAes, % S«rt/g®^.] Polus was a famous Greek trage- 
dian, who never failed to make his audience weep when he 
acted the Efectra of Sophocles. Hoffman. Satyrus was ano- 
ther Greek actor, remarkable for mimicking Demosthene&'s 
impediment of speech. Diodor. SicuL Lib. xvi» 



89 

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vvhs-xX[aUov. UoXXm 3' uv aTpXi pxXXov {yiXxgj u iSvcLra rug 
tsx( iph fixtrtXzxg Kj trxr^xirxg^ -zfla%ivovrxg -srxg xvttTig, ;£ 

tiTOl TX%t%&>7roXi£vlxg V'K XirogtXg, # IX ttpUTCt (a) MciffXAVlUf 

y^d,x[AXTXj 9$ vie* rS rv^^log vS^^gvas, *J xxtx xopfa *r.xto+ 5 
Uf*V?\ axririP rav avtigxiriiay tx xritAQrxrx. QtXiirTFcv y£v rlv 
Mar-iblm iyco thxffdpiw, *Sg koxtuv IxxvtS ^vvxrog p* 'Eht'%- 
B-Yi 3g [am ev ymiitt* tw v ^e\9£ xxb[ASv*g rx cxfyx t£v. viroivpxrav. 
IloXXxg 3s ^ #AAas I* &m* iv r*7$ r^iiioig [Airxirhrxg. "BtejLxg 
Agy»j ^ A#£g*W, ^ UoXv^gccriig. 1® 

11. <PIA. "Atott* 3<siyj? rci ^s^l r#v ^^Aswy, ^ ^;xp£ 3g?v 
air 19 x* Ti 3s o X#*£»rss htyrk, *J A^ygv>j$, *£ g;' t<? #AAe$ 
T6?v o-otpZv-; MEN. 'O ^gv Jjax^xTus xxjcil •**ifiZ$%iTxt (b) etsXzf%av 
xirxvTXg" G-vveurt & t*vTt» nxXxpidqg, tt^O^vwrsv^ xj Nss^g, ^ 
|*y*S xXXog XxXog vtscgcg. "Eii [zzvroi tTrtCpvcrci/ira xvt^ k} 3<fi>5i7-20 
*g< g* tjj? (px^xKdTrQTixg tx c-jcixv}. 'O 3s fi'frTifts tiioyiiy& 
TrxpotKzT [aIv XxedxvxirxXai tea *Arcrv(>tq> 9 £ Mi^x r<5 O^vy/, *£ 
#AAe<$ T^cr/ t#v <bqXvtiXuv' ukXoov 3g c\[ag*ZH\m xvrav, *§ rw 

nsrxXXIXV TVfflV XVX[AiT gXfAW&JV) yiXX Tg, *£ TZplTiTXl) Xj TX TTtXXx 



(a) 3<3aV*<}VTas$.] He alludes to the case of Dionysius, al- 
ready mentioned. 

(b) ^nxiyx^xiexvrxg.'] Socrates told the Athenian judges? 
when they sat upon his trial, " That the God, or Genius, 
" had commanded him to question all men, and convince 
" them of their ignorance of virtue." (Observe how like a 
person commissioned he speaks.) And again, he says? 
Olov ¥i[ta i*Ki7 o Qilg Zfjil t? <&qX$7 rxvry TrgoG-r&faiitiyxt) ro/xrov 
cvtx ag ituxg* hyupav 9 i§ iariftvv y >§ ovg;3<£#v hx sxxf** xdh 
wxvopxt. u As God seems to me to have placed me over 
44 this city, being such a person, as I cannot cease to excite, 
" and persuade, and ubraid every single man." Plat, in Apo- 
log, And it hath not been doubted, by many wise and 
learned Christians, that God raised him a light in the days 
of darkness ; as he had so wonderfully enlightened his mind, 
that no man, of the Gentile world, ever before or after him 
shone forth with such clear evidence, and strong conviction, 
against the corruptions of mankind. It is, therefore, with 
me no question that God appointed and inspired him to be ? 
in some measure, a fight to direct the Gentilea, 



90 

otftwyag odvrwt (a) lyrtKccXvTrlcJV^ ctirz Avtoio-^oci rk$ e&vdgccsy x* 
$ta<?yA7rlzG-frat ftZToiKsTvi % (pt^ovTcts tov Aioyzvqv. 

12. <J>IA. T&vrt piv Ikccvms* — T/ Vi to ipityicr/Ltx tji>i ottsp h 

5 K?Xn tteyts x-iKvpZc&ca kuto, toov <&\%g*icm j MEN. Evyi vm/a- 
V7i<7oc,$* k yotQ olV on&)$ <wiz\ t&tx Xzyztv -zr^oQipivog, ?vocfi7roXv 
a7ri7r'hcivn§Yii} tS Xoya. A ioiT^I&ovTdg ycig p&v -srct^ ccvroig^ <ur^B-ar«,y 
*i (b) oTQVTccvus IkjcXyig-iccv 7zip\ toov KOtvvj rvutytpovlav. ihoov XV 
7?oXXi£$ G-vvS-zevTocS) kvct[Ai%ocs IjUctvrlv to7$ vgKgoTs iv6vg US t$ mvt6$ 

10 qv tmv (c) ixzXy.rt&raJv. Aiux,'/j$-/) piv itv y^ kxXcc' TitevTctiov ol 

TO OrSgl TCCV -STteQ-iUI. Er&} ya.^ CCVTCOV KXTYiyOO^TO TVoXXct) Vy 

ouvot,, flix, x^ tzAa^oviia,) x^ vm^c^/ia, v^ oCbiKiu,^ tzX(&> cLvet?ci$ Tt$ 
tcov llYjfiuyojytov oiviyvca ^•/ityirpx toioZto* 






15 u 'E^i^h -sroWot, x] tzx^cIvougi o] <&\iicrioi ^oaxri /ura^u, tov fit'tv, 

K U^7fd^0VTig V^ /SiX^OfUVOt, X^ TffCtv\cC TP0-7T0V T&fV (UTV>^Tv)V KXTCCtPgO- 

" v2v7g£, isioiclett ty\ (d) fivXyj x^ tm liiua, luu^^v ci7r*S~dv6>o-t, fa 
u p\v o-a/LiaTM avT&iv xoXa^iB-xt, h.sa^x7ti^ x^ to, tuv aXXav <t?ovv- 

*< P%V TU$ dl 4 /V X>"' < > XV0C7nfA,(phi<70Cq aV& lq TOV filOV) KOCTX^ViG-B-Xi 

20 u h **? gW$, vftgig dv h tm r oust a ^ictydyavi (e) uvpiddccs Itmv 
u tarlVTl k} BiKoriV) ovoi i% ovc-jv yiyvoptvot, k} ayfictyopj&vTig^ ^ vttq 

* C TC0V (GrlVqTUV i/\0iV))QfA,iV0t, T%VTivhv dl Xot7T0V* AllVCit UVTcl$ 

i( U7ro@avuv." — (f) a Eim t^v yv&pw K^ytav HtKiteTiwt©*) 



(a) hriKeLXMav."] Stephanus renders this word by oo&cu- 
ra?is, the propriety of which, to signify drowiflng a noise, I 
cannot see. 

(b) t&pvToims.'] See the notes upon Cone. Deor. 

(c) ix.KMo-ioteav.'] 'Exx.M7im?vi<s signifies, one-of-i he -assembly - 
of-the-fieofde. -I know no exact corresponding term, used by 
the Romans. Concionarius signifies rather & frequenter -of - 
s\ich.-asse?nblies, than a member of one. 

(d) /3yA? xj 3^».] See the notes upon Cone. D cor* 

(e) pvpicidcc$.~] Mvp/as signifies ten thousand ; so that twenty- 
five times that will make two hundred and fifty thousand. 

(f) E*Vs tkv yvdpw.'] When any man offered a decree, or 
a law, to be passed; either in the senate, or assembly of the 



91 

W tfizvtritvs, (pvXvis 'A\&eti\t*h<&? — T*m* avxyva?S-ivl&' rS 
i}/Yi<Pi<r/&!ZT(&>) (a) liri^Qio-uv ph ccl &£%ott, iTnyji^crov^fji Se Td 

yap \v\iXv ytyvzrxi, j£ xt/p*#, res *j>&yy00^6E)r&» 

13. Txvtx ulv 3« <ro< t« Iv tj? IxxXyrisf. ~'Eya> di X7ri£ ktyly- 5 
p&Ylv sHtcdy ?a Ttt(>ieio& ^rgdtf-sA&av, ixirtvot airbv ra vidua owy^ 
rdpiv©*, thru* -sr^cq [At, weTev rtvcc iyiTro rbv cigtfdv fiiov. O 02 
yiXd<ra$ (sV* Tivv^Xov ri yi^hritv. *J &%p)v^ *§ teirTopmdv), u 'Q> 
ii ritcvcv (Qvi?t) rhv uiv otlrictv oi$d era ?%$ uftoeiag) in vr&pci rat 
w eo$oiv fcy«vsro, * t& aura yfyVAJexovraw g&vroTV* At«^ 8 S^/$ iy 
44 Xtyav nsrgig <n* dfrtfgyiiut y#£ v7ro ra t Vcthtt,u,dvQv{&>* MwecftZf) 

" 4*ipuev\* lv r& jSiW*' *0 3s, J>j ; ^S #-r#y#yfiW, ^ sardAu T#v 

M (b) iS^r<wy agi?®" fitfy >£ fir^^v|r$|@ i » ii &>? *S$ a$£*<rvvn* 
si «rav?dfAtv&> r'4 uirtapoXeyiftj >£ (c) t*M *? #fp6«S IflrfraareiV) 



people of Athens, he was said i3*-f7« rjy yw^uvj *o propose 
that opinion. The following proper names have here been 
occasionally made, and humourously adapted, by Lucian. 
I accordingly take the liberty to render 9 A?u€etvrid$-o4 by the 
made word exsangiiana, the bloodless, I would render the 
whole sentence thus* in English: Sk&ll, the son of Skeleton^ 
a native of Ghostiand, of the tribe of the bloodless, proposed 
this decree— 'APu£*vt/«$, ab a, priv. 8c X&&st$ gutta, vel 
humor. 

(a) Iwg^ifflfeB-flo.] From this passage we may observe that 
the magistrates and people of Athens voted in different 
ways 3 perhaps, on account of the distinction there was be- 
tween them. Each of those who voted with pebbles had two 
of them ; one black, and the other white. If he voted for 
the question, he put his white pebble into the urn, placed 
for that purpose in the assembly ; if against it, the black one. 
See. Pott, Antiq. 

(b) 'iJttf-TSj.] Plain unlearned men* 

(c) r'tM *? ipx^-] The ends for which the world was made, 
and the principles out of which it was made ; subjects con- 
stantly disputed upon by the philosophers, to little pur- 
pose. 



92 



M t§ (a) x*r*irTitffUt rcov (b) <ro<pvv **?*» trvXXiyicr^v, Kj rd 
" r&utvret X^ov iyn<rdpivo$, tSto f*im \% ctirettrog &}$**7, 9*1*9, to 
« oregov ev S-s^gvc^ «r*g* Jg<o>iK yeXSy ** foAA*, ^ (c) wsgJ 
« un2i» So-**?****." (d)*fl* rim?, «r^« *>{!(> **r 'AcpodiXov 

14. 'By* 3« (jg y*g » 3 « ^ «0> " A * g *?• * M**g«S*{£*v« ? 
« (<fV0 rt h*ft&**ptv, ^ &* Jw*«v *30«* I? tov 0£»V 'O ?j 
wgo* t*^«, " 0*pp8i> (<M0 £ Mgvi*wi, r*gi>f~ y*g *«« *5 
« uvpdyptm i™h%*> utz*™? K*i ^ k**y*yw ui vfa ti 

44 <Voy *S TpQetviv, Kuxi76iv *«Tsg#ov7*< «**« &*«**&* Tavrjj? 

*„ £<*, ^ u*w fey W *?* 'eaa* W € H^i 5 *S *** S^W*W« 
ly«, j£ top M^y« kff****1**f>> %****<** f*<*** 3'* ™ r^M* 

"a; Karaa-lv***-] Stephanus shews that xxt*v%* usually 
governs a genitive case, probably of the preposition ««r«, 
\ontra, in composition. 

(b) ™0»v rvMoyi^Sv.] 7%<? carming- arguments, or «o- 
/*/«^, upon which the philosophers so much valued them* 
selves. • 

(cV »•«! *«#' w*«3««^'] This is a veI T comprehensive 
sentiment, and, no doubt, was Lucian's own principle. But, 
had he excepted virtue and vice, he would have shown, if 
pot so much humour and freedom, yet a much better mind 

(d) 'Qi &*&> *&] 0d y St xi *' 



93 



"this dialogue exhibits such a true and clear prospeet of the vanity of 
human grandeur, and the extreme folly of most of those pursuits 
in which we so eagerly interest ourselves, that it is almost im- 
possible to read it without becoming wiser and better. 

^EFM. — TiyiXccg* d) X&e&v ; ij ti to irogfauov u-roXt7r&)v 9 ^iveb 
&vsXnXvQ<As U t«v <r?x£X<rxv ifti(?&V) g i&oivv eiwdag iTri^ca^icitiiv to7$ 
uvw TTpciyuurri; XAP. 'E^if^ijw, a 'E^vj, i2uv o.7ro7d Wi rob 

U TO) fif&) JCj &, ZTgWrhsFlV Ci aV&^£07T6t h C&VTW, n TtvaV $Z£X(.iiVQl) 

<vroivT'<; otpatp&t pxttovTeg -z>ot,£ quag' %$>U yu% ccvt&v adxxpvTt 5 
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aviXiiXv&cL \g to <bo2g. Kxi p&at doza \g aiov IvTiTv^yAvxi vol* 
&'jccy>,'-u$ ysip ip &'§' on {.n |ypT2^vo$-/yy 5 i£ dil\i'.g Zkx^x, cog av 
tidag kirafici. *EPM. -Of ?%oX*i pot) & tsrogQuiij' kmwfifuii yd^ ti \0 
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rs Wi, ?t} 2ihcz fJtM fip&Svv&net {AS) oXov v^rt^ov IcLry ihxiy gtu^cloxs 
raj Zpfyu' f t 07rS(> tov (, H$atsov tv^cow IwonjFS) pr^y ku/lcI Tirccyag 

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f£ cc£to$ (c) *h*%*m. XAP. HiPio-yu S*-£tf$ (d) «AA#$ zs-Xxvd- l.£ 



(a) vs*yiVx{^.]- PrbtesiJaus. See your dictionary for him; 

(b) rf avei Ait.] To Jove above. Said, perhaps, to distin- 
guish him frqm Jove belotv, or Pluto, in whose realm Mer- 
cury had also an employment. 

(c) olvo%oa)v.'] Alluding to Vulcan's hobbling* manner of 
helping the Gods to nectar; which was so humourous, and 
raised such a loud laugh among them, as put an end to a 
fierce quarrel, in which Jupiter and Juno were then engaged; 
Horn. 11. i. 

(d) kxxoj^.'] Frustra is ah odd signification of Hxxag. 
Perhaps, it is used in this sense, from the common meaning, 
tiUter ; because, when a man doth any thing otherwise than 
it ought to.be doue, he may justly be said to do it in vain. Ste- 
phanus shews it is taken {ox frustra, not only in Homer, but 
also in Plato's Phsed. Txvtk pot }ok,& *XX&; Xiyi'^ " H&e 
u mihi videor frustra dicere." 






§4 

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plv ftyKitg Z7T( T% X,C&T<X,'3'pMfiC&T(&> iKTOt&ilS) Ct)pag Tiroi XXPllOitt 

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uv Irav vi otstrptGh yhoiTo, Ehct Ipl plv arojtri^vrlicr&a.i S&^g, 
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t£ 9-ccvebTfi igy*> k) W tS IIA^^ ittf&v (a) Zppixv-) pk vzx- 

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t£t v^'A cncz-7rriov* 

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Gxcnitv. XAP, Oi<rih&, a> E^p^ krri^ zioj^ct, Xzyuv iya zrgog 

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TsrXayioe, rvj o$~6v? zp^io-r>y v^ ro xvpa vyviXov ctpQviy rori vpug pi* 
V7S ay voids xiXzvsrz rw (b) oQortv fzTXxty % ivl&vMi oXtyov r£ 



(a) fyptvv.'] IF this word, and the rest of the sentence, 
is to stand as it is, I own I can make neither sense nor gram- 
mar of the whole : I, therefore, cannot help reading it, <r\ SI 
f^ ctvrov y-aXvcu hzpyziv rk tv Setvirv spy#, p\ yzts.^ciyoiy^vrct 
ttoXxS r£ x^ovk, ^ rhyris HXxrmoe, cLoypv fyptaont* According 
to which reading I have also rendered it. 

(b) Mm* ff-gfA^/.] To furl the saiL 



(a) aroSoj, a «r«ygit3gig^eg7» T# -zrviv t u&ri. Eya) di tw irvftfav 

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ydg oc^flc §yv<3tT<^. 10 

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IKCLVHV TCZVTVfJ xXlftCLKCt, Z&iV OtOtCiVUg 9^ 73'P t 0Cr'<o6&(rtV ZP^Qg TQV XjfGCVOV. 

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Katt frxvpd^a ii croi TavToLTiodfttx, that aox.it. to* 9 ' ArXotilei S^A^^ 
ttbiri) og tov <aohov uvtov tig ^y (pigsty dys%&n> ittag dTravlocg.' 
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erv dy, a 'E^ec?) *£ oi (o-oi^cct gl^rs. 'EPM. 'AA^^catr^, a 
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dvxpoftXzv&Usv Tyjy Oo-cruv zrPMToV) (do~7vi^ n^iiy vtynyiiTott tI> %tt(§* 
*% o dp %iTix.T cay 'O^t-jg®-*, 

Avtxq Itt Own HqXtov ihoo-ityvXXov, 35 

(a) /cro^s.] U^g is used to signify that rofie by which the 
lower corner of a sail is managed, called, in English, the 
sheet. The Latins also called this rope, fies: 

Una omnes fecere pedem. Virg. JEiu v* 

(b) 'AA#sa>s viiag,~\ Olus and Rphlaltes. 

K 



96 

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Kat*> in itl'Av gv rvj hxapitx tS xpxvx* X7f\ p&iv yap rm ia&v, 
[toy iq -lav tot k} Avoid tyctivirxi. 'A arc Ss tv^g lrtn.PX$, & •jsrXi&if 
3 ItxXix$ ^ IZiKiXiag. 'Ano Jg rail) ci(>xla)tov } (a) rx iwt Tcioi t* 
r$-*y ftovx. JLxjci&t* jj Kgiikfi &r ttxvv c-xtysog. Mwazrwria 
r>ttiv, & vrotypctv, Kj « -O/tjj, #s eoixgv, g<V# Uot^ctcrcrbq fcrJ <3-£<7*v. 
XAP. Oyr^y -zrotatw ogx povov (&k Xi7rlori^ov l£tpyxpMpts0oB to 
&oyov< c*7rof£'/)xvvovlzq ztiget t£ TTtB-xvx. tiro. ffvyxurccppiVS-ivrtq xvtm 
ivtanxgcig Tqq Qp'/iP)i 6tzodo,UY,Tlx'ii<; mli^e&ttf&iv., %vv\pt&iv\tc toov itpx- 
Pi&v. EPM, (dapper kcr$xXaq yxg g'|g* xirc(,v\* % piTXTiQet rh 
Oirv,V) \-riicv\tvoHo&& £, Hxpyx7aog. 'l3£, Ivrxniftt xvJtg. £y 
fc%s/, -axil a- cpa* 'A:ftt£«jfpg ijtf^ ^ cu- XAV. "Ogsfaf, &> 'E^uyi, 

TW %UQX' % yUg iTTt jXlitpxy £ti TXVTyiV TY,V fiiffcOWW XVX%iZx£iig. 

15 EPM. E/ys j&g* tdiiv &ix$i$) a Xxgcsv, Uyxfla, £;s m Sj Ufijpo*) 
*j x?$xXq-, id tpiXoCzupovx iivxi. AAA 5 'iyja px ty,$ o*i%txg. x) 
<Pii%% m?4 kxtx, t% oXiG-3-higx tjxtsw. E byi civeXiiXvCccs xj o-'j. Kxt 
ixiiTnp^ oik'jpvu€>(& q JJxpxo-o-og Ifh pixy incin^©* xxpxv WtXxZo- 
{.iivct* x,cth^6t}iii9&. Sv oi pot Kor, h tcvkX -, zs-tpt%Xi7rav lirto-jiiirti 

20x7rxv}x* 

4. XAP. O^CO yyjv TTOXXvjV Vy (b) hliXV/,'.' nvx pzyxXqv <nri(>ippilg- 

vl uv6p*>7rigg urcivv <>pixph$, text rtvxq ^aXi^s uvTav. 'EPM. UoXaq 

ixsTvai zicriv, §5 (p&>Ae&$ iivat vo.uc^ug. XAP. OirSa a Ej^t"J, ^5 

25 ^csv vipAv -nzTrpetKlett ; 'AXXu pdrw r^v Uxpyx(T<rot xvrfl KarxXtXy 

*£ TKV O/TJjy, J^ T^ dAXX 6^Y\ ft£TlX!vJj7CC i UlV. 'EVM/'On Jl ; 

Z\.AV. Ovdh xxpi&lg iyayi ana r£ vv>jA5 opoJ. 'E^aAJay^ ?s « 

.•SroASf?, id 0PVI XVV& fAOVOV, atrKiQ SV ypxQx~lq GgUVs u\Ku T%q 

&v&pa)7r&g xvr^g, y^ x tff^XTiiSfi* ^ otx 'XiyxrW cea-Tsi^ 'on t us rl 
f&QGOTov \v\v%ci)v notq yi\&$ixs k^ *£■& pi, 0. ti ysX&yv ; 'Attxrxg 
ydp t TiV&>)Vcrfr? i vlg vTri^oXqv. 'EFM, T/ ol tSt* j^v j XAP. 'E?ri 

(a) T£* sV; r^lg rS' v If p».] TO!?-p!aces-w/z<9w-^(?5e-hither-parts 
X)f the Ister ; that is, " next to him, as he stood. 5 ' For the 
article 0, with the syllable 3g, as <jSs, v^i, reSg, is generally, as 
Stephanus observes, taken demonstratively, like £r(^>; as, ^ 
T>jSg rvj -Hotel, in hac urbe. 

(b) xipw nvx,] Charon, very naturally, calls the whole 
ocean a kind of a lake, because he never had seen any larger 
extent of water than that of the Stygian lake, or the other 
rivers of hell. They were, in all, six : Styx, Acheron, 
Phiegethon, Lethe, Cocytus, Avernus. 



97 

Jsraryay, oJuuu x,Xn*Ufr vro riv^ rm QiXm, u E$ rliv v?if>6t.Uv 
u pcLXiftx. %£*>'* ? i<Pn+ *j uiTX&v Myofi& art* t£ riyis; nl^UpU 

S7ri7ri7-£crX) &« o»^ era fctv/jr&vitS^y &7*iKTnvzv cevrov. EyiXuvce, 

fierSt&t) a)-. pt^AAdv fite7roi,ui *J cckvoiui. 'EZM. i; E% Urgsuots' 5 

7^ t£t« y#g gy& idcr o fAoii ere t. *£ l£vo-px.i?aTov tv fi^xftzi &7ro?ccv&i 
"sretp *Ou.;<o% Tivk i£ 'Su^oq thtc It ow hococov. Ku7rudczv lina t<a 
!«•%, fteuw&d u?itcirt uu*Xv&-sluV) aXXa <jet$Z$ GrdviX .«£#'• 
XAV. A*/* pivot. 'LVM. 

'A%*4>9 2' OCX) TOt U7T 6$.$etX t UM l\09) Yj GT^iV i'>ry}ZV) 10 

xav. t/1f»f ; *epm. v h3ji *tfi$ xap. 'rxtgfvSk y % T»<pxk 

€ AvyKivg i*s?v©-, 00% zs-glf l.d' &<,% vv to Swi t»t» wgoS/2«co"*i 

f6S, *£ a7T0K^tV^ l^UTMTt. 'AXA« /SfiXii XCCtOt TOV O^&JJgOV KM'/GO 

tg&pxi a, &; ju-d9v\$ &$' ocv-iov apiXvi ovia. pi tmv 'Opy-^ $ £PM. 15 
K«; wo'S-fy cv $#**$ t/ rav biuv% sihvoii, mvrifa au j£ wgoc"»#tt-@* 
Sv ; XAP. 'O^ i 'Ovu^ifiKOv t5to sj t«v Tg^VflV £y# ?g oVeVg 
$ti7rog$uzvov av7ov UTToQavovloO) -zroXXct faY&o%vl(&> UKXVCX,^ IViOJV 
lTtp'zpvY\pst.i, KettTOi %$tfiai ip&$ % pixels tots KociiXccZsv. 'Ecrg/ 
y<*£ iigl^ro #?:<>> * tarclyv ccirtov Tiva ooo^nv toTj srAsscfVj a (a)'l2f20 



(a) l n$ I7oo-s*S£v. &c] I can make little sense of this 
language down to v*£v. inclusive, as it stands, both here and 
in the best editions: for the third *£ downward instead of 
coupling a verb to what goes before, as the former a£*s have 
done, unnaturally subjoins the participle xv*£» to S-vzXX&f 
fytivn ; so that w^av is not only absurdly used, in that 
respect but. also made a nominative case, to which there is 
no verb in the sentence, either expressed, or understood. 
To this is added the inconsistency of making vtto t5v hr$? to 
depend upon xvkoo^ while xvxav is referred to Uoju^xv above; 
as if Neptune had confused the sea with the verses spoken 
by FXomer. The reading y-vxav biwyf*) and understanding 
vtto r&v i«#r, as following ly^icm in the sense, would make 
just language and sense of the whole. Yet, I fear, that 
would be doing too great a violence to the text; because the 
alteration, from tcvxav to Uv^s, would be taking too much 
liberty But, by throwing the parts of the sentence into the 
following form,. which I have presumed to follow, in my 
translation, I find they will make both sense and grammar. 



98 

* e o V\o7 r cioa>v a-wiyetyt rug vityiXctg, itj \roLpk%l rov Ttivrov^ coc-Trtp 
*' ra^i/vjjv nvai l^ccXcav riiv r^eaivxv^ ^ -w-ctvag rug B-viXXug apoGvvt) 
M t£ uXXx TzaXXa xvxwp rhv S'xXcca'crxv^ i>7ro tmv nrm* yjupm aQvtu 
x} yvo(p(&> \u7rl<7C0V) oXiyx ditv zst^tir^f^/iv v/xi'v rhv vxvv. ' Org Vgg 
6 *£ vetvTtcccug Ikuv(&* knqp,i<n raw pac^/viiav rag -zroXXxg (a) xvrvj 
XkvXX?) Kj Xa^vZhii ?c KvHXa)7ri. 'EFM. Ov %xXi7ro9 if yj Ik 
rorXrv spirts 4f\lyx (b) yzv dixQvXxrluv. 

without altering one word: which makes it, in some sort, 
probable, that they might have been misplaced in the trans- 
cribing. I, therefore, read it thus: 'Qg o rWg,&yv o-vvnyecyf 
rug vitpiXctg, ^ tsrXG-as ret.", S-vzXXx$ apofofS) >£ IrcLpotfy rov sj-avray, 
iwi^ rofivwj nvot \{aM&X®v rj* rpicuvxv, t£ uXXx TztXXk xv>ia>y 
rhv &dX&GVs&v* p?ro rav 17TMV, %v.u.m x$v&> t£ yvo(p®~> iu7rz&-aV) 
ex/ys Suit wi^iirej-^iv y.ph rh vxvv. Of which, see my transla- 
tion. And I am the mere induced to think, this might 
have been the original position of the text, because it 
makes the several incidents to follow one another, in the 
order of nature j for it puts the gathering of the clouds 
first ; next to that, the raising of the stor?ns; and then, the 
confusion of the sea. But, lest I should seem to have gone 
too far, no* only in altering the position, but also in substi- 
tuting my own translation, I shall, for the reader's satisfaction, 
here set down the vulgar translation of the whole period, 
word for word ; which is as follows : " Etenim postquam 
" cantilenum quandam navigantibus non admedum prospe- 
" ram neque salutarem fuisset auspicatus, carminum vi 
" impulsus Neptumls, et nubes convocavit, atque tridente 
44 velut toryna (instrumento, quo in olla aliquid teritur et 
" agitatur inter coquendum) injecto, cum fluctuum procellas 
" excitavk, turn aliismuitis turbis universum miscebatmare, 
" acleo ut parum abfuerat, quin tempestas, quse una cum 
44 densa caiigine imminebat, navem nobis subvertisset.** 
The English translation, by Mr. Cashine, runs much in the 
same wide way. 

(a) avrn ZxvXXn- Svc] Perhaps, the meaning is, " that he 
u vomited out many of his rhapsodies along with Scylla and 
u Charvbdis, he" that is 5 along with his descriptions of 
ki these ;" which meaning I prefer. 

(a) y£v.] Though this particle be in the best editions, 
yet I see no use of it here, since #v goes a little before. 



XAP. Eivl yel(> pot* 

lis yot^ o§' Wi zjd%i$-(&> ifig?iv$ rs, fAyy*4 re, 

*' 1 &'ifi'x<&* uv6ga7rtvv xityczXiiv Jj'S' ivpjsctg evftiss ,- 

&i "EAAjji^, on rot rccv^ov agcLuev®* $ZPU 2ta tS exdtv fW9* 5 
XAP. K#i za-o'e-w ^ixctioTS^ov »v Iptl, a E^uy, l7rxivotiv,\cg ocvtqv 
croi tov MtXuva pd' oXiyov %vXXxZm Iv&ir-ofAvii h to crxxtpidiov, 
oTTorctv 7)y~r> ss^oq v,uolq vtto t% upoift&TcLni tcov avIay&JVfMv kcctx- 
irxXetio'S'ih T* SavctTig. ^jjJs %vvu$ one-)*; xvtov vTrovxiXi^zi. Kxtx 
■o\[jt.a%iTot.t hf*h ^r t Xxh^ pifiVYjftzv(&> rav sityxvcov t%t&v, x^ tS xgons. 10 
llvv 2s fAiya. $(>ovh S-ccvjaeA^optivt&r zri£t rvi r% txvpx (popx, Tlisv 
otYida&sv j 'A(<ct (a) IXtti^uv xvtov (b) k} TifavfeioSm'aoTii EPM. 
HcOiv lxsiv(&> '&x veins vvv uwifivvtvo-uiv xv h Azj&n rvcavr'/i ; 
XAP "Esc tztov Isk ilg fcxK^xv yiXotTX v t p7» nz-x/s^ofix, ottqt df 
£rAs*, fJtv^l \[&7riocC) %% 'iir&t txvpov in x^xcB-xt owdfAiv^*. 1.5 

5. Sy ^s fzot itciivo flirt, T/$ ti xp oo' aXX®-* o ffif&vvg &*£%i 
&%*'EXXmv as souts-v, X7rl y%v tyi$ $oAm* EPM. Kvge?, a Xxf&v, 
o Kxu%vo-is* is n\v ufffcviv r&xXxt M}j§&/y l%ivf*rv, vvv Hipo-m vd/} 
IfTOiYifiV UVXi* Kxl AffFVgl&V ivocyfc(& j £X(S>-> iX-PXT^Ci, xZ BctZv- 
X&va ztxpi^y^xto* >d vvv iXoto'iiovn Sari Avdixv sotxtv* ooc, x.xdzXav'ZQ 
tov KgoiGroV) ugftdi xttxvtojv* XAP. O Kgo'tr®* hi -zns tzoti kx- 
x,{ivo$ Istv ; ETM. 5 Exs7(7S a.TroZxi'yov 1$ T'/,v [AiydXw aic^owoXiv 

T^V TO TQlTtXiSV TS^(^H. Hdp^US IxUVOCl. Ko.1 TOV K^oT^OV OCVTQV 

cp^.; K^r, Itfi xXivfft %pvq-^$ xot6qp.ivov, XoXavt too 'A^vaioD atocXi- 
■yofAHov j BzXu uKiScreiff4.lv ccvtuv o, Ti ■£ Xlyssrt 5 XAP. Hclvv25 
■f4,iv kv. — KPOI2. u '12 |svg ? A5"ij»«« {f$H y*£ u>% tov -ztAStov, 
4 * kJ t'6$ frrirav^xz) v^ o&o$ etonnfAoq %yv(ro.c, tfiv qulv* fCj n\if eLxXr,y 
' ii TZcXvTiXuccv) 2i7rz ftoi tivcc vyq touv vrdvTC'Jv av^a)7TMv 8V&&tfb9vi$e£. 
* 4 tov uvea" XAP. T< u^ot "ZoXe-jv leu 5 'E?M. Qetppu. Oi)5ev 
■ayivis) & Xagav. X'OA. u> 12 Kgei?£) cXiyoifAiv ivoociuoyzs. 'Eycoo® 



(a) ■Jaw/^iw.'] Stephanus shews that IkwH^a is sometimes 
taken, in malum partem, as in this place. And the figure 
•catachresis warrants it. 

(b) kom] This particle, here, seems very odd. I know 
net how it comes in, except by understanding: the sentence 
thus: " Is it, that he expects to die also ? (That is) Must we 
" think that he expects to be, at any time, concerned with 
" death too, as he is, at present, engaged in the affairs of 
li ihis 'life ?" 

LOFt k2 



loo 

* ( Ss 60V oidot) KhioQiv, f£ Bit wot iyZ/act! iv^xt^tovi^dTug yzvio-S-xi) 
" T8$ rns-hpu'ag Trattoa.^** XAP. T'£$ 'Agyottv <Pno"h &t@h, t&{ 
ciuot zrgatjjv e67roB"obvivTs6$, \irii ty,v pnTtPo!, Imob'vvTis lYXKvtrctv hrt ri?$ 
uTrqvng %%pt zrplg to k%ov. KPOIS. '* "£§■#. 'E^iTAferetv Tot, ztpsotoc 

5 " iKiivoi Tv.q ivdcttpiovixg. 'O ^ivrip^og 21 rig uv tin, fSOA. TsAA^ 
" o 'ji&nWifi H zv t* \Zlca-. *} uniS-aviv i)7rk£ r?$ txretr^og. KPOIS, 
a y Eyco §s, x.d§-cipfioc, » o-e/ So*« ivbodpm ehoti ; SOAt OyJs^-^ 
a oioot, Kga/Vg, fv ^J ar^oj ro riXog utpU* tS /3/** o yot,^ B-uvxTog 
" ax^iQhg itey%og tqov toixtmv, ^ ro ti%gi orplg to rippcc iv^ui- 

10" povwg dixviavoti" XAP. KdxXifce,) a 2oA#v, oti ipav kx. 
fTTtteAnorott, (a) «AA# to «ro^j^&gr0y otvro afyoig yivio~&oii rhv enrlpl 
T%v toiovt&jv x^tcnv* 

6. AXXoi rtvccg zxitvvg o K.^oleog htvrif&irst) h rl *£ It} rav apt&f 
(pzgxcri ; £PM. UXi'v&ag too FLvQix x^veoig ecvetri&r,ar^ pitrB-bv rcov 

* 5 ^gjjff^fcafy, (b) v$' cov *$ &V6%UTdt f&txgov vgsgov, (PiXo'^xvrig 2s 
mvviq lxro7r&$, XAP. Ekuvo yoig ifiv o %PVG-og to XstftTrgov, o 

M7rQ?(X%il TO V7T<V%P0V (AIT l^vB-^XTOg' VVV yU^ TXfWTOV g/SoVj UKX&V 



(a) cixx* to zrofipztov, Sec.] It seems to me strange lan- 
guage, to say, " That the boat should be the -judgment " 
Nay, I doubt but it is nonsense,. Therefore, x^/riv must 
here signify xyrvpiov, "that by which we can form a true 
"judgment of any thing," which I mean by examen, in my 
translation ,* though it is much to be doubted, whether Kpiris 
hath ever, elsewhere, been taken even in this sense. Grsevius 
renders the whole thus: " Sed cymbam ipsam existimas 
" esse ubt de taiibus judicium fieri necesse sit." But how 
can *%tvH signify, in his way, " Locus ubi judicium fieri 
44 possit," without straining it very hard? 

(b) v<$ ' £v t£ dftoXsiTcct.'] I know not how these oracles 
coteld destroy Crcesus, except it was by giving him hopes, or 
assurances, that no attempt upon him, or his kingdoms, 
should succeed : and no doubt but that, by such suggestions, 
they often flattered kings, who sent them great presents. 
Here, also, x} stands oddly : and, perhaps, here too the 
meaning is, " That these oracles not only engage him, at 
if * present, but shall, also, be the cause of his death, by mak- 
** ing him too secure." Or, perhaps, rather, thus, " He 
" hath lost his gold by these oracles, and ? in a little time ? he 
w shall also lose his life by them," 



10 i 

CCU, *EPM. 'EksIvO, CO Xctfi'sJV) TO X0&1/&6V 6V0/&X) x^&i^p.xyjtiToi, 

XAP. Kxt pw %% oga d y rt esyxB-h ctvrS -ztqog'ZS-iv, zi (xh xgx txto> 
poyoV) cri fix^vvovTXi oi (piftovTtg xvto. *EPM Ov yx^ oto'B'x orot 
nroXzuot eiid txto, k^ Z7riQ%XxL y^ Xyrvptx*, k} lirtogKi'xty f£ <pGitoi, 
Kj dzG-<xx, x^ -zrXxg pxKplg, t£ Iwprogt'ai, j§ ^nXztxi* XAP. Atx 5 
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V7T xvtcov' txtov $1 oXty&v \k <cr©AA5 t£ fidS-%g ot {6ZTxXXivoy\z$ 
dvopvrl^o'i. IlAqy, xXX° Ik tv$ yqg, f£ #t(3)^, co(T7rsp o (XoXiQd(&>j 10 
^ txXXx* XAP. As<vjjv Tffas Asyg;? t£i/ xvQgd-Trotv tw (a) asSsA- 

' TSg/#y, Of T&G-&TOV ZffOlTX SgCOG'lV, &%%&•) *$ fio£(jicd$ k] J UMT (&> . E PM . 

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KxTxyzXx ydg t£ Kgoicrx f£ Tqg /xzyxXxv%txg T\S fixg+iXgx. K.xt 
tcoi 2okz7» zpZG-Ssc/ ri fi&XzTxi xvtcv. 'UTTGLKXcapiv «y. 15 

w 7. SOA. E;V« pot, a Kpc7os* otzt ydo ti dur&cii Tcoy vrXiv- 
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u Hag yct^ %; SOA. HoXX^y ftoi XiyiLg, co K^o?<rs, -zrzv/ocv Iv raZO 
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« xvtxv i KPOI2, O/ crd^ovlsg hxxh- SOA. T A^ h y> 
<c K2go$, cog Xoyo7roiQa-i Ting, Z7ri'y Av^o7g, %pvG-xg px^xi^etg cry 
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" o-ton^og onXxd'4» SO A. Kxi iiy% pw t»tov J 5rxpx?Kivd,a-xiO) 
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i{ f&U) co dy§-£6)7Ti. SOA. Mil yzvono /xlv kv xtoo txvtx. <f>xivrt 
•* dz »y xpzi'v&f Tcy o-idn^ov opoXoycov. \ KPOIS. Ovkxv *£ too 0zS 

(a) xZiXTS^xyJ] 'AbsAregs; (i. e. o ro /SiXTt^, sive fitXriw 
^ei yiyvurxw) signifies aybo/. Stefih* 

(b) fASTxszXXsirS-xi] Mittere-qui-advehant. Stefih. 

(c) "Hy ^Tdxp/y ? .] If you would argu?. See the notes upon 
Dial, xxxi. 



102 

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M uvotKciXfiv ; ZOA. Oval e-id/j^x Ikuvg$ ys daio-iTcti' uXX' J'v Tl 
a y j d'h%bv^ qv ri ft^vcrov uvct&yg, aXXoi$ piv asroTi ktyi^cc f£ eppaiov 
a tern civct.TifotK&g, (bcrjx.zvo'iv, r, Boi&Toig, J AzXtyoTg olvtoI^ $ Tivt 

5 a Ty^«vy&> X/^FJf to> §2 0£a> oXtyoy piXu tgov cav %gvo~c7roia)v. 
"KTOIZ, Ahi crvpxra &X%to> z7go<?7roXip.i7s- k} Q&eug" 'EPM. 
Ov (psgsi Avoog, a Xd^av, riv Tsrocppyjo-ioiv. to; tw kXiifruav rcc? 
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v'Tro r% K^a ecvccftQqvcci' ny-xcrci yoi^ Tqg TLXoobxg 'zs-^oonv uvayivacr- 
KfSffYi; rot ixd<?a) l7r1x.1x.XcdG' pivot,.' Ev oig yd tocvt lyiygcLifld) ' 

" K(?0KT6V /Lclv kXoSVC/A V^O Kv^», Y*V(>OV dl fiCVTOH V7r' IxilVV?) TY\g 

<c Mci.ro-uyiTto'os a?r4$ccviiv. 'Ooug tv\v HxvQiact) tjjv Itti tS inna 

I5rii XtvxS i%iXa,vvvFctv ; XAF. Nj A/a. 'EPM. Tcopv^g lx.sivn 

Ig-}' ?£ tjjv KitpaXiv yi WKVTtpxijoi, rs IC:W ayVij I? ccaxov IftZctXu 

mrXv,^ cliu,qlt(&>. Vgctg oi Kj tov vtov ccvra tov viccvuncov -, Kuu- 

Q,VG"/l$ iX,6%V4g IflV, Oi/TOg ficC<ri\il<rU fiiTc\ TOV TXCtTiQG!,, *£ JLCVglCC 

(b) <r$ccXzig iv Ti Aivv'p yCj AlvioTnx,, to tiXivtgmov puvug d,7ro&a- 
20 viTTctt, a^oxlitvccg tov 'A^v. XAP. *£1 zsroXXx yiXa>Tog. AXXci 
vvv Tig uv oivTXg Gr^oo-^ote'yyiizv iiTOJg L7rip<P£0ViivTc,g tm» UXXav $ 
J H Tig ctv ttig-iVGiiiv^ ag pir oXiyov %to$ piv ccifcp&XaTog tg-ect) 
HTcq 21 tw xiQxXkv ejrii lv dorxw cc!t/.oiTog ; 

8. ExiTvtg b\ Tig e<r*v, a c £g ( t6>J> tw gto^v^oiv ityio-^ioA 
25 i(67Ti7rQp7rYip, r i yog. J to oiab~/\pct*M tov dctxIvXiov [Aoiyii^os ctvctdi overt) 
tov l^vv OC.VGCTiy.UV, 

N/^<7» h dutyigVTf) fioC<7tXiVS Oi Tig iVfcllttt SlVXl} 



(a) -srxpig-cipsvov'] Ut vrapig-cto-Sou dicitur pro in mentem 
venire, ita (a-ocoig-dvai pro menii allcujus indere. Stefih. 

(b) G-tyetXug.'] Properly, tripped ufi. Hence, it is used to 
signify a person overthro%vn in Jus-projects. I, therefore, 
render it, inceptis-fru stratus. The part of Cambyses's his- 
tory here alluded to is that of his having, first, destroyed the 
temple of Apis, and the other Egyptian gods, and, then, 
sent a great army to Libya, to demolish the famous temple 
of Araraon; which army was entirely lost, in the sandy 
deserts of that country, by which he was rtpxXug, overthrown 
in his projects. See Herod. Lib. ii. axidJustin, Lib. h 



103 

'EM P. E?ys (a) wKgviug, a Xi/.^av* dxxk (b) HcXvx^cctw opxg 
raiv Xocutav tv^xmov ivhxipovx, oto/xtvov iivxi. 'At#£ kJ &r(&> uvr@** 
V7T4 tQ -wocp ze&r(& J oixsrx Mxi&vo^tx mrgoooBsis 'Oootr? tm q-ut^utt^, 

(C) CCVC6G-X0X07rt<7&liG ZTCCl, Ct,Q\l(&)~> ZX7TZCraV Tqq lV$GC,t{A6VlCC$ iV dXOCPit 

ts? %povt*. Ka,} tocvtcc yk^ T~ig KXa&Ss i7rvx%<Tct,. XAP. Evys 5 a 5 
'KXwQ*?' ytvtxag %} avrhsg* co /SsAr/V^ 9tj Tag xepttXag d-roTzt&vi, x^ 
dveurxoXoTrtfy, cog iliac- tv <&?$■(> atvrot ov\ig. 'Ev TiTOr* ol \ t 7Ctt.>- 
pirB-a)?) kg o:v dp' v^Acmgy dXyl'.voitpov x,xreb?rscrt£f£iV6t» 'Eytf 
ll yiXdffOjJLOLi tots yvojgto-xg ctvrm 'ixoc^ov yv/xvov h to) vxat,pChia^ 

UVft% -VtOPpVploiX, [X'4Tt Tidg&V) 7) xXiV¥)V %.£VffHV XOfil^OVTCtg, 10 

I 9. \EPM. Kctt to- ph T^TCffv #3s s|g/. — *T^v §s arA»j0vv, a Xcc^av* 
ie^S-) T%g nrXiovTc&g #t/r#i>, t&$ zroXi^vTctg, tx$ otxstl^oi&iws, TXg 
yi&^ySvTcig, t£s S^ve/^ovross, Tkg zr^oo-ocnuvTxg ,• XAP. Ogai 
<nrotxtXviv Tivx rvgeWy ^ /xeg-ov TOLectyfig tqv fitov, ^ txs (d) «zoXag 
yi ctvT&v lot xv /cos Toig (ruiivifnv, h Qtg oc7ro&g fxh (e) titiy Tt xhT^ov 15 
*/C u > ^ T0V *&M T w xzvTtJ. 'OA/yo; ¥z Ting, a>Weg o-p^xtg, dyxn* 



(a) ifx^rtiitg] Ux^iai signifies, to make verses, in mimickry 
of another man's, for the sake of humour, which is what we 
call burlesquing. So (as Stephanus shews) the first line of 
Homer's Qdyssea hath, from 

AvO£Ct, {XQi tviirS (fiXCM, <&0XvTpd?T0Vy — — — 

Been burlesqued to 

Avcgx poi tM7T.t ^ora GroXyxgoTOV)—— 
-zroXvTpoTrag signifying much versed in the knowledge of the 
world ; but -sroXvx^oTog, much clafificd* or aftfilauded. — The 
burlesque, in Njjcra lv dicpt^vTv — fieco-tXiug Ss Tig ivftzTXi uvcti* 
seems to me to consist in Charon's patching up an entire 
verse, in Homer's style and manner, by joining two scraps 
of Homer's own poetry. 

(b) noXvxe t dTi}v.~\ See the note to UeXvxpuTu^ in Dial, 
xxx ii. 

(c) ccvcco-xoXoTriG-B-iireTcciJ] Falo-infiscus-tolleiur. Stefdi. 

(d) Tsoxtig vftino-h lotxvicxc % ~] The meaning is, that the 
fieofile of the cities are like swarms of bees. 

(e) idiov Tt x'iVTpov.] Some peculiar sring ; by which is 
meant, that particular way each man hath in hurting his 
neighbour, such as by fraud, treachery, or murder, he. 
For men's different dispositions direct them to different 
ways of being wicked, 



104 

«J tplpXFi Toy (a.) V7.0Jll-Ti^y> O 21 ZB-ZglTlTO{&i*(&" OiVTXG \y. T* 

ctJxv$. tST&> c%X©"., Tiviq g.Wv j *ETM 'EAt/cj;, u Xczpmv* y^ 
osi,uxra >& rAv&ixi v^ «3ov«i >£ <p"tXoi(>yvP t lcx,i< x$ Iqydti, *& At<W ;> 
*£ rci roisivTci TiSTM ol *j cyvoicc pciv Kara %vvw l nt i u?f4.(y~TXi 
5 otvroh' ^ Zv/uroXilivsTui yt vl) Atce, ;£ 70 (*ir§** fd i *jgyi« *£ 
^yiXotvtthx,. ;£ ci'tctdict k} d^Q^tu. >£ (ptXctgyvoiu, O tycZ(&* 21 

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f&ct'hifu, oi^iut tl$ tirtXi'y/sG'&at avrav dvctTTccuDtxi o:%sfi£/,t) 
10Ki%po7<a$ civtxc u-jroXtTrSs'stf cxip >£ rev TxvrxXn tcurm ma?%Qv}% 
o^S$ v7tq tQ i'?fltT@-». A H* o UTivtrys* kuto^u k» i&ctfce', 
t7ri>cXu>$KG % xc g«<tf T«v (b) utpxkIcj. &.$' 4 i^Tfjr^:u4 tyuvi&faw 
U7r&flsi$ Ik 7l|**7#* vv){Ltcc7ci>v 0^k% KstQctTrig z<>rl,%vici Ttvx Kuril* 

GxtHOVTX I?' tKCCCO* CtTTQ TVV CiT(>CiKT*>V j XAP 'O^itJ TTtfVf AsttIoK 

XbiKC&sn vvif4.cc irtTn-rXiytavov yi it*. zroXXot' tsto uiv ixtivM) ixilf* 
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^iiix%v t&* \Xiriiw otyji^xi, cLvx.P7rot,<t'iic J yifvcptvits vt:o tQ fiiXTiflt 



(a) vTrooi'ifigov.'] Dcbiliorcm: . ab v7roisiucn 9 egeo. Steph. 

(b) ur^y^cv.] Not the distaffs as some are apt to think, 
but the sjiindle. 

t'-Tetemversabatfiollicefittiim. Ovid, and 

Dixerwit) currite, fusis. Virg. 

Which cannot agree to distaffh, that are always fixed, having 

whatever is to be spun tied upon them. 

(c) KTiwXs^S.] I chuse to render this word hnplexue^ the- 
ijing-on of the threads upon the heads of mortals. 

(d) 5tos.] Meaning & great-man, whose death (as we arc 
apt to say) makes a great noise* 



105 

&xv4t%» "AfyiXci $1 KVTZ, ^ VWWZttit ptccXU jsrcXXc}, A'$ opots, 
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K^MPtec, k) KMtta, *$ iucez&ti* t£ rvpozvvou k) txtojv xoh oXag 
etvTXg iiv'ipyjiTQH* W £v iv -nr^ciTlc-joiv. 'Otccv ol 7$aha<ru 2ooXu 
to " 'Orioroi" ?£ u A/, at*'- 9$ ""Quot pot" El §' iv$"l$ Ik 5 
*£X$$ hivoxv en &vr,Toi iz uvw &vro), k^ oXiyov tStcv %sovov 
Z7naA^7ctvitg rS $ic^ &,7?lc*.<riv, ghtwiq 1% ovit-ct,r!& j , t&civIm V7rtg 
yy,g k<piv\ig l?s*V Tl mv ff&Pppv^ipO¥ 9 >£ y.t\ov wivvto a7ro6av6vlif' 
vvv 21 eg ctii \Xwi70Lv\ig %pJi&&i Toig -&a?%7Lv, iTrnouv i7rt^a.g o 
Vrrvigifns kciXyi kj d'rctyy, .-aridnrccg to* art/gst'to, n tj? (pQe*-, uyavax.- 10 
l%7i ^ peg tw <kyxy\v y stats ^■po7dox l 7'u.nig tzTroTTrc&rS'yi airmail 
avrxv. (6) A H ri yap, *» civ &&iivtn$ ixi7v&>, c rhv oixtczv 
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vouu) xccrxXiTraiv MTthxvttv cevry^j oevrog f&$o$ 0iiirvH<r&$ c&SXiog £*15 
etvrvj ; Ezuyog uh yap a %^iocv^ oti ufptvot to oc- toot iTix.iv tevTa> jj 
yvv^ ?£ (QiXtj-5 dici, Trfro z^iZv. ?£ T%v$t,c& ts -cr-^-rf *<$ -ubifAtvog. a 

Jj77i5'Ci?0 &% iTTT^TYig ytVOUiVC$ ZF&fy TiQvY^Z'l&l. &£'« CM 701 boX,Y\ 

ftaUpiw it? cci/tv yivot/i'jcj! $ 'AXXd to ceiriov*, on rov plv zvtv%SvIm 
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*vi rb : aov oivTGtg <srecpoi tov ftioV) n Ti bcut* lew. k eipupivti 
0,yctvxx?.%7iv. 

1 i. *EPA1. *Hv yvv TiSg fix7>.x'ioig id? Tig ctirav, ol'irsg svdx:~ 
f^ovifotTot sivxi don&nv %\'j) T'd d'^^viH. Xj U$J$\^ tz i u<pi£oX% TVS 
TVX>'4$- &Xu& r&v fjitsn T'l aWaptk zv(!jp(ru*o , p*>rw& oiVToig (po'v&g f£ 



fa) faiaXei.*] Quotidian agues, in which (as I am well in- 
formed) the heat instantly succeeds the coldj but in which 
(according to Stephanas) the heat and cold are felt at the 
same time. Ab »jWs, mitis. 

(b) 'H, ti\ Sec.'] This sentence will prove obscure to begin- 
ners, if they do not carefully observe the explanatory words, 
in the translation. 



106 

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B-oct xctiglg oix rc6 Tm idi&rav Uv liv. XAP. E0sA&> y5v c-oi, cj 
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Suvrav* "hlhq zroil -zreptpohvyc&g Iv voo&rt Ifaolra v7ro x^avco rtvt 
x#T«.pp gjtJovI; ctvifuphcig ; Tug tyvcxWlliccg Asyw, city* otv %vvx- 
yi/p&Tdt o cc'P^g. Ejci/veov rotvvv oil /u,iv (e) Tivig fUKgatt iW ly j£ 
etvTifca ItcffctfiiG-ui) ciTricZqrxv' at 3' Ini .wAsov S^g^ac-*, x} 
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IQftiyifov oyjtov ettpdVTetr, YLnv. xiv roi K^x,itvoiimciy]cag Hzippuyw&y 
tsoti* & yu^ oiov 71 uAXag ysrwB'eti. Txro i?iv o uv^r^ao7rcav (!«&■'• 
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IKoLtIvS) i§ oi p>%* cXiyo%£ovtov i%a<rt) ^ aKvpo^ov to (pvc-npoi) cl 



(a) Grcld?,.'] Passions, 

(b) «5r« %K &£-"} I have endeavoured fo render these words? 
down to w»j inclusive, according to the generally received 
sense of them, being that of the other translation. But 
Grouovius translates them thus : " Quum, vel, ubi ver6 hiec 
« sunt regum mala, opportunum, vel, pnesto est, colligere, 
" qualia sint privatorum." And, indeed, it must be granted 
that cm* most naturally and strongly signifies " ubi," as 2s 
also doth u vcr6," and as xaigog likewise doth " opportu* 
" nitas." Nay, 1 greatly doubt whether, in any author 
whatsoever, xui£og be used to signify any thing but " a sea- 
" sonable time," or, i{ the opportunity of doing any thing." 
But still? upon these considerations, I should chuse to render 
it thus : " Ubi vero mala horum ( sciL regum) sunt, ibi 
" datur occasio colligendi qualia sint privatorum." A I shews 
plainly that a sentence begins at ovx ; so that there should 
be a full stop immediately after kvtm. — I have, I say, in my 
translation, rendered it according to the generally received 
sense, which is that of the other translation ; but I am sure 
1 mistook the true meaning : yet, I let it stand, as it is the 
received sense. 

(c) rmg ^K^ai.'] Infants. 

(d) <arf*cr%0£veav tm * aa#?.] That is, when some men 
.sAihmit their fortunes and industry to the aggrandizing of 
-others, and, as it were,, add themselves to them. 



107 

r £PM. OyJiV y/itpw c-vT^'O^UYi^i siKsarot,^ # Xtfgw, bj SvXXoig ts 
y'v(^° etyTM cp&oiot. 

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a '£2 ^cirs&ici, n iyTT^dxzTi zrtpt rcivr^ , Hx-tfireeaih xd.uvovrzs' \fj 
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HXw vclvv oXtyoi ii<7tV) a £^&S* *£PAI. ^Ix&vot r* aroi — 'AAA«8# 

(a) Sgip^y.] See Littleton's dictionary for them ; where 
you will also read what Ulysses did, with regard to them. 

(b) ciircxXivMTts.'] He speaks as if all mankind were car- 
ried, one way, towards falsehood and vice, which stand on one 
side, except a very few wise men, who turn off to truth anW 
virtue, which are placed on the opposite side. He, perimp^i 
means only the seven wise men of Greece -, because Luc**.* 
febuses all the other philosophers, as appears from Dial, 
xxiih 



108 

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2C fifth l?t, i§ on 

(d) KutQccv* cuvg o, r arvfrfo®** avyg o? tXoifci rvft^X) 

Ev O IVJ TlftY, 'I^t^ X£>U6/fl 'AyZfllflVCJV. 

Gigo-trr) d io-(&> ©sr^^ <^cu<; ivxlfa&w. 
Hoivlig d ilcrtv oftag vikv&v Afcivy]\\oi x-dpYiVX,* 
25 Tvuvoi n. %7,qu ti, tear'' ao-pooiXcv teiftavct* 

EPM. Hp > oixXitg 7 ag -sroXvv tcv 'OmyjPO'j (e) \7ra.vT/\ug. AAA, 
S7rti7re(> un t uvitoug fcs-. S-gA« o-oi ^ii%c/A tov t% 'AytXtecog tu^>09, 
'OgiZg tov ztt} tv, B-xXcirlfi j 2,/yziov ftiv Ixiho to Tga'ixov' uvTtxgv 



(a) rnXag.'] Square fiillars (as Suidas says), which were 
erected near tombs, with inscriptions relating to the dead. 

tvte£r* «g HXy: — Horn. It. xvi. 

(b) Xt$-t&.~] Meaning the pillars near the tombs. 

(c) vJicrciyJ'tg,'] Ns^y, properly, signifies nco, to shin. It also, 
as Stephanus shews, signifies glomero, to wind up thread into 
a bottom ; and, from thence* acervo, to heap ufi. ■ 

(d) Homer. 

(e) gwavTAs??.] You hump up ; joking upon Charon's busi- 
ness of pumping the water out of His boat. 



109 

§c a A:*s r'tfxTrleii h ra 'VtnSLm, XAP. Oy ptyd\ot> Co 'E^JJ, « 

.14. T«S sroASic, r«s imo"i{&%5 K$V c:!%'lv uoi (a) kzY^cWb) uk%- 

JLteavtZf, '£ TKv"l*toy avryj*. IT ?*A#$ fS* pifi&f%put diawftpivvect 5 
lends*, ac Hxet oXav ir£v ftvM vzaX'r^irx^ pwl Oi^i^cti ro ffx.et$t~ 
$f«y. '£?M. *H N*y®>> ,«sv, <2 sr*$£pfv, #*raXa>A*v sj'Su, *£ »3£» 
'%>»(^ ir* A«i«ra» avrSffi »5' civ «*•;$ e?ra ®-oT Sir. *H B#«vA&>v as 
rdi cxs/vi) £f*v, h sv;rugy(^», *? tav ( «sy«v *g*g|*©*A*i>* * ptTX-oXv Xj 
mM ^nrnQwcfAiw, as-KiP i UiV#-. M^nW? £3 *£ KAs<ay«$lQ 
tilrftwoitut iit^xt (Tds iu f&dXtest riirfcfcJ*** «esr*nr(£«4 yap w cio 
iiTi tov"0 1 «4*!^«i' »#7sA()&y 2?ri rjj ^gy^A^yc^W ray £«*. II Ajjv ceAAa 

*y;r* y«*g, « <Br.ag3}Ste& *£ stgAs*?, »*Wig avfyairoi* xj to -&cc£eio&%o~ 
view, ;£ GroTapci oXot, 'lvd%% kv kVi rd$(& h "Agye* irt Kctlatei- I a 
TrtTa*. XAP. Iletffeti,i&v MrtfiWv, w O|&6flgs, ?£ t#v ovopdraVy 

v lA*ay /gjjy, 

*J ' iv^vdyvixV) _^ 

j^ lvx\lU.UXt KAS0ltt/. 

15. 'AAA* ^t3T«|y Xoycov, rtvig iWh oi aroXipzvTig £«gJVa<, jj 2© 
Jjfgg TU®* aAAiiAg; QtYSvxetv; f £FM. 'Agyg/ss ogss$, a> XdfM, 



(a) <5s *^ta> *yJou<v.~\ Stephanus accounts for the accusa- 
tive case after *«&n, as it is here put, by observing that unita, 
upon such occasions, signifies fttndb aicdzo y to htar-of-by- 
refwrt. Xenophon hath a similar expression, where he saith, 

a g vtata-iv dvo%c$ *jSj? \pyk $t-u7rpotTlof&tvM rov Kvgcv. Psed. Lib. i* 
AlcI Lucian another, in his Dream: "Clo-vi^ rhv NioGw a-/Ao- 
ptv, as ive hear of Niobe. And I doubt not but Horace hath 
adopted this kind of expression, where he lias, 

Aucliet pugnas vitio parentum Kara juventus- 

And again, 

Audire magnos jam videor duces. 

Which latter passage, in the opinion of the commentators., 
is not pure Latin ; not recollecting that this kind of phrase 
hath been used by some of the best authors in the Greek 
language, which may very well warrant Horace's adopting 
it, as he hath done several others. 



1 10 

*§ ActKZctxiuGviv;. *J rh iffitfoirat Ixitvc* f^ctTY.ylv (a) x 'O&pvd 2jf», 
tov fgfjiLy_fu$*vl.ei to rgovaioi, riv avrii c/ipoPti. XAP, '"iVj* viv&* 
di civrotS a) Ep/tty o ■%; c/.i.u <*£)-> • ETM 'Ytflp t# zfieiit uvih- iv 
&-ffid%*vrett XAP. Q r?$ ibou*?, c/'ys #* iwaciv oti jckv •Aj?v ri* 

T07TQV zret£2T $ A f<sc * a . 7 o S« ^ z a lovrisTQ a A A o t s «>: A A c < y s a> ? y •< (7 * <r * , 

iveii-'.T-ooii-; a-jU$ res, cgrt uruX/.&Pif.'uzlx. lyk jbclv km$ a Ef«A>l', 

10 c-j) tf gri ro vtfftpuw ij>0 oi ere: ftff ' oXty9V, (b) x* aCro$ f«*g*>f cXm, 

XAP- E^ys www, <^ E&^jj. B^epyerjj? *:s< civoeyiy+a^? — 

'tip&ftifr li n }& n *£$ a*w[*i*f, — Oji gV< tf^ taw k&xohtifiyort 



(a) 'O&jefcJ***] The story of Othryades is rot completely 
told by any one author, of ihe many who mention him, but 
may be collected horn them all, in the following mt.nner: 
The Spartans and Arrives, having a dispute about a piece of 
land, called Thyrxa, chose three hundred men on each side, 
who should decide the difference by the sword. A battle 
ensues between those two little selected armies, who fight 
so desperately that not one of the whole six hundred survived 
the engagement, except three ; to wit, two of the Argives, 
Chromius and Alcinor, and Othryades, the general of the 
hpartans, who was so desperately wounded, that, for a while, 
he lay as dead, among the slain. The two surviving Argives, 
seeing no one to oppose them, ran home with the news of 
iheir victory. Soon after, Othryades recovers, and, finding 
himself in possession of the field of battle, erects a trophy, 
writes on it, in his* own blood, I have conquered, and then 
brings the arms of the slain Argives into his camp. The 
next day, the two main armies of the contending nations 
meet, at the place of action. The Argives claim the victory, 
as more oi their men hud survived the battle : the Spartans, 
as their one nun had kept the field ; the other? having, as it 
were, fled. Upon this, both armies fight-; but the Spartans 
gain the victory. Othryades, after he returned to Sparta, 
killed himself for shame of outliving his men, who, every 
one> so bravely feih Iiixdot. Suid. PluU Valer. Ovid, in 
Fast, and Ifo/;7..a'i. 

(b) xj uvtlgJ] I myself too; that is 3 as well as you. 



11; 






(a) xi 7 &',7\ It is likely that, if Charon here meant to say, 
i?#r rcctf a word of Charon (as some will have it), he would 
have put in «rsg*, as he hath done, in the end of Dial. xxvi. 
&vy»» Vi ztriQ ccvtS x,£tTateX6t7rzv> — Aoys?, for ratio* an account 
or estimation*, is of frequent use. So Theocrit. Id. iii*— — 
to 3s ^sv Ao'yov ^Sgvfls .-©•«* j?' J5z^ z/ow ma^ no account of me $ 
that is, Fo& tlunk nothing ofme^ or, Few set me at naught.* 



~T&.&> $2 fiithfa <v%m%. 



AOTKIANOT 

SAMOSATEft 

A I A A O r O, N 
BIB A ION AETTEPON. 



AIAAOFAS «,'. 

lli^l tS Evvnvtx' nroi Bt(&> AxKtunx. 

Herein is contained some account of Lucian's parentag-e and 
education. Likewise great incitements to youth of genius, to 
persevere in the pursuit of learning, even under the great dis- 
couragements of poverty. 

?, APTI &h Iwretvpyiv zi$ t# (a) 3<§#cr>£«*Ae7# (b) (potraiv, 1)}$ rw 
tiXixiccv (tr^lcr-fi^(^» cov. O oi d srctT9i(> ItkottzTto final im ^>(X&jy ■>', 

%(<%? *7FeiiTUv, El di rivet, TZfcv/iv tmv (c) fiawueav firm laftctSoipiy 



(a) it^acrKuXute.'] This word is seldom used, but in the 
plural number- So Xenophon, us ?& 'hihet.ex.ahu* (pctra>vTi$^ 
aTid dix.ai<it?vw$ ei&&crK<%,Xzi&. Feed. Lib; ii. & iii, 

(b) ^MTm!] The verb (poiTua hath been so constantly used 
to signify, in particular, to go-to-school, that school-scholars 
have been called (poir-irai, instead of ^#3-«t«<. Eourd< 

(c) fi&vavcrw.] Bdy&v<r<&> is, properly 9 a substantive of the 
common gender, and signifies a person who works in a forge, 
or foundery. But it is here used adjectivelyj re^vS* being 
understood. Stephanus quotes the expression, ficevxw®* 
r%^> from Aristotle* 



113 

re fth Tsr^aTQv iv§vg ci,v xvrog 2%Siv tx x£x,%'Pix srxpx tSs t^i/^s, >£ 

fMlX.iT l OiKOFiT®" itVXi, TyXlKXTO^ Ce)V* (sk tig f^xxpov di ?£ TW <&X- 
Ti^X ZV${>XVS7V) hTTctpl^O) 1 ) ttU TO ytyVOUSVOV* AiVTZPXg* %v 0-x.v^iMt; 

*%Xfl Gr^T^fy riq ag/Vfl Tm ti%vccv, Kj px<rv) lxuxB-iiv 3 xj xv^gt 
ItevSi^c* «r§2«-«e*«, y^ 73-^o^ei^ov 3 i%>i<?x r * v ( a ) X ^y iccv - *$ 3<#gfc?5 
rov btovov* ' AXXa roivvv ctXXqv S7fo&ivhv\(&** cog teXT^r yvco^g \ 
ifx.Ttii.^lxg &{/£&", o ztxtk^ tig tIv S~uov<, GtfTtohv (vrafiv yXQ q t&£o$ 
ftviTplq $-,7<&>i x^i?®^ (b) i(?iu,oyXl$@- uvea 2ox,aJv^ k} X&o%Ug h 
toi$ fLxXisx vjioKtfiot?) u OvB-2fus (fiVsv) aXk$r#i%niv brat^amhj 
M 0*5 zsrot^oil^*. 'AAA* txtov oiyz $&£&$ lul) ^ }l$x?xi oxx^xXx- 10 
" ?>cov XiS-av l^ydrw xyx&ov siv«#, xj trvvxg/xcfiiv, *£■ t^uoyXv^zx' 
4i ovvxtxi yxg Y^ TXTdj (pvG~zag yg, cog o'(<s&x., (c) S%&'v §^iag. 
'EriKUctigiTo 3s Txi<5 Ik tov x,Y)?% Grxidtxig* Woti y<££ bi(pi&UV)V v7?o 

T60V GIOXG'X.XX&V, UTCofyiCM XV TOV XVlp})Vy \ fio&h V} «3TSrtf£, *5 Kj »i A/ 
#,vB-pO)7r%C) UVlTtXccfloV (tiKCTGi$) COg ldOX.%V TM 'STOLTpC) \ty 01$ r?X£cil5 

fth tmv OidecffJcctXaY zrXviyxg iXxuZxvM. Tots Si iTrctiv^* tig tvv 

iV^VlXV *£ TXUTX Jjy* XXi XQVS'V'S g *'%«y **" 1^0* T#£ S>0HNMi$i «$ 6* 
fi%X%%7 fAtzQiiO'OfAO&l TV1V Tg^WJP, «T lx.SlV^g yi T?,g (d) ^A*S"*JfcfJ5«r«**"*p 

(e) f/ A^<5t Tg »v €TiTij3gf(§>-» i^OKU i/xigx Ti%wft Ivdf>x6ir3"at' x,xyh 

■SrXG&OZOQi&VIV TM r9-g/», ^ TOV A*' fer C^a'S^«5 Tft> ZT^C&ffAOZTt M^fitfAlV^' 20 

uXXx fici *j Tsxthix'i Ttvct Ux. tfrsWij sS<;*gf i%s^v» rtj IST^ T»J 
?3A<^<6>Tft:$ ZTTieuhv* u (p&tvoi iiqv &&%g ti yXvtycev, k} uyccXfixTics, 

TiVX ftlKgOi XOtTXCTKSVCC^WV \f4.ClVT& Tl, XcZxiivOlf) 01$ <&pO^P%f&r,V. 

Kxi tqtz sr^oiToy sxuvoy *£ o-vvy&ig TcTg ap%6 { uivoiq lyiyviTo. 'Ey 

K6'?V'ZX yX^ TWX, f44i Safff # ^7^^ \x!lXil)7% fiOi ififAX KC& lX,iff§"&i2 5 

r&vtx.$§) m ftlfx s&u&ivr^ Hruirm to KOivcv, 



(a) jg»pty£w.l Properly, the expense of supplying the 
Athenian stage with music, dancing, players, and dresses. 
Hence, it signifies the cxfiense of Furnishing any trade, or 
business, with all necessaries. 

(b) l^tyxitp^^} The cursing of Meraww*%pem& to have 
been ti.e commonest branch of the statuarj 's art ; and hence* 
it is likely, every statuary was called i^oyXv^^. 

(c) X%m $s%tS)s> Minus Attice. Mould. 

(d) isiXx*-iK.iig.] The art of shaping figures out of any soft 
substance, such as wax, clay lie 

(e) "Aua n kv, &cw'5 Thus, in English: " At the satire 
** time, therefore, a pi s pitched upon, and 1 was 
* also (then) given up, occ 



IU 






«_ — >. (a) 5 A^J tfs to; i'^/^y <&xvtI%» 
'Exay^otiqov al xstTiviyjcivl^* V7r «9rsjg/<asf, KXTiciyv}* ph i tsXoc\. 
O o\ etyowccxlicrcig) g-kvtccXvjv Tlvc&rnrXqcriov KUptolfr Xx%6>y % % -arpd^g^ 
&2l -zrgoTgiTrltxag pa KotTq^fcotTO, <v<?i odtK^vd p,oi rd vrgootptoo t%$ 
5 v'iyytig. Anod^ccs £v sx&thv, Sari ryv oixiccv cipiKvxpm o-vvi^lg 
uvoXoXv^ojv^ 7^ ioLK^v&v ikg o(p$oiXpxg 'j7tq?tXw$' y^ dtYiyXUOLt tJf 
ckvioiXw, Kj Tag podXoi^oLg IdsiKWov, t& HOLTYiyo^xv ttoXXiiv TIVX 

C0pOT%TCC, nsr^wG'&US On V7T0 (pdcVH TXVTU. idgCCFl, p'A CCVTOV VTtfict- 

Xoopai Kctri tvft ii%?w* 'A.yctvxKliio'ciftivtM §£ rig pytrgog* *£ zroXXei 
10 r£ adiXpS Xotdogqa-xuivYiS) tvu vv% jjijAS-j, K&TidagS-ov, iTt tviutt- 

gVq y 9§ T«V W%$- 0Xr,V IVV6XV* Miv PI ptV OZ TXT&JV, ylXxTipoC^ *§ 
pllQUKlXCrt TQL il^VffCifmV TCC piTU TGCVT6C 2s, £ffc£T< IViCXTXtppOVYlTCt, Od 

"Avigtg uxHrie-B-ij uXXcii£ tstuvv $ iXwo&v czx.(>qo&t&v ^lopiva* "iva 
ycig kx$- "Opngov toiF&y 
1 5 ■■ (b) ©s?^ pot hvnviov r t xB~iv e «*£©•») 

'Atcb^offtYiv ^ta vixta, — 
\vct^y\g ZTCo-g* a<rz piihh ct7roXzi-7rt(r$'xi Tvig oLXrfrii ot,g» >j ~Eti yhsv t£ 

fAiTM TOFiSTOV ft^OVOV TCC Tl *%jip&T>1f, pot TM <p<Xv'cVT6)V IV TOtg O(p&0tX~ 

pot% mTetffUfiiva) *§ n (part t®v UkxeS-ivrat tvccjX(& > ) Ura craty* 

2UGravTet t,v. 

2. (c) Avo yvv&LKtg Xa^opivat rx7v %ipotv uXtcov pi *3s£og uavtw 
Ikqct'zQoc peoXot (Staiag, y^ Kotgrigag* Mi* gov yovy pi *htio*7rGC<rctv n \o 
<&p\g uXXiXxg tpiXoTipxpivoct* y£ yct^ otgrt plv liv j* Itiqoo l7rlx,pxTit^ 
*£ zrccgd pix.gov oXov ii%'z pi' at£T< Sg lev eovB'ig tiro Tvjg hiPctg U%d~ 

25^'^v. 'Evoav 3s TT^og aXXviXag izxli^of jj ph ag ccuty;S %9M pi 
x,ixl>jaB-ou fiovXotTo' i Sg, &g pczTflv Tm olXXotpimv dfli7roio7Te. 'H» 
d\ i plv l^yxriKit k^ olv^pix*). y^ oiv^p^^oi tvv KOfAyv* tco %do% tvXm 
uvcZTrXls-jg*, diif&cphq t;jv IcB-^toc^ Ttluvov zulccyipovra,, oiog r t v o 

©tTajj 07TOTI %iQi TOVg X4$~6Vg* i iTigX, dl ptoXK IVTTQQ ?&?;&>) Xg T6 



(a) ^Ap^i, fee] Hesiocl. 

(b) Oilog pot, &c] Horn. II. ii. 

(c) Avo yvmiKig, &c] This dream is formed upon the 
plan of the judgment of Hercules, to whom, when a youths 
virtue and vice appeared, and severally made speeches; but 
the young hero, notwithstanding all the gay allurements 
and tempting arguments of vice, devotes himself to virtue* 
Bee Xen+ Mem. Lib. ii. 

There is humour in Lucian^s putting himself upon the 
same footing with the young demigod^ Hercules* 



115 



" <pi\t rarcfA., ip{&oyXv$lx,'4 TZftVVl UUi^ V t v yfi\$ %&& [6&V&&VZIV* OtKilot 

w rcvvc/ux rev jMiT£6iraTcg&*) Xi6o%o@-> fa« kj too <r)g;&? d^tyctTZ^y 
u f£ ad ha ivdoKipitTov at if&&s, Ei #1 f^zMis a-^oov p\v *£ <£>Aji- 



5 




M A:5^ky;c^;};i. Df •j£ijfy§9'fift ySy arc/ { usr« T#y©e#y. Ef J# 
*' T&r&v g.'j yzvtobi 78-&S f&y 8 nM'^n., czvro<; 'srotpet w&fftb c&v@g&7roi$ 
*' yivoio ; Zn*& ov "S t£ t«i» -ar«5r||«« eftyfSV/|g7?, ss'igi&Xs'Tclov oi d^ro-^® 
ic (pecan's }£ thv t&iiirpt oa. >3 -^-~T&,vrac kJ zrt rsfWy «srA-*»fiy# o*tu,7nectiiff'6i) 

k} T&iihiv pi foi-iQ&fiivfy csAA ^^.sTi piifAvnf&oit. T<i wAg?V# y#g 
y'3ij ^a tsii> ,uvJitf,*)V oupvytv. 

4. 'Eats/ $ kv Urctv-rxTo, &i>£it&t i Wit& &>^z 7r®$* u 'Eyh Ss,25 
<( # irg&t0>, II^;^«f<36 gV^&i, lion er'tfSj&tf cra^ ?£ yy&wzi*;. si ?£ f^vioivu 
<; g/£ rsAoj (e) ^t a «rtfFs/g0^a<. klhiKa f/th ay ras a,yet.0et TuroptTJ 
u XtQo%oo$ y&vopwcG) avrn zrgcU^iczy, Qvdh yu^ oTt ph \p\yd?M 



(a) » §5 I^ri Aoy<^> &c] She means that mankind shall not 
praise him for such insignificant things as words or speeches, 
but foi\Teal and substantial performances. 

(b) rij s^rsAss] The uncostly trim; from £v, facile, and tsAoc, 
aumfttw . 

(c) sJg;|g.] Artists, in those days, made a great merit of 
letting people see any finished performance of theirs, and 
therefore) Lucian says, 'Qu%$. Sfiectatum admissi, — Hor. de 
Art Poet. 

(d) A/#.] Olymfiicum. Bourd. & T Hg#v, Argivam. Idem. 

(e) j»8.] This genitive case doth not follow rgAfi?, but 
t&ivii^&crciu \~\upu iftz7o (pro s^a) yzQcaz. Horn* II. xxir ? 
and **u£4i!tiiixt 'h'X 10 * ^srs^a. Hco-iccL in Alp. 



H5 

1 Sep, raJ cdpix-n Gromv, xav r£r<* rnv xttxfxv IxttI^x t% fifa Ti$u- 

• piivos' cttp&vVjC piv o&vrog cov, cX/yx *£ xy&vq XdjxZdv&Jv^ TXTTtivog 

r/,v yva'.iY i v, svTcXys dl tkv tzpoo'ooq'/ %t$ QiXoig l^n^dty.xTipog, SxS 

i% i X*^i ol< i $o*s$$i sts rc-7g spXtr&ng fyXairot xXX* xvrd povov, leyx' 

5 u rv)S. j£ t#v Ik tS aroXXz djux tig, xu rov <a>euy ! ovTX yjoTTijs-^y, 

" ^ T6V hiyetv dvvoifizvoy fyi^xTrivcavs (a) A#y<v /S/cv Kv, ^ ix 

\ xgu'rlovog i'guxiov eov. El 21 *tj <&it$ixs % UoXvxXiirog yivoio, y$ 

^xvuxra zreXXa ify^yxcaio, ritv j/Av (b) r'iyjw eiirxvlig ivaintrej- 

u 7<«<, £» sV* Ss e>*$ t£v iJavtav, si vSv 8^««i tv&xtT xv *"«< a ( ws<e$ 

10 u ygvse-S-*/. Oio? yxg £v j}f, fixvxvcreg £ (c) % ( a^mx%s >£ xnoftli- 

go*i&j}og yojxic&ijv. Hv oi ua ots/3"», arg&rov [t'zv coi teoXXa 

w &ri$u%a muXctiev eJvS^v $(>ya< *£ zr^xfyig frxvjuxg-ag, td Xoyag 

' xvrav xvxfy'iXXxo-x, t£ Tzoivl&v (#g itn&t) z/u>7ru(>av clotty a tv r <£<rot % 

i k} 7y)V $v%>}V, G7ri(> trot xv^txrxllv \g i, x.sP,axoerpJ l c-a -sroXXoT:;, *£ 

*5 ' ay x&o i$ t&ocrpiz pact, capgervt^ SiKxtovvD?, ivc&iia, «r£#ccT?j7/, 

c l-rriurMx* cvvia-tt, jcx^legix, rut tuv xetXZv \w\h ry<&£og rx o~ipvl~ 

rxlx oguvj. Txvrx yxg l$iv o rv,g ^v^g av~q^a\og on? aXrfioog 

' xo<ruog. A'/i7U oz <n yrs vrxXxtov k^h, vtz vvv ytvioS'X.t Sgof* 

aXXx *2 rx dio\\x targciipii fill 9 luQ* ^ oA^;$, olvrxvla ottofx l?}, 

20 c ran B-tix^ txtz x)^co7rivx, kx, i\g piax.ouy vi $t2x%6 ( u,xi. Kx} 

" o vvv tsr'iVYig, o rzs ^uvog y o fixXivrxLtivog'Tt Tri^i xyi^g xra TZ%yrig, 

" fZil oXtyov aTrxe-t ZflXpfiofy k) Iwip&ovog io'^ Ti ( xcouzvog f^ \7rx:Vti- 

Ci fiivog* ^ Itt) ro7g dpi'roig iv^GKtuav, it} vto rm yivu k} ts-Xxtu 

Ct ^^oyjjyy X7roZXi7roccfJog' IcrB-ijrx ph ioix'vtw x^7ri^o^iPog 

(a) Xxyo) fii'ov."] That is, a life of a hare, or a life of fear 
and obscurity. 

(b) -zs^yjjv iTraiviG-GVTxt.'] That is very natural: for, when 
we admire any mechanic performance, we seldom talk with 
any great rapture of the workman, and only observe that 
such an art is a very fine one. The reason of which I take 
to be this : that we are apt to consider artists, in the mechanic 
way, as having only executed what they have often seen done 
by others, and do themselves perform by some set rule; 
while we look upon the works of learned men as produc- 
ed by the power of their own genius, and therefore, con- 
sidering them as a part of such men's personal excellence, 
are seldom pleased with them, without, at the same time, a 
strong admiration of the authors who produced them. 

.(c) %upava%.~\ Movxig rxtg %iq > vi ^ittvoTjuv^ i. t\ One who is 

master of nothing but his hands. Bourd, 



117 ~ 

u ($£i£z<ra ry,v lot'Slv.g-, -zrdvv d$ Xxurgdv \$o\tt) ce>f>X%$ ^ ^ ffgas- 
" Sg/otg dfyxuivog. K#v tsh asrd&j^jis, %o iri t?$ ciXXaece,7r%g 
a dyvoog, %¥ cipctvqg tcr-i Toi&vrd rot (srtpi&itra r& yvaptG-pxleA, a& 

^ T&V OP&vlriV SKSCfCg') TOV T&X'/IFIOV Kt^ffCtfj QltZjcl 0~Z T& ffCtZlV'X^ 

" xrog Ixttvtf) xiym. 3/ Av Js rt c*7rgfe «|;ov hi '<£ rxg <PtXxg,v. y^ 5 
u rhv gtoXw oXqv zxiczXciuZdv;, its <rs zrd'flf$ cltcq *X?$/J(lcti, Kocv 
u v?'d n Xiyojv TV%;g x,i%?WTSg ol zroXXol d--c%~cv!c4t ) B&Vftct^Sfefy 
* ( id zv^cauov^il'ig fi tSv Xbyav ry.g ovvduiojg^ i£ rlv tzc[\i^ Tr,g 
" ivKolpU;, o dl Xiy^riv, oog a%U M&dvoi\*i yt[v*vloti rivsg J| ciyS-gd- 
K tt&jv. r£ro era ■zrs0i'roivi<ra~ Kc&i ykp/.J avrog he T% /3/s «sVgA.9-;-$) 10 
u xttoIs Tsre&vci rwcbv role, -zrZTrcc-idtv pivots* k} ^^ovopiXcov ro7g 
a dpfeoig* 0?;:$ Tfl» A n»« arfl^fif* ix-iivov, r/y^ y/« dvr**, Sy« 'aXikcv 
" iirchftx i ^Opxgrov Ai<r%i*ny of TvpTrawgixe vCog jjv, «aV 2f60$ 
M #yr«y 3/ ijui (a) <PiXt^og &ipd,7iv<7iv ; O Ss (b) S^jc|«tjj$, 
" id auras y^o 7? huoy\vQi»y reevr; rg&pesg* imtdh rd^t^ot <rvv*xt 1 5 
c; r5 xMtrleWi *$ opccTriTtitrz', tzoiq C6vr%$ v,'jto,u,qX/i<7<>v ®g l^cs, 
u dnxng as 'Grccpd zr&irm kotrxi ; 'Apug oz xvrzg TV)%ix,%T&g* ) 
'* ^ Tti&TVg (bvtyesS) y$ -rs-^ahig Xapyrpdg, ?£ Xoyxg <rt ( uvsg } id 
u Fyjiua. ivxe&rig '*§ Tifibv* *£ oo%xv, i§ zirawovi s£ z?pjie3gia<;, id 
Ct ivvxttiv, K) CC0X&5, £ to i?Ti Xoyotg ivb&tiy&h, j^ to Wi a-vncrit^O 
i iu^xifAovitfcrB-at) %tf&vi6v rs <&ivccp-ov hdvo-;. 7 ttj. ryfijifga ^xXovrgi- 
u Trig clvouX'/j'^rt, y$ lAoxXict id yhv$£x k} x.o^ict,g f§ x.cXw7rr7,^x^ 
<c IV rx(i> Z 2 $°>* H-t? *>&T(a VzVZVKXg s/§ to s^yoi/, %itjbistiir€TKSi f£ 

U yfijMtiljfrtS &} ^dVTOC T^CTTOV T0C7TZtV0$' (c) dvtZKVTTZJV 3 2, 'd0i7rojf^ 

4; %y< xWpodiig^ ^?s ItevQiguVi ksh hetvdav^ dxxd r£ pizvilgyct g1tm$*& 
* evpv$~ ( u.ct* i£ tvFfcifAovscifcii rot zrgwoav, 'o^r&n Ss cevrog ivgv&utg 

U TS, t§ yJjT-J,t<&< SM 9 IlKtf.M 6?i$P j QV7lX.DS) dXX CiTip'jTi^OV 'MOtOd'i 

tv Cixvrov Xtdav. 

(a) <t>iXi7T7rog hh^ciTrzvTzv.] When Philip, king- of Macedo- 
nia, intended to destroy the liberty of Greece, Demosthenes 
opposed his schemes, with a great appearance of success, 
by those famous orations ro the people of Athens, called his 
philippics. Philip, therefore, courted ^Eschines, Demos- 
thenes 's rival in eloquence^ and antagonist in the factions 
then subsisting in the city 

(b) '2>*)kpoLta<;, j£ vvTog.] Socrates was the son of Sophro- 
niscus, a statuary, and Phsenarete, a midwife. Diog Laert. 
— idj avTog, even he, the wonderful Socrates,. 

(c) moc.xvxrw.'] *Avc6xv7rra is, property, said of a bird lift- 
ing up his head^ as he drinks. Bud. 



lis 

5, Txvtcc it i Xiyvryg xvty,$) % vviQipiivxg \ya> to t'*.X(&> t&v 
Xoy&Wj uvas&g aTriOv.vuiiyv' x} t%v cillcqQov ixuvyiv, j£ IpyxTtx.qv 
uiroAtvav, ftST&Xivov mpcg tw Uxidiixv pxXx yiyvfrag* t& fcxXifX) 
\7rii uoi *£ itg vSv yXdsv v, 0"kvtxAyj, j£ 011 TzAvyag iv&vq kx. ohiyxg 
5 &?%ofilva pot yJ'-$ IVlT^^XTO* H o\ xvro\ti$>B m zi<rx* to pev rv^coToy 
iyxvdxru *£ rot %U$l o-vvexgoTii, y^ t%$ oiovrotq mTrgtk tsA^ 2s, 

tOffTFlg TY t V NtOW'lV XK%C { U,iV, gtfTg'TjJyg/, j£ 2/$ A/0<jy [A gTfcSsS A^TO- E/ 
01 fCX^XOO^X IfrxQii f&Yl XTTtfio'VlTi* fyxV/AXTOTTOlo} yxg 01 ovstpoi, 

*H irigx $i zrglg pi »7rid%<ra,) u Toiy&^h etft*t'p6f&x4 cs (g^j)) Tvig 
10 w Si Tvig ^ixciioo-vvYis* on x.rXag tkv %:x.qv Ibizarx,* Kzt IxQl JjSjj, 
" ior/$0.0i TX7K T% Q'ApcvTfx; (ou%x<rci r; o%Yi t uat vTTOTTigav Ymrw 
11 ?ivm s ra T\riycc7' \etx,6T6)v) o^cag i"h\g otx j§ iXt)CX {4V} x'*co\%Q'4<rxg 
ci ltf>bi dy'JOi'is'AV SjkgA >.'%' Etts/ ol «!ijA0av, yi ulv zAxvvu *£'v$q- 
vioftzt' A $l.i- o\ il; y\^(^* \yco Ittio-k^^v^ «to T^g g<&> mg%4f£tfQ$ 
,l5<t;g£< mr^og liTTi^otv, turiteig, ^ jsiJvjj, j£ $Plf&S?i (a) kxQc&ttcq a 
Tpi7rTo>.ifto$ } dTro-TTTit^Mv ti 65 T^v y«y. (b) Ov>Ari ptU'Tot 
uijxv^uxt 0, t< ra (77r*;^c^£yoy gsts^vo y,y, -ztAvv tQio /llovov, $ti 
kxtijQsv aVfic^vTig ol avQge>J7rot wriivaV) ?£ y.n ivQnulug^ »<*3-' xg 

yitfOiUYlV TYJ <&T$VUi (c) 7ZClpi7?iU,'77 Of* Ail^XCfiC 0g jU.01 TO, TCCxVTXy 

20 Kctpi To7g ZTraivHG-iv exs/vots, iTravijyctyzv uvSng, XztTt ocvt^v Tqt 

i<rB-Y t T0t IrLllvYiV iVOidvKPTCi jjv UfcOV dVi7TTCl[A,2v(Gh>, flpAA* IftOi i$0X%9 

ivrtdpvQog Tig t7rxv/)Kiiv. KutuXcc'^Qtx %v ^ toy -rxtipx isutx^ 



(a) xaiMrio T£i7rr4XZft<&>.'] The fable of Triptolemns is: 
that Ceres, in the time of her wanderings through the world, 
in quest of her daughter, Proserpine, whom Pluto had stolen 
from her, sojourned with Celeus, king of Attica, and in- 
structed his son- Triptolemus, in the culture and use of 
corn; after which, she mounted him upon a winged dragon, 
which flew all over the earth with him, while he, in the 
mean time, scattered down seed upon the earth, as he was 
carried along. The foundation of this fable was, that he 
wrote several books of husbandry, which were carried to 
several countries, in a ship, called the Dragon. 

(b) Oik-r; p{uvr)uxi.~] Lucian, through modesty, says he 
does not remember what it was he himself sowed. But he 
means the publishing of his admirable Writings, which have 
been received, with vast honour, by the learned, in all ages 
.down from his time. 

(c) zrtfgws^rdv.] They waited upon, or escorted, him. 



119 



6. Tavrx pspv/iusii tdaVi at Uveas in m, iiieu oqx.ii iKict£6L}£Tu$<, 
mrp)$ rlv taw vrX/iyav (poZot. — Mg1«ft|v ^s Asyovlc^, a (a) HgeucMif 
(i$n ft?) &$ p&KPM To hvKiit^ £ %iKowix.to* y E >'t' mXXos (b) vatcX- 
cyirs, "Xst/ufg/vos avsfg©-, on {Mpasb* tjTtv at vvjcIss' I) *&%<& <&$ 
" rp linripts, amejf 'o (c) 'Hp^xASs »£ aires sV*. T/ §' &v sVhA- 

u vvx.to$) y^ ovii^av -sraXxicov^ xj ndx yeytigaycotav} * E&X(5y y^g 
u i -$/v%,poXoyt'se,. — Mi (d) ovU(>vv tlv&v nuug vTroaoitag rivocg vTTtt- \ 
M Ajj^ev." — Qvx., & 'yx&'i (e) v^l y«*g a zsvafai srars hiiy%f&ly&* 



(a) *Hg#*A«$.] Proper names in « — se; often make their 
vocative case in g/s. 

(b) frrg*pgtrs.] Succinuerit; that is, will put in his word: 
which metaphor is taken from playing the bass to a harp, or 
other stringed instrument, as is signified by the verb t/Trot&pza, 
to strike under the treble, or to play the bass to it. See 
Stefih. 

(c) e Hp#*A^.] It hath been fabled that Jupiter spent three 
nights with Alcmena, when he begat Hercules. 

(d) ovu'pav Tivai quels vT6KPtrdg nvsig."] I cannot but think 
wSv and T<y«s, here, strange language ; and that because 
r»*Sv appears to me to carry a quite trifling meaning*, 

(e) »3s y<*£ o Esj»«<pa??, &c] In this sentence I meet with 
several particulars, for 'which I cannot account, with any 
great satisfaction to myself. Such as, in the first place, the 
nominative case Hm#3*, without a verb, or, at best, only with 
one to be understood, with difficulty and uncertainty. Se- 
condly, the two next *£'s ; one followed by the preposition lv y 
with the dative case «*ct\p®ci oU&jta; and the other, very 
strangely, by the accusative ra cjAA#; which seems to have 
but a forced dependence on either this hitter ^ or any other 
word, either expressed or understood, in the sentence. 
Thirdly, yag seeming to begin a distinct sentence with i>^ 
that precedes it. Fourthly, the want of ct< after y*g, to bring in 
dn^u below, with justness, if it ought to he brought in after 
yag. Fifthly, the great obscurity of the word &Tcxg*r<^ m 
this place. And, sixthly, the uncertainty whether iimi 
should be here understood thus, m yck* $$>iv h% uvxt Irian* 

M 



120 



<ra zvvTrvioV) a)f zdox.it civTa, *cj zv ry <&clt(>&u, j£ tu kXXcc. "We yap 
lift vftozptriv rhv a^y, %%l ag (QXvu^uv iyvujtas ccvru iii%v t u m ttj 



(riv, or whether Lucian meant thus, iVs y#p f/ OTl (on being 
understood) % %n\w rhv c-^iv 'P-2 (&$ also being understood) 
V7iox,{ucriV) sSs 0$ gyy^xa;^ (pXvapitv otbroi) i. e. ^«t #iJt#, as you 
have a little above, Mfio-ai rctirx. The light that history 
affords to this passage is, that Xenophon, upon two great 
exigencies, in the famous retreat of the ten-thousand Greeks 
out of Asia, dreamed two dreams; one, a little before he 
was chosen leader of that retreat, and one after. The for- 
mer dream was, " That his father's house was set all in a 
" flame, by lightning," which, in his own mind, he inter* 
preted two ways: First, " as a light from Jupiter, to lead 
" the Grecians out of the difficulties they then were in;" 
or, secondly, u as portending a further embarrassment of 
their retreat.' 5 But there is no mention made that Xeno- 
phon then told his friends, or any of the army, of this dream ,• 
though, immediately upon it, he is said to have assembled 
the captains, and made them such a speech as caused them 
to chuse him for their leader. His other dream was, u That 
" he saw himself bound with chains ; but that they soon 
" loosened of their own accord, so as to leave him quite at 
" liberty." At this time he and his army were hemmed in 
by a deep river, on one side, and a mountain, on the other; 
also by two bodies of the enemy, one hanging over him on 
the mountain* and the other appearing on the opposite side 
of the river. Before day -break, he told his officers his dream ; 
who thereupon offered a sacrifice of thanksgiving to the 
gods, and thereby roused the desponding spirits of the sol- 
diers. Soon after this, the river was, by an accident, found 
fordable : whereupon, the army passed over, and then, rout- 
ing the enemy, got clear away. See Xeno/ih. Anabas. 
Lib. hi. St iv. Now, it seems likely, from the expressions, 
■warffda olxjfy and «rsgs;$-#T6>y &*?iSfii»v, that Lucian here had 
an eye t® both the above dreams ; but, I suppose, he wrote 
upon bare memory, without immediately consuming the 
history, and, therefore, by mistake, not only takes in the 
former dream, which is not to his purpose, because Xeno- 
phon had not then communicated it to any person, but also 



121 



im' dxxd ti k} -fc^nuov iifciv •* %iiiyv)7i$* K.ai rctvvv xdya txtov 



supposes that Xenophon had more dreams than two ; which 
is probable from his saying, *£ h rn <Gm?%aa button and ^ to& 
uXXa ; for these expressions seem to imply as much, as if 
he had said, t£ TO v iv rsj <rs-otr&a)ot atxta, it} Tot. aXXa ENT IIN1A, 
lg both that in his father's House, and his other dreams." 
The only meanings, in which the word vTroxeins hath been 
explained by Stephanus, are three: 1st. Simulatio, or that 
kind of simulation, or pretending, which we call hypocrisy. 
2dly, Histrionis Gestus personam alienam reprasentantis* 
And, Sdly, Pronunciatio : but especially the figure called 
pronunciation which is exemplified in that line of Virgil, 

Caniando tu ilium, See. 
And these, I believe, will be found the only senses in. which 
the word is used, either in ancient or modern authors. I, 
therefore, am inclined to think that its meaning, here, must 
be taken from the first signification ; and, accordingly, I take 
Lucian to have spoken, here, in this manner: " For you 
" know " that he told his vision, not as a simulation ; that is, 
" not as if he proposed to pass it upon his hearers for one 
u thing, while he privately intended another, which they 
H must guess at, or find out by the way of interpretation ; 
il for that would be the same weakness that I imagine some 
li might charge me and my dream with. No: Xenophon 
44 intended not an v7Foxpt?tv s but something plain, clear, and 
"useful; and such also is my intention. 5 ' From all the 
above considerations, I have given the whole passage such a 
meaning as you see here, and in my translation, and which 
is further illustrated by this note. But I confess, after all, 
that I have not been able to reduce the text to classical 
Greek; and therefore, being dissatisfied both with it and my 
own interpretation, should be very glad to be better informed. 
I will not omit the other translation of so intricate a passage : 
" Nequaquam, 6 bone : quoniam neque Xenophon quondam 
" exponens somnium illud, quo pacto illi visum fuerat in 
" domo paterna ; et deinceps nostis visionem, non ut conjec- 
" tationem,propositamtanquam nugari statuisset, ilia narra- 
" vit, pnesertim in bello, et summa rerum desperations 



122 

tvttgov vfi7v dtyyzcrdMiv tottivx ivixccy oxvg ol not 7sp\g rk fiiXria 

T^Tavlctt) Kj -VTCi t Oi /&$£%& flu l % «J pdXtfU, it Tig OCVTCOV V7TQ TTlVlOtg 
■ l&iXoXUXU. >U <TT£<$ Tfit Y t Tl6> OL7T6K7\ivU, (pvCtV &K UytVVY) 2tx(f>6itp6fV% 

ETrtpp&G-^vftToti, il aid, ert xuxuvcg ux^cecg t« jtivSht* sx&vov iuv- 
*> tS ■zragccotifoct i ( ui srgos-jjo-c^sv^* hvom ol&> fzlv «v, <&pcg rot, xoix- 
2it<rot, agiAnra, >£ wotiOiia,g^ STrtBvftna'U, jtijjSgv uTroouhiirug <&p)g 
THV -&HH&V TkV TCTi* oJ©*> ?S ZJ"(>of v,Ucig Z7rciVl?\iiXv6U) tl >£ ptidi* 
*AA0 ; isdivosyxv ray hi6oyXv<pay ubo%0Ti%(&>* 



<( conslitutus, &c."— There is a seeming- relation between 
vnoxptTeis) above, and ijw^c^, here; but, as ii/rex^Tj?, there, 
must signify interferes, vTroxpitng, considered as related to it, 
should necessarily signify interpretatia; for which meaning I 
can see no reason, in this place. A friend hath observed, 
that, by v*ix£t?4fi probably is meant " an invention, or 
fiction; as if Lucian had said that " Xenopbon told his 
dream, as a real vision, not as a fiction," of his own, only to 
asnuse, or entertain. 



LWK. fi'. Btcov 'Exxtortu. 

The whole heaven of the heathen gods, together with the silly 
idolatry with which they were worshipped, are here most 
humourously ridiculed. 

ZEY2.— MtfxeT* ro&o^tlt, Z SW, p.v!hi xcfia. ymtctg <rvr£i- 
(tcuivoi, zrplg ig u^XviXoig xoivo7\oylt<7$~t, uyetvecxIQvlis, u sreAAoi 

CtVCihoi UiT*y%<7LV Y^ltV TS <?Vtt7TQ<jlV. AAA 17TW7TIP M7T00lO0\CCl 

<®i£i txtojv ixxXY}<ricc, tey'T&J ix&$(& 1$ to (pctvipov Ta dexzvlu 0/, 
«7 'xeflnyopu'ra. 2t> ol *} xy^vt% Z 'Ep^jj, to xigvyfta, to \x 
Txvmu. *£PM. (zYAxxi' Q-iyct. TVs ayo^ivw fizteToit tcov rihu'vf 



(a) 9f Ax%? vtyet. Tig ayofivuv, Sec] The cryer, in the 
Athenian assembly, made two proclamations. The first 

\vas : Tig dyo^ivuv fiZAirxt Tav vni^ 'srivlix.evTK JJtjj ysyovoTM; 



123 

©g£v, *7$ s%e?tv ; *H Ss g-x'ztJ/g ssigi rxv (i&oUw *J (a) %ivav» 
M12M- 'Ey& oMafA&y a Ziv, u pa 1-riTqztytuLQ tivruv. ZEY2. 
To KY^vypu y$a ityUcrtit. a?i kiiv ipk "biYi<jv\ MfiM, <&np,l roivvv 
Suva aroiitv ivtxz ip&v, oic, ktc ' &iro%0% Q>ik<; || uv5-£0>7rav ocvrzf 

iTolifAxg viuh a7rcp&9%7iV) kTlv uzyoc, kol vixvucoTf oiovloii l^ya^r- 
B-c&t. 9 A|»&J Sg, go Sgy, fztTci -zr&jtpritrtcn; pet Skvcci uirih' kh yao 
uv itXX&g ^vvcclu-^v. 'AXXd <ar(bv\iq uz ijuav cog ttedhgif lifU tku 

yXarlaif, ^ koh eiv Koflxe-iaTrifropeii rm k xaXZg yi[vou.ivcov. 
An\iy%6> yoiQ ei-retvlot* k} Xiycj to, aoxQvlci pot \g to (p&vtgov, stsIO 
i%%taq tivx, k2l h~n otitfeg l-riH,aXv7rloov tJj yvapqv* asi x* l7ru%$yis 
doK® Toi'g zroXXoTg-, }£ G-vx.opczvTix.og thv (pv7iv, a/iucciog Ttg xd\K m 
yo^(^ vtt' ccvtcov ZTTovoits&^cuiv&'t UXvjii aXX zrriiTri^ fcfsf;- ?£ 
xtziievxlxt, Kj fv } a Z$v y Ih^cog ufl' Vt^ciag UTriTv, kTzv (b) v7ro- 



Who of those above fifty years of age hath a mind to speak? 
And, when the old men had spoken, he made this second 
proclamation : Aiyesv tuv 'A&watav oig g|s?i* Any of the 
Athenians, for whom it is lawful, may speak ; for none, 
under thirty, had a right to speak ; as neither had the pvwtm*^ 
or the gsW See Potter. 

Mercury's proclamation, here, seems to be made up out 
of the above two: for riXiim ©s£v answers to men above fifty, 
in the former; and oh \*sn is a part of the latter, and seems 
to be levelled at those deities who, being |sv#j and psr«<«gi 
in heaven, had, therefore, no right to speak in this assembly 
of the gods, and are hereby warned against presuming so 
to do. 

(a) 5s***, at Athens, were only sojourners, who lodged there 
for some short time. The pirouuH were such as, being first 
registered in the court of Areopagus, took up their abode in 
the city, and followed any lawful business they pleased, but 
were not allowed to vote in the assemblies, or have any 
share in the government, and were obliged, under pain of 
confiscation, to have ail their business in the courts managed 
by patrons, called ^^otxtoh, as hath been already observed. 
They also paid a yearly tribute to the state, called pzroiy.iov, 
which is mentioned a little below. Sje Potter's tatty. 

(b) u**fu?i£ptf&*^ 'Twef'iXbofzxt, animo conti\ihor, I am 
afraid. Stcph. 

ii 2 



124 



f&i\c&itA6\)(&' ifi. — TloXXo} ya-^y tyyjui, ax uyx'ravliq^ oti otvro) 
p.tli%is<rt tm avrm vipTv |t/i»s3g/W, x^ ivwxpvreu harivm (x) tocvtx^ 
B-vviToi \% ipicrtixg *ttT|?) wt x^ t%<; v7rvigiroif, j£ B-ioe,<7arcc<; rxq avTav 
G&vuyacfov l r , fov Xpctvov* xj ToXgiv'tygaiJ/xv. K«e/ vvv \7flfr%% ^lotvoftdq 
5 r& (a) vtytovrai, xj &vriav piTiy^ivw* fcrSs koltv£oiXovti$ i t u7v to 
fASTolxiov* ZET2. Mydtv otivi[/u,UT&>$a$, d> Mm/&z, uXXoi caQas) 
*£ oieeppioyiv Agyg, ZagortQiig Kj rlivofcx, Nvv yk^ \$ to f^icrcv 

U7TZp pi7TTCCt CTOi A «y <§>■», Cd% TZOXXX*; UX-dfylV, X^ IpUgfAofytlV flfcAAdTf 

ccXXov To7g Xiyoju,ivoig» Xgi 2s zrot'opva-toLfiiv ovtci, (AY^h hxvM 

lOXzyuv. 

2. M£2M, Eyyg, a Zgy, ot< x^ faret^trpvntq ftt «*£*$ rv,v Tfxp- 
prirtciv. Tloiiis ya.^ txto fictctXixoVy a)$ otXvfrctx;, t£ piyoiXotpgov* 
Q.<ri sga x^ T%vo t uo&.~ O yol^ rot yivvcttQToiT(&» Aiowa-tOy* ipidv- 
3^#5t@m »*, xol 'EXXqv /ttyrpoQiV) uXXa.^Zv^oQoivtKOS riv(^ IpirogH 

\5 ra (b) Koi^ux 3-vy#rg*$£f, imfo^ ify&By t£$ <x$-ctv<xo-iccg, ol(^ ph " 
etvrog 'c^lv '* Xiyoo, grf (c) riv /tttTgccv, *T2 t*jv jUSlqv, srg to fid^ic-po? 
ta-uvrig y&f>, oiucti) ocuri atg &vjXv $, *£ yvv#<xs7® j riv ^>v<r;v, iptjau- 
vqg, etKgaTiS taS-iv uro7rn&>v, 'O }l } xj oXviv(d) Qgotrgistv ucivowo-M 
yiuTv, k^ rav x^ ov i7rctyo\usv&> areiges'i) x) Qtifs ec7ri$yve 9 tov Tioivst^ 
x) tov 'ZiXriVov, jC S«ri»|K^i c&ygotxvg Tiva^ *£ vArroXvs t«£ -aroAAsff, 
r&tprriTixiss *&(him$S) x^ rk$ uop$a$ uXXoxot&S' m o ^gy, xi^etra 



20 



(a) vttiovToii.'] Stephanus shews that from nua, distribno, 
come vg^# and nptpati) possideo quod-aliquis-mecum-parti- 
tus-est. 

(b) Kcc^pv Svyctr^Ss-'] Momus calls Cadmus a merchant, 
because he was the son of Agenor, king of the Phoenicians, 
who, in his reign-, were the greatest traders in the world. — - 
QvyxTpi'dZs — S. This nominative case is a contract from 
QvyoiT^ihog, and signifies a grandchild by the daughter. 

(c) riv /6MTp*v.] This may be the accusative case of xc&Tci 
understood. 

(d) q>£UTpi*v.'] After Cecrops had settled a form of govern- 
ment among the Athenians, he, for the better conducting of 
public business, divided the whole people of Attica into four 
Vixen, or tribes, and each tribe into three (p^uT^tut^ or wards, 
and each ward into thirty ^gyn, or families The people 
were, afterwards, divided into ten, and, again, into twelve 
tribes, as Di% Potter and Stephanus shew. And it must 
thence follow that the fg«Tg/** were also multiplied. 



125 

gva/K, x) o<rov \% ipto'tieef \g ro xxtm xtyt lotxas*. t§ yiviiov @xB*v 
jcxB'ri/U'Zvoc- oXtyov r^xy* itctQigoivSfw c 3s\ (pxXxxgbg yt.^uv mtAog 
TK* pivot* iTrt ova rot, -noXXx o%%p,iv(&', (a) Av^og krog ei Vi^Zxtv- 
pot* o\iig rx coroLy x^ xvrol QxXxxp^oi. xipdsoti (old rots xprt yivvvfrii- 
ctv IpiQo'.g rot ttipoLTot v^o^virdi^} <$>£vyzg rirtg ovn$. Ev.%<?t ot 5 
(b) it} x^xg x^rxvng* *OpdTi omg hjuZ* 0g»? <arotii o yivvddxq } 
Elrx Qxvpd^o.uiv, it xdrxQ^ovyo-iv v/xojv ot kvS-gtV7roi. op&vrig xra 
yiXoUg €>g*?y xj rt^xflxg -, *Ea> yk^ Xtyitv, on xj $vo yvvxixx$ 
ivnyot[i* r K v,v f4.lv Ipa/iivM ktrxv xvr%y rh'ApixovriV (/s *£ rov ri<pxvov 
\yxxr\Xi\i ro) rcov dskpoM %*(>£} tJjv 3s 'ixag/g r% yioipyx &vyxripx* \0 
Kx} (o TTolvrav yiXotorxrov* a Qsot) xj rev xvvd rqg Hp^iyovng, xj 
rxrov xvqyxfiv, cog p*i dvwro v srxTg. u py *i\u lv rod k^xvoe ro %vvqhg 
Ixitvo j£ oirt^ iydyr* xvvt^tov xvrtjg, T xvrx k%, vZ^ig vpiiv ooxity 
xj tstx^oivixs kj y'sXfijc 5 — 'Avxcrxri 3' kv *§ xXXxg. 

3. ZEYE.. MijSsy, co M& t ue, ihrng^ pure <&ip) 'A^xX'/intS, /ttifrs I 5 
Tffio't 'HpxxX&g* op® yxp^ ot ty'zpy red Xoyu. Ovrot yxg, o {ilv xvtm 
Ixrdt xj hv/fiiriv &x ruv vocrav, ?£ i?t 

ixoXXm etvrah(& j xXXm* 

*0 3' ^Hp^oueXngs vug m luog* kx oXiycav .tz-gvmv hrptxro rljv xB-xvd" 
trtxv. "Clfi fcit jcoflvyopts xvrav. MQM. H!,i6Frv7op,xt $ix c-g, a Zgv x 2# 
croXX&\ UTTtiv t%*!v. KectTot it finch oiAAo, srt roi wtAUat ifcVtri t£ 
torvpoq. Ei.3s V&v x^ hvpo? otvrov G-irvj sr&p fas-tot, XPye&cti) aroXXct 
kv ti%,ov itTTih. ZEY2. Kott fu,hv zrfog \uk i\i?t pe&Xifx. Mwv 
S' »v Kxfti %iviots itvxetf; MQM. 'Ev K^ry ph is povov r$ro 
csxQ-cti Zftv*. ctXXot £ aXXo rt??ip) r£ Xtyxrt, y^ rottyov i7rt%£txvv-25 
»c/v. 'Eya Ss »rg Ixitvotg -zsstS-opou, %n 'AftobteZv Aiytivo-tv, vto- 
QoXtftxlcv <rs iivxt (pctcxaav. — -*A $1 udXtra eXifyQvivxi 3g?y iyxpxt, 
rxvrx \pfi. Tjv yx^ rot x^y^v rm rotHrav -&xpxvop.Yip.xr(r)v^ xj 
tjjv xtrtxv rx to&ivQqvxt ifiSv ro %vvio£tov fv? co ZgtJ, '&6tP$Gy t i%) 
S-yqrxls Z7rtjxtfvvix.iv(& j > x} xxrtm -zsx£ xvrxq h kXXon xXX& e-^jj-3^ 
ptxri* t 'Q.<fi ijtxg oidi'ivxty ft* eg xxtxQvg-vi rt$ |i/AA#£#v, oTrori 
xv rxvp^Sp Hi n run ^pyo-o^om rig xxrf^ydZfrxt ft^veov ovrot' *£ 
dvrt Atog y i 0£[4,(&>y y-^/iXXtov, n \XXoQtov ifuv yivy. JJxhv xXXx 
tfC7ri'rXvixdg yi rov xgxvlv ruv ifA&iav rxruv' k yd^ xv xXXag 
%t7totp.t. Kaci ro (arpxypx yiXotorxrov tftt, ottot xv rig x$vlv35 
dx%<r*) ort o 'H^xxXvjg p\v €>iog aVeSs/^S"?}) o 3e Ey^t;cr3-gv$, £$ 



(a) Av$o$.l Silenus, the foster father of Bacchus. 

(b) $ »^*5.] Tails also: that is, beside their other defor- 
mities, 



126 

i7rirXT}sv uvra>* Te0*uxe, f£ (a) t?Xyi<tiov 'HpxxX&s na>$, oIkitv oW®*, 
id) Ev£VF$ia/s rd$os, t« di<77TQTt$ ccvrii. K*/ <md\tv lv ©>j(L:<s, 
Atovv<?o<; ju,lv G)io$* ci o avz^toi otvTii* o Hzvhvq, o 'AkIxim^ £ o 
AidpfctSr, uvB-^airm cs,7roiv}u)v (b) JcocKcdxif^ovi^atroi. 'Aq' « Js 
U7rc6^ <rv, co ZiVj an X&i T(n$ Totxroig rocg 3-vgocg, ^ \%i ra$ 
S-VYiras irpflsVa, circcvT£$ fCipiftyvTott eg. *£ Is^t *ppgvg? povov, 
ah\' (orgg uivftifov) (c) f£ at S-faucct Qzxt. Tt$ yag isK oi2i 



(a) -zrMviov.'] Near to one another, forsooth, are the tem- 
ple of Hercules, who was but a servant, and only the tomb 
of Eurystheus, his master. 

(b) KOLxoioitfAonseiTM ] This appears from the following 
mythology : When Cadmus could not find his sister, Europa, 
not daring to return to his father, Agenor, who had sent him 
in quest of her, with strict orders never to return without 
her, he came into Greece, where he introduced the use of 
letters, and built the city of Thebes in Boeotia. Being, at 
length, turned out of his kingdom by Ampliion and Zethus, 
the gods, in compassion to him, turned him into a serpent. 
"See Ovid's Met. 

By his wife, Hermione, he had four daughters, Semele, 
Agave, Ino, and Autonoe. When Semele was big of Bac- 
chus, by Jupiter, she desired the God to embrace her, as he 
was wont to do Juno. She, therefore, was burned alive, 
while he approached her with thunder and lightning. Agave, 
with her Bacchanals, tore her own son, Pentheus, in pieces, 
for contemning the rights of Bacchus, while they celebrated 
them. Ino, having severely treated Phryxus and Helle, the 
children of her husband, Athamas, by his former wife, 
Nephele, had first the mortification of seeing Athamas, in a 
fit of rage, slay her son, Learchiis, and then was, with her 
other son, Melicerta, in her arms, driven by him into the 
sea. And, lastly, Autonoe's son, Action, being turned into 
a stag by Diana, for his having seen her naked, was torn in 
pieces by his own dogs. . Ovid, 

(c) k} oCt S-fasixi 0g«/.] There seems to be a good deal of 
humour in this expression; as if he had said, Ay, and the 
delicate, puny goddesses too. Homer, but not in the way 
of humour, hath the same sort of expression, as/'Hp* S-yXvg 
*v<rx } II. xix. ? andj Aity 3-n*v$ \%<ra } II. xxiii. And, perhaps- 



127 

rov (a) *Ky%l?Wy *u rov Tt&avh) t§ Tov'Evovptavx-, f£ Toy Ixeavxy 
id. tx$ oiXXx$ j "£2$-6 T#2f# ^av Ido-iiv pot ooxa' f&xxplv yx^ xv to 

StiXifyZiV y'iVOtTO* 

4. ZEYS. My$\v znp) rx rasyt^Ss** uMreui, MXfg' y J xXi'rxva 

yxfy ti Xv7ri<r$t$To pziP ) XxtoV)CVit2to'x$U Toytv(&> MflM. Ovxxv 5 

(AY^i -STi^t TX #£TiJ WXb)} OTt *} ST(^ Iv T» XPXVOd IftV \tt] TX {$XTi- 

Xu'x cxv^lpx xx$-i?oottv&>, j£ pc*ovx%t hel t\\v xstpxXvv ex vior- 
Tivuv, €>ih$ elvcci o^oxav j ,x H jc} txtov tx Txvvu^x^ sW« ixo-opzv; 
'AAA* o^Arligyiy a Ziv, *J o KogiSfltf* *J * 2#£*7/dK W60gv ji^v 
iTritcrtxixXnthtiG-av xrot; *H o M/0pus iKih®* o M«S®-, rov K*y§t/y,lQ 
y^Tqv rtx^xv* x^l IXXyvil^ap rvj (pavyj^ &<?i xT yv&povrt? ti$, %Wtnffi$ 
TotyxpQv ot 3Zxv3-x() t£ ol Terxt, txvtx o^a\\ig xvt&'v. pxxpx tfttv 
ftxlpiiv eiTTofltg, uvroi X7rx8xvxlt?x<rt, xj ®iX$ yj-tp^olovxctv^ 8? xv 
IB'i^croja'tj top xvtov TgoVav, aWsgXj ZxpoXfr? 2xXQr «*, isxpivi- 
<y%ci(pvi) xx o\d^ 67rag SixXxSav* Kelt rot txvtx zrxvlx^ a 0eo/, 15 
pZTptu* 2y til, o) (b) x.vvo7Tpo<?u)'r6) K\ civooav \? xXuzv? Aiyv7nt&i 
t,'$ u } co fitXrift, Y. tz-ag el^iots Oio$ % tv xt vXxxlav j Tt di fixXG- 
ffitv<&») >£ o MsfMptrng xtq$ (c) txv?o$, o <nrotxtXo<;. -& pocrxvyiiTXt, 
?£ %PXy £ w^oQhTxs %x li i Alo-yvvopxt 3s iZt^xq, i§ trrfixxs liiriiV) 
*§ rgciytSf) *£ xXXx zsoXXu yzXvtOTZgx, xx eiS* 07ras \\ Atyv7rlx20 
irs-xgxivtrS-ivlx U rov Xpxvcv. * N A vuiTg, oo ©so/, iz-^iXpzyia^i oe®v\l$ 
tnia-viS) v\ ^ pxXXov vpuv tar^oGxwXpivxi ,N H cv^ a Ziv, <&£$ fa^HSi 
tTTii^xv x^ix xkpx\x (p-jo-art rot. ZEYS. Ato-%^ ox; aXr,$w$ rxvree 
<pvi$ tx -Site) rav Alyv~li&v, " Opcac, §' xv % a Mvpi* tx tstoXXx* 
avT(i>v x'tvifjxxlx \^t ) 9$ x -zrxvv y^pv\ xxrxyiXxv x^vy^ov ovtx.%5 
MOM. Tlxvv yxv pws-r^vv, & ZtZ\ ozt ij&Tv, &$ eidhxty 0£^ ^e^ 
rx$ <c)ixq, xvvoxt$xXx$ 2s TXg x.vyoxi<$xXx$* 



this of Lucian is a sneer upon the epithet, S-nXv*, thus appli- 
ed; because, to say, a female goddess, or, a female woman, 
is silly and trifling. I do not say but a poetical genius may 
make this a beauty. 

(a) 5 Ay£*W.] Venus had an amour with Anchises, 
Aurora with Tithonus, Luna with Endymion, and Ceres 
with Jason : whose stories see, in your dictionary. 

(b) xw6irp t oc'6Hri.'] This was Anubis, an Egyptian idol, in 
the form of a dog. 

Latrator Anubis. Virg. JEn. viii, 

(c) rxv^.] Osiris. 



128 



10 



5. ZEYS. Ex tynfth tx -sri^t T&v A\yv7r]i&)Vy xXXotz yxp snp 
vxtuv eTriffxiiJ/ip.&ee, in) <rxoXvi$. Xv ?s tx$ xXXv$ Xiyi. MQM, 



«arx$ A/3*«?, $£ >&*$ freaks xfppfAwiu, og xv iXxirc tiTi^t%v^ s$ 

fitpctvvg {%*, xj yoHT<&> uv$£ct iVV^rifffr ohi ZToXXot 1171V. * Hh 

Xj o UdXvdx^xvld; t$ xS-XqTii civigtxs Ixrxi tx$ zsvp\t\mtx$ iv 
'OXvftTri'*, t$ o QiayivHs \v ®x<?&, ^ 'Exto^i S-vxen Iv '*A*», xj 
tlgMTtriXctr* xuTcivTix.pl iv XtppAvicot. *A<p* «3' xv togStoi yiyo- 
vxpiv, (b) t7rt$3*>xt ptxXXov « into^x!*, >£ ii%6<7vXlot' K^ qXms, xx- 
retvrtptnfaaviv ium tv twSvTts. KtitTxvT* ulv Turipi rZv y&av. 



i£ <**{t[y£U7rT&)v. — 'Eya Uk} %iv* hip*™ araAA* &n dxvvvy in 

l5 6vlm Ttvm w*{* iptv } aV* trv^vxt oX#$ dvvetuivuv) w*vv, £ Z&v, »$ 

tvl TXTot? yiA*. *H vrQ yap fan i voXv^vXXnT^ *giT«, k} 

QMS, Kj Upct^pit^ ^ Tl^lj, UVVTOfXT*, ^ K%VX ZTpOtfaeCTM ovo- 



(a) /kjjt{*a«i8.] The nominative case is /xvTgxXot'xs. That 
Amphiaraus, the father of Amphilochus, was a parricide, is 
what I cannot find, any where. 

(b) 67Ti^Mxu'] When the verb I^J/3*^/, which, strictly 
?.r*d naturally, signifies no more than do insufier, or dono 
pr<zterea<> is used to signify /iroficio, or augeor, as in this 
place, it seems to me to have made a very odd transition 
from its first to this other meaning: for, when it signifies 
do i7isuper, it always hath after it the accusative case of the 
thing added, either expressed or very plainly understood ; 
as appears from Stephanus's quotations, u t£v o\xum xXXx, 
i7rtdid3vat, and, \yoa 3a toi hx 'injured. Plato and Hesiod. But, 
in the signification of firoficio, as we see it here, it is put 
absolutely, and, as it were, by force, for that meaning; as it 
stands by itself without any case, either expressed or easily 
understood. The usual way of accounting for acceptations 
Qf this kind is to say, that they are idioms, and that the lan- 
guage will have it so. But I cannot help thinking, after all, 
that there really is a case still understood, and that this mode 
of speech before us is intended thus, aV;3s3#*s C EAYTH N 
pcixxov a l7rio£xici, " Perjury hath given more of herself," 
i, e. " hath increased/' 



129 

ftxrx, v7rd fiXxx&v ocvfycoffav rav <pi\o<7Gip6)v tufiHiiUhrrx -, Kx} 
ijxag ocvTCTy^ioi ivret, lira t%$ uvwtvs srs;rSMcsi», asi hoi)g iy,7v } 
£3s B-vitv ft&Xirx^ iihag oil kxv pvgixg Ixxrou^ccg tpx^xs'/ig-i, optag 
T^y rvyy^v ?rgot%xcret» rx ^uoigxixsvx* ^ x vLx^y^g ix-df® &rix,\ae- 
B-vi, 'Yih'iug xv kv sgotpiviv eg, & Zsvj uw tioig % elgzlijv, h (pi>7tv^5 
r iiftxguivw -, "On (tzv yx% >£ cv xxHZig \v rx7g tcjv tpiXbeotyuv 
iietr^iZettg, oi^x, d p?4 x&$og rtg gi, ag Bomreav xvrav y,v\ hetuui. 
IloXXx sr; s^&'v unuv, xxtxttxvg-Ci) tov Xoyov* Og&> y£v rkg ureA- 
Xxg £%$'&uivigg t uoi Xsyovlt, v^ rvgirlovrxg' Ixavug pxXig-Xy &9 
x,x&ti^/XTo i -zrccf>pvi<7tx tqqv Xoyoov. Yl'ipxg yQv, el i$-zXstC) id Zgy, 10 
(a) ^Hpto-pd ?t --urspt TXrtav civxyvaroxxt ri^n %v\yzf(?Xf£ftZvov. 
ZEYS. 'Avx[v&>$-{. Ov ztxvtx yxg xXoyag incta-a' k} ozT tx 
tt^XXx xi>TtoV ZTTiFftUv, &$ pth ItfittMTov kv yt{v^TXlt 

*HOI2MA. 

ATA0H TYX H. 

6. 'ExxXfi<rt/zg (b) in opts xyouvj^g^ (c) !£So^j» WxyAvti) 



(a) IripiFfiet.'] The Athenian Sh»p«r^^ or decree, differed 
from the No^*?, or law, in this : that the JRlpog was a general 
and lasting rule, but the ^y^ic-px only respected particular 
times, places* persons, and other circumstances. Potter. 

(b) 'EjckXhHxs btipvJ] 3J Evv6x,o$ signifies, intra legem: and 
therefore, ixKXr.a-ia mw<&> signifies "an assembly met toge* 
44 ther, as the law directed." We meet this same expression 
in the Acts of the Apostles, chap xix. ver. 39, and our transla- 
tion renders it, A lawful assembly ; by which we are to under- 
stand, " an assembly convened and held as the law directed.' 5 
For an assembly may, in a certain sense, be lawful, and, yet, 
not held upon any direct prescription of the law. 

(c) If Up} f?*iti»fr«] The Athenian month was divided in- 
to three decades of days. The days of the first decade were 
called iui^cti pitog x^ouivx, or, Ig-xyAvx ; those of the second 
decade, pi<?*vTo$; and those of the third, (pQt'wflcg or xiycvlog. 

The first day of the first decade, or the first of the mor th, 
was called vsouwt'x. as falling upon the new moon (or rather, 
as being the first day of the month); the second, 'hvn^et 
Sjr«ftetg; the third, t^ityi UxyAw > and so on to lixxrri ig-xpiw. 



130 






The first day of the second decade, being the eleventh of 
the month, was called <ar£&7vi pivMrcS) or, ar^am Inl dUx; 
the second, ^ivn^x ^jtSvtoj, or hvrsgx \%\ SUx; and so on 
to the last clay of the second decade, or twentieth of the 
month ; which was called iUus> 

The first day of the third decade, or twenty-first of the 
month, was called wg«TJi ear' iltceih^ or, argam) xiyovrog^ the 
second of the third decade, or twenty-second of the month, 
hvTtpx hr iUdh, or hiyovTo? ; and so on to T%txx.xs, the thir- 
tieth, or last. 

Sometimes they inverted the method of reckoning, thus: 
The first day of the last decade, or the twenty-first of the 
month, was called Q&ivovrog dsxdrn -, the second of the same 
decade, or twenty-second of the month <p$-rjovre$ wcLtyi', and 
so on. upwards, to zr^am pS/voyrej, or Tg/#**?, after the man- 
ner of reckoning the Roman nones, ides, and calends. 

By Solon's regulation, every second month has but twenty- 
nine days* and the last day of every month was called r^txxxg^ 
the thirtieth, the twenty-second, or, according to some, the 
twenty-ninth, not being, in that case, reckoned. The t%Ixkx$ 
was likewise, by Solon, called m *$ m*j because the oid 
moon often ended, and the new moon began, on that day. 

And, lastly, the same was called Auwtrrg^, from Deme- 
trius Phalereus, who made every month to consist of thirty 
days, and, consequently, the year of three hundred and sixty ; 
for which the Athenians erected three hundred and sixty 
statues to him. For all this, and more, see the most accurate 
Dr. Potter. 

(a) l-r^vrxvivs.'] By Solon's plan of government the 
supreme power of making laws and decrees was lodged in 
the people of Athens; but, lest the unthinking multitude 
should, by crafty and designing men, be seduced to pass any 
laws destructive of their own rights and privileges, he insti- 
tuted a senate, which was composed of such men only as 
were remarkable for their great wisdom, experience, and 
integrity. This body of men was called £»*», and consisted, 
in Solon's time, of four hundred members; the tribes of 



131 

Attica, out of which they were chosen, being then but four. 
But, when Calisthenes, eighty-six: years after, divided the 
people into ten tribes, he also increased the fixhk to five- 
hundred, by ordering that fifty members should be elected 
out of each tribe. 

In this senate, the fifty representatives of each tribe pre- 
sided, turn about; and each fifty, for the space of thirty -five 
days, beginning with the representatives of the first tribe. 
The presiding fifty were called &rovTccvii$ $ and the space of 
thirty-five days, during which they presided, was termed 

7T£V7 civv. X. 

The same presiding fifty again divided their trouble, by 
agreeing that ten only of them should preside, for the first 
seven days of their time; ten more, for the next seven ; and so 
on, till each ten of the fifty had taken a turn of seven days; 
which made five times seven, or thirty five days; that is, the 
a-f wt«»s*#, or whole time of the tribe's presiding. 

Now the ten, whom the fifty «r^or«ys?jj deputed out of 
themselves, were, for the time being, called s-gos§g«j and 
one of these, again, who was chosen by lot to preside, in 
chief was styled lirreeLrns. 

With regard to the !%&&?£/£«, or popular assemblies, the 
distinct business of the 3rgi>T«yg7s was to summon the people 
to meet; that of the *r£os3ge;, to lay before them what they 
were to deliberate upon ; and that of the hn^nn^ to grant 
them the liberty of voting, which they could not do, till he 
had given them a signal. 

Laws and decrees generally took their rise in the /3sA^ or 
senate, because the persons who composed it were men of 
learning and great knowledge in the true interests of the 
constitution; but, no act of theirs was of any force, till the 
above proper officers had laid it before the people, and they 
had ratified it by their vetes. This account I have collected 
from the most learned Dr. Potter. 

It is to be observed, that Jupiter is here made to repre- 
sent all the «rgt/T*m»i, in his single person, and Neptune the 
wfiifyti but Apollo and Momus only ihe single officers, 
called svis-dTK and ygxptpctrivsi by which it appears that a 
proper pre-eminence is here preserved, in the distribution of 
these offices. 

N 



132 

(aj tyf&f&jp U7?w.< — EIIEIAH zroXXot txv |:W;, (1)) x p,lv6v v %.\* 
A>jvs;, uXXot, £ Bd^ocgot) xo&fAwq kfyoi ovTi$ Kotvavav v,piv rvfe 
rs-oXiniu^ zs-ec^iyf^x'Pivrt^y %k oio ottu$ x} ©so/ $o%otvTe$, Ifivt- 
irXfaetfft p>w tov ygavov a$ pcifov ihott to crv/tt7roG-iov oy/Xv Toc^a- 

£ %a$&9 zroXvyXarrav Tivav, t£ (c) %vyjcXv$aV lTiXiXot7rz Sj jJ 
et t u,%0O(r/ec, *§ to vteTXg, co$l (d) ftvZg *j3»j t\v (e) kotvXyiv iivoci^ ^iot 
to <vrXyJ(&> toov irtvovrW oi ol vrro eLv&cciiiot% ZTX^ard pivot T%$ 
<srct\xt%S rgj Kj otX-^ii; ©£&s, zr^oi^^ixg ihanucriv IccvT'jg <&&%» 
jwdvlot Tci "srdrgiXi t£ tv r«jf yv\ nrQOTif&v&ou S-iXari' A£AOX©fi 

\Ofyj fixXyi) *£ too iiftw %v\Xiyvi'iou ulv tKtcXvi<rie&v h t& 'OXvpna <mip) 
rpoTrocg %ii/ASPtv&is* iteo-B-cti dl Wtyv&povxr. Tite:zg ©«8s zttIu, Tjift 
^tsy, ix, tyis zFecXctiug ^Xy,q Tqg In] Kgovg, tst%;^5 }l \k tuv aa>oix.ot 9 
Vg h uvTo7g tov Aix. Tkt&s dl t%$ WtyvMpova,q y uvTisgf4.lv xxS-'z* 
tfT&a.t ouocrxvlxg tov vq\ui/uov o^kov, tw ^Tvycc. Tov 'E^pv.v Ss, 
&'4g£f*9r& %vvxyctyiiv ctTruvlets, ocoi «|;S<r< (f) \vv\Xiiv ik ro 



(a) yvapw sJ^ev.] It is not meant that Hypnus was the 
person who laid this decree before the assembly; but that he 
was the first author of it. tv&pw t'ntuv 9 censere, vel* auctor* 
esse-sententi£-. Stefift. 

There seems to be an humourous allegory, in making the 
god of sleep the author of this decree ; which is as much as 
to say that the- whole affair of this assembly of fictitious 
deities is but a dream, or chimera. 

(b) » povov t> E\XY i vs$.'] He speaks in conformity to the usage 
in Athens, where even Greeks were reckoned |svo«, or 
strangers ; to wit, such as came from Ionia, the islands, or* 
any other colony. See Potter. 

(c) %vy*kv$6i?.'] Put for &vy^x'v%m^ from the nominative 
elyxXvq 62©* j a derivative from <rvyx.aXta, convoco. 

(d) fivii*"] See the note upon fexfflcZ*, Lib. L Dial. xi. 

(e) kotvMv.~\ See the note upon p^ema^s, Lib. I. Dial, xvii, 

(f) IvvTiXiiv.'] The other translation renders this word, 
legitime admitti; but I chuse to follow Stephanus, who says 
that, upon occasions of this kind, it should be rendered, con- 
tribui, to be ranked among. Yet still I cannot see why it 
should, or how it can, be taken passively. It comes from 
tsAcs, dignitas, or magistratus (which sense of the word is 
common, as, we find Cyrus, in Xenophon, saying tk txto to 
r'iXog KetTifv) ; and I cannot apprehend why it may not be 



a 

ir} TX, <j§i7ip2, jjpfW, f£ t&z $rixe&$ Tci$ ?x ^oy&vixds. ' Hv 01 Ti$ 
(a) kxZ rav cchox-Lim, fd clwa% v7ro im iTrtyv&tf&av&i \x.x.gifof\m 5 
S7ri*>XiPcov T# %pav%) lq rov Tdplapov lu.?rl7lkV T8Toy. SL^ycK^la-iTctl 
2s to, ai>7% ixot^ov* Kxt f&iti rh 'aB-yivuv Isis-HhAt* ^ri rov ArrxXvr 
vrilv %p j q<?p.&os7v) yJ,n rev 'AttoXXm rofr&'%T& povsp zroiuv, uXX iv 
ri ZTTtXiZduivoV) pavrtv, 5 x&ccgoriov, i}_ mTglv avoci- To7$ o* 

<PiXG<ro(p6l$ TS-^OUTTiTv, ^h aVOi^XdrlilV KGUV& 6*OtiOtTC& 9 {AYIOi AjjgSiflQ 

•sregi m hx ura<7iv. 'Qiras-oi Se JjJjj vxav j} 3-vncoy i%ia3'qo-xv i tstuv&v 
yAv xo&ecigs&ijvut ra uydXttxIot^ bfl'Jvvctt %l jj Ai«^ 3 ?i "Hg#s, ii 
AwoAA^y^j >j tZv clXXmv ?/voV ixih&s ol y raQoy fcZtr&i tiiv -zroXiVy 
Kj ?iMv M7?«?*< dvtt fi&fiS. sN Hv ii rig w^g«xac»'t2 xtj^yy^aftT^j 
jj£ ph &i\A'<ff hrl thi iTriyyjlfAMMS IxQuv, (b) Ig&f&ty ocvtx (c) xoira- 1 5 
hecirqedyluy* — ZET2. Txto ph ip7v tl Iri^ta-px dtxxicrxloy, & 



naturally and easily rendered, in dignitatem, vel, magistratum 
coire. 

(a) <*Af .] The third person singular of the second aorist 
of the subjunctive mood active. But both the perfect and 
second aorist active of the verb uXt'rxto, or clxcopt, are, gene- 
rally, taken passively, as, xti-xtm vXuxi, furans deprehensus 
est, Steph. and, ssoXt% ux£<r#, urbs capta. II. ii. 

(b) Ig^sjy.] s^uog — ev, and epu^o?, u, «», are both said. 
But there is no such word as s£^o$, an absolute substantive ; 
for, when it is put alone for a desert, #&>g<*, regio, is under- 
stood. So, likewise, when \%ifm is used, as a law term, sig- 
nifying a forsaken cause, or that upon which no defendant 
appears, then, also, is the substantive hxn 9 a cause, or suit, 
understood. See Steph. 

(c) KGnct,1)iai7Yi>7c,iv\&v.~] The genitive case plural of xoltu- 
hutricrct^ the participle of the first aorist active, put, accord- 
ing to the Attic dialed, for xetra^tetirviarclTacrxy, the third per- 
son plural of the first aorist of the imperative mood active 
of xoLTx^LoLiTCiioj) condemno, from *tex£, contra, and h'ecira 9 
arbitrium. — Stephanus observes that arbitritttn is a most 
extraordinary signification of the word ?/«/r«, which, pro- 
perly, signifies mos-vivendi, or ratio victus a medicis prse« 
scripta, And, since none, before him, have accounted for 



134 



Matte* '*£ It® ?**$, Am'UV&tV T3V ^i7^et. MaXXttV ci \£?6i y;fv$c-3w* 
zrXuts y&p 61$ $*' iftvJut) ol fin yji^T&vnvovlis. 'AAA« vvv f.dv 

p*W, % *fe*i *£ WW €>S0$ Ey»l?0, ^ <pvA^v, ^ (a) ty^ur^us. 
''£1$ '&£$$ Sp fti .T2a?xi<?x ) r i T&,i< ) voiv (Aihieu rc7$ iTtty vapor iv, u >" 
?*l uiydt ***' V?5 */6^j ^ 8 ' e ' avS-gMTrot €)sgi> ctvrov tivKi viptQ 



11 i/tcov 



its signifying arbitfium, he begs leave to guess that it is 
because, as the prescribing a proper regimen of diet restores 
health to sttlt persons, so the decision, proposed by arbitra- 
tors, restores peace and harmony to the contending parties. 
Were I allowed also to guess, I should be apt to think, that, 
as a proper regimen of diet, which allows a patient neither 
more nor less than he ought to have* hath been termed 
3/#iT*, so the distribution of justice, which gives each of the 
litigants his exact due, might be called by the same name, 
(a) 0{*'T«g*f.] See the note upon ^{«rg««y, Lib. IL Dial. ii. 




135 



AIAA. y. Tt'&iay, y Mio-xy^M7r^* 

It is imposiible to express the humour and satire, with which the 
vices and follies of mankind are here exposed. But the best 
way to be justly affected with both, is for the reader strongly to 
picture and represent to himself the habits, the attitudes, the 
humours, the passions, and the voices of the speakers. So, if 
we would read Timon's prayer, with which the dialogue begins, 
with a proper taste, we must represent to ourselves Timon, in 
his furred leather coat, dirty, shabby, and leaning upon his 
spade ; and then, after no very pious meditation, suddenly turn- 
ing up his sour fleering face, and, in a loud, harsh, angry, gibing 
tone of voice, addressing, or rather attacking, Jupiter with a 
volley of poetical epithets and attributes. 

% 
TIM. — 5 H ZsS (a) <piXis, t£ $s*##, k) i7xi?ui, Kj IpUtS) *£ u?t- 
go7rv}Toi, ?£ og**S, y^ vztpzXYiyz^ZTec, k) l^ty^'^Tr^ ^ it ri <r$ uXXo ol 

(tots ya^ xvrotg vroXvcvvvftos yivopiv(&>) vTriyu^its to zrtTTTOv th 
(b) yAr^x, *§ uyccrXq*o7s to Kiffivog t£ py$jtd») srS trot vvv i l^ttr- 5 
fA&£xy&* utpxtt^ y^ i fix%v'*gcp(&* ySgavri, ?£ eti$-ctXiuf 9 v^ 
#£y4n$i ^ G-pi^oxXios xsgccvvog ; "Attxvtx yxg txvtx Xy,^^ JjSjj 
c£vx7r'~$ps. y^ iwirr*s -zroiYirtKos xTiyjod$ 9 i\u tS TzxTxyx tgcv ho- 

fukxm\ To $1 U6i2i[*6V C», KJ IKY&OXOV oVAoV, f£ 7T(*Q%Ug09 9 ZK. 

e<3' 'owe, TiXwq xirifety ^ ^v%%gv !§■;, /xnai oXtyov crTFivftiigx IgySs jq 
xxtx tmv aotx.%)>Tit)v dtxipvXxTTOv. Qxttov yQv too? brtogxsTy rt$ 

i7Ft%llgi6VTNV WXOV &(>VXXXtOX 0$©*jSW*7 #V, V\ TV t y tS -5rXVOX,UXT6(>0$ 

z.igxvv£ (pXoyx. Ovrcr) ctxXoy Ttvx iTxyxTliyxG&xt O0Ki7$ octrois, 

&)<; Grv£ plV) ») X.X7T»0V X7V XVTV /X>J dzClZVXl) {60VOV ?S tQtO OttG&Xt 

xvoXxvay t£ Tgxv,u.xT(&><> on xvx7rXYj<7$-'4<rovTXi ryjg xr&oXx. "Q^s 1 - 

VOY} 2iX TXVTX COt K^ XxX/XOViVg hvll%£OVTXV hoX/XX) li iVrdw 701 

K7ri.Txv<&> m zr£o$ %Tb) ^v^gav t*iv ogyyjv A/x y Ss^uxoyos 



(a) <p/A<s.] The words philie, Tiospkalitie, and jusjurandice, 
in the translation, are coined. 

(b) fAiT^J] BxtVOVTXl 2* 01 fly^jBSWj TX dl f/zTOX % fixtvovTXt* 

Scholiast. jEschyli. Faber. — So that fv&pilq signifies, the 
harmonious run of a verse, and f&ir^ov } the just measure, or 
number, of feet. 

w2 



136 



civkp, Jcj pity»\etv%xptsv6$, VL&>$ ya>fy owx yi x.et&oi7re(> (a) yT« 
(Aotv2(wyo£ei x.aS-ivdii^ $ o$ gre tm wit £*.%?? m ofegft?, sre t£$ 



(a) y^a^vSgflgi^jp*.] Grsevius thinks that Luci an could not 
write it vto fAotvi^xyo^ because the mandrake doth not cause 
sleep to such as only lie under it, but to such as drink the 
juice of it: and he therefore would have it read, utto pxty*- 
ya'ga, after mandrake, that is, " after taking a dose of man- 
" drake." That utto is often taken in this sense is certain ; 
as, uttI y ccvtx 3-ogso-e-avTo, at deinde armabantur, II. ix. and, 
u^o hinw, post ccenam; &ni G-xXm'yyds, post tubas sonitum. 
Stejih. — Yet, as the mandrake is a plant of a soporific quality, 
I think Lucian might have considered a dose of it as an 
oppression and load upon the senses, and, therefore, have 
said of a person, that he slept vt*o f^av^^ayo^ under the 
oppression of a dose of mandrake* 

I have been favoured with the following accurate and 
learned account of the mandrake, by a friend: — " Mandrake 
" is an herb of a narcotic and cold quality, especially the 
" root, which is large, and shaped like those of parsnip, car- 
" rot, white briony, Sec. and, in old times, has been applied 
" to deaden pain, in parts to be opened, or cut off. Its roots 
" are sometimes forked; which made the fruitful heads of 
" antiquity fancy they were like the legs, or thighs, of men, 
" and derive its Greek name of mandragora, quasi andra- 
" gora, quod inter eradicandum ejulatur et humanam refert 
a vocem. Pythagoras calls it, anthropomorphus. Columella 
a terms it, semihomo. Albertus, de mandragora. Drusius, 
" de monstris. Kircherus, de magia parastatica. Plin. in 
u Hist. Nat. and others, have run into the same conceit. 

w The ancients believed it grew only at places of execu- 
w tion, out of the urine and fat of the dead ; that, in eradica- 
" tion, it shrieked ; that it brought calamity on such as pulled 
& ©r dug it up ; to prevent which disasters, Pliny, who lets no 
u idle story slip, gives directions, at large, to be observed in 
^ pulling it. 

w Cunning impostors have confirmed these errors, by 
44 chusing forked roots of it, and carving, in some, the gene- 
" rati,ve parts of men ; in others, those of women ; and put- I 
< ( ting into small holes 3 made in proper places, the gragvs 



137 

x$ix%vtcc$ liriffx*7rit$* Xypu$ §s, ?^ uftZxv coring zrfig ra ytfvo^z»cc^ 
?£ rot, coroc lx.x,tKa<pw76(,i, fcxB-d-np e>i zrocpvcYixong. Earsi vz<&> yl 
in y$ c£ ) vS-vp!&' eov *£ oCKpcueg iv^v 0gy>jv, <aro\Xo& Kctlet r&>v aiiic&v, 
id fitaiw liro/ug*. *£ k^inori t^yig rors Gr£cg uvrisg tef^sigi'*^ «AA 
aii wzpyog T^dvrcog o Ktgavvos v\v, >£ q &iy is iiriffSisrC) i§ n fi^avr'/i 5 
Z7Tctretyc7ro> s£ vi cig-gxrh rvitiftlg) ccc-ki^ (a) tig JtcgoGoXio-pQV <crgfl>3- 
xoflt&ro. Ot cuo-poi %l (b) xtxncivydh) k) k yjcev F&fnooV) h) n 
%&\*t^ei wgTgjjJoV *£ i'va e-oi (c) $6grix.wg iictXiyapcciy virci rt 



* of millet, barley, or the like ; and setting them in a moist 
" place, till they grew, and sent forth blades; which, when 
" dried, looked like hair. For the discovery of these cheats 
" we are beholden to Matthiolus, Crollius, Sir Thomas 
" Brown, and others/* 

(a) els ux.goZoXiG-ph.'] 9 Ak£oZo\/^w signifies, u to dart, or 
" shoot, from beneath, at any high place, or thing ; or, from an 
" high place, at something below." And, though Stephanusy 
who shews this to be the true meaning of the word, interprets 
«%£6£ohi<r[Aos by nothing but jaculatio 5 or velitatio ; yet cer- 
tainly it must, from its composition, originally and properly, 
signify, ex-alto-vel-edito-loco-jaculatio, or, editum-versus4o- 
cum-jaculatio : and, here, it must signify the former, as the 
lightning must have been darted downward. For these 
reasons, I take ilg uxeoGoXicrpb* to be, here, spoken in much 
the same manner as ug vn-sgCoAjjit, or, ng t« uxg&ircilov ; and, 
therefore, to signify, usque ad acrobolismum, that is, even 
to the degree of an acrobolismus, that is, " as thick as darts 
u are showered down upon an enemy, from the walls of a 
" town, or other high place." Erasmus, here, renders both 
iWsg and us by nothing but, in morem ; which, how it 
answers to those two words, I cannot see: nor can I apply 
this expression to tk> having never met with this preposition, 
in that sense, 

(b) xoffKivnih.] " Ut cribri agitationem referre videantur. w 
Faber. 

(c) QogTtK&'s.'] Stefihanus shews that <plertx*s signifies, 
" fit-to-carry-great-burthens," as, (plerutcit zjXoUvy oneraria 
navis ; and, that, metaphorically, it signifies molestus, or 
tsediosus. But I find it hard to conceive (though Erasmus 
jjath so translated it) how <po£Tt*£g 7 here, can signify moleste; 



138 

pxy}u7ot, 9tj fi/xiot' (a) ziorotpog htu?y fuyeov* cost rviXitcoivrn \t 
mjckpu wovy vocvotytoc itt) t£ AivKxXtav(&> gygvgrd, cog vTroZpyvluf 
U7roiVT6)v xxradtovKOTaV) ftoytg gv ti xfoaTiov -sriQicaGvivcti) -sreoa-o- 

fcftXdV TW (b) AvKMQlt, (^COTrV^QV Tl TS olvfyaTTiVV V ni^fACtT Og SlOCtpV- 

5 Xxilov itg Z7riyovY}V xux.tctg psi^ov<&>. Tot ydip^ rot dxtXx&x rvig 
px@vpiccg Towiy^u^cb Kopitp faru(£ otvrav, fe'Tg &v ovt&* ttt cot t*v(^», 
an s-z$ccyii))T(&>, (c) it pi rig eigot vs-cigigyov 'OXvpKtW ^ bt®-* 



because Timon, through the whole, preserves, at least, "a 
sort of a shew of decorum towards Jupiter, which it would 
be inconsistent in him, here, to break through; and because 
it would be both unnatural and nonsensical in him, to tell 
Jupiter, to his face, while he was praying to him, that he 
would pester him, especially since what he subjoins to <popr/- 
xM$ dic&Xiycjpcci, viz. vzTo}pay$x7ot, &c. is not at all a language of 
a pestering nature. I, therefore, am inclined to think that 
fyoprtKur^ in this place, means magnifice ; as if he had said, 
" And, Jupiter, that I may talk to you importantly, or grand- 
" ly, as my subject requires I should. '' — And this he really 
does, by going on in the grand expressions, vitqi payd»7oiy 
&e. 

(a) *rflr«^os«] The text seems to want *£ before -sroraplgy 
to answer n going before. 

(b) Avx6>e t i7.~\ Lycores was a street of the city Delphi, 
upon mount Parnassus, of which the common dictionaries 
make no mention. 

(c) u pi Tig aga -zrugsgyov 'OAi^W^v.] These words are to 
me very obscure. I, therefore, leave the translation of them 
as I found it ; though, I fear, it hath no authority for render- 
ing <nr#gg£yoj>, adverbially, by " obiter ;" and much less for ren- 
dering 'OXvpntav by " in ludis Olympicis." It is true, 
'Ohvunta — m signifies Olympia, or, ludi OJympici ; but, 
how the genitive case *0"hvp%lm can signify "in Olympicis,'* 
is what I cannot conceive. The only sense I can make of 
this place arises from considering the text as running in this 
manner: srg S-vovrog zrt co/rivog, «ts fitpctvzvTog-) u pi Tig agx 
JIOIH'XIE turol^yov ^KErNO 'OXvp7rt&i. " Nee sacrifi- 
" cante tibi amplius aliquo, nee statuam tuam coronante, nisi 
*' prxstiterit quispiam supervacaneum illud ludorum Olympi* 



139 

& .ttdivv oivetyicetict ttdiih ^oxavi «AA* tig sS*'^ J T* dc^-fcciiov <?vwX&$, 
Kai xsP, oXiycv Kgovoy <ri y & &ia9 yzvv&iOTxrz, ens o§ taws? ^ t?a^6i~ 
v&pivoi TVS Tt,uy,$. 

uvt£ era rag %'A^xg (a) 'OXv^cTn^tv hrt£&XvKai7i. Kcct cv I 5 
vipiSgs pirns axvYKrag, $ uvx^<7C6i ?%g Kvvag, n risg yztrovocg \tikcl~ 
Xt<?acr&xi, 005 fiovi^ouy/crocvris ctvrxg (rvXXct&oav, St; o-v<rKivct,£pf&i*%$ 
tv^h: Ti.v (pvytv. 'AAA' o yivvuTog, ^ yiy<zv7oXsT&£* ^ T iro^QK^ot," 
T&>g, ZX.C&&717Q) rhg 'zr'hdxafA&s 7zrz(>ix.sig6y«£?os vtt ccvtosi. oiKoi^rvi^vv 

XigcCVVOV ffcVV h TY[ Ss|<fl5. T ' CIVTOL TO(VVV) (b) to ^'OCV^dcril^ ^YiVlKX, 10 

ttuvo-irui, %toj$ upzXag sra^opapiva $ s H Tu-oTZzoXeiriis rh T6<rxv» 
rnv ahir-iav ; (c) Uoa-ci <£>a&ofiz$<) q Aiv^xXtavtg^ izecvot tsfa k-r&}$ 
V7Ti^oivrXov v'cgiv t$ fiiS i 'ivct yag ret, ploivcc loi<rxg<, Tci ( ua U7tm % 
r67%?%$ 'A$wo&i*H> uz v^og u^&g, 9^ <&\&G-i%>; Ix. Travis-dray &7rt<pvi- 
vxg, ^ Groin roig $Z6,itzyoi$ ivtzxPqo'ug* jt&ciXXov $1 ad^oov \g ivspyt- 15 
tri'XV rav QtX&v tzvzocg rov ^aSto?, \7n1V4 ^irAg %toi tccvto, iyivopW) 

%K iTl %0i yVtipC^p&L 3T£0$ aVT&Vy BT2 <8rp6'7vXi7r%G'l)> 41 Ti&g V7F07F* 

Tn<Te;6)>TS$, f^ Grgd<rx,v\>£vT&g> %cZx r£ \yJ% vivfiot,T<& t #vj)p?fyfc6gvd*. 
'AAA'^y -sry ^ o^£ ^S/^aw \vtv%61[*i Tin xvrcev-, atrirtg tivoi fjjAjjv 
<ar&Xxi$ nx,Q& vttmv, vtto tS %^lva uvurtTp&f&pzvnv '&a£ig% f Qvrut)%0 
(d) pndl uvxyviyrts. 0/ %l ^ s?opp<vd-y)V t^&vt^ 7 iri£&* \KT%i7rwr&t) 



u corum. 35 And this sense I should gladly change for one 
that may be drawn from the text with more ease. 

The Olympic games were celebrated in honour of Jupitet 
Olympius, not at mount Olympus, in Thessaly, but near 
the city Olympia, otherwise called Pisa, upon the river 
Alpheus, in Peloponnesus. 

(a) OXv i u7rioc<riv.'] The dative case singular of 'oxipmccj 
the name of that city, with wn added ; and is put adverbially, 
signifying, in-Oiympia. So 'CA^ffiS-w, ab-olympia; and 
'CA^m^:, Glympiam-versus, 

(b) £ 3-civ i ux7iz.~] " Honoris appellatio : ut 3 &> yivddx, 
<( tvdxipovit, &c.'' Faber* 

(c) novo* <PyA3-oy]z$.~\ How many universal conflagrations 
and deluges! Pvieaning, that the present race of mortals de- 
serve to be bin nech or drowned, many times over. 

(d) MjiSJ x*«.y*AvTt%*'] Faber renders these words, " ne 
« c legentes quidem,' 5 as if they considered Timon as a fallen 
pillar of some sepulchre ; the inscription on which they 



140 

dvcrtivrttdV) K) u9roT£0'7robtov &ict,(/*u, e^ie&ui vftaXotfiZeiwT&g) rev 
if r&Qo /oro^Aa varigot) *£ ivi^yirw ctvray ytytvqjkt'pci, "Qrz vtf* 
ravx.ocx.av Ittiruvrwrwifyjciih rgctrroptzyos, ivac$,'ccuzvc$ $i$$*£XT, 
i%y£fyy**i tmif yW) v7ro[£ic,3-ig o^oXxv rifftrfiigav, r'y I^auhx, £ TJf 
$ oixlW? targortpiXoroQ&v %vrct,Z&oL* Tara y&v pea vox.® xip^avih, 
f&nKtrt 'cy$<r&cti sroAA-^ <ar&(>a rr t v cc^iccv ztTrtc&TTO'j'zon;. (a) 'Avioi- 
jfOTzgov yct.% Turd y.S. *H§4 -zrorz £v *> K^ovu Kj 'Vioti; vii, tab 
fict&vv rvrov vrrvov ot,7T6(rii7a,ptivcq 9 *£ vj.2vft.ov (v7rlg rov(b) 'Enr^ttE* 
w'Jjjv ya% x.ix.tip.qo'&i) ^ (c) dvxpfiirlc-as rov xtgavvov, r, Ix. rttt 



would not so much as read It is true, kmywour*.* often 
signifies to read; but " agnosco ,> is the proper and most 
usual signification fit; and, I think, " agnoscentes" is the 
more natural sense., in this place ; though I own the other 
to be somewhat pretty* 

(a) 'Av^pa'rsgdv.] " More vexatious" than even my calU 
mities, in this place of toil and want. 

(b) 'E^sviSuv ] He was a poet of Crete, who, as he at- 
tended his father's flocks, fell asleep in a cave, and slept 
there seventy years. 

St. Paul is said, in his epistle to Titus, to have quoted from 
him, that verse, 

Steph. 

(c) uvctppi7rt<7&g.'] u 'vln^ a pYzrr*;, jacio, est, Impetus ejus 
il quod projicitur.' 9 Stefih. But I should think that, consi- 
dered as the theme of purify, ventilo, it means, rather, the 
wind, occasioned by any thing that is thrown by force ; and 
this I think, because it is frequently used to signify the wind. 
Hence, I cannot but conclude that pt7rify does not so pro- 
perly signify " follibus suffio" (as the writers of lexicons 
render it) but, " projiciendo ventilo," to blow up, by a pro- 
jectile motion, as children, in their play, kindle up the hre 
on the end of a stick, by whirling it about. And, perhaps, 
Lucian here intended a piece of waggery on Jupiter, by 
making Timon desire him to revive the iire of his thundeiv 
bolt, as a boy, in his play, does that on the end of a stick, 
viz. by whirling it about. In which sort of action, Jupiter, 
whirling his thunderbolt, in order to light it up, must make 
a comical sort of a figure. 



141 

(a) Omjs lyav(rd t UrZv&> 9 fSAyaMv 'srcaicrxg rjv (pKoysz, itftitifytll 
*rtvx %oXl}v dvd^ali^g i§ vsscvixzs Ai-g y e/ f&jj dXqSy $?} to. lw\ 

(b) K^t&jv -zrz^i vg, kj ty,! Sku c?r, rxffig pv&oXoyiS/xtvct. 

3. ZEY2. Tig xrog hty a 'E^?, c ~&ekj>jfy#g he Tqg 
9 Arrixvi$, 77ci£& rov 'Y^ttgv h ry Ivegztct* sr/vse^^ oA(3^, j£ 5 
av%uav, Kj V7rol)tp§-i0<& j ; 'Stid'xnrii ol, (<:) oly.zi^ iTty.sxvpag' 
XzXog civB-^JTrog, k) ^t^'/vg, T H?r^ (d) QiXacotpog Wttf x y£g 
&v %xt»g AwlZiig r#$ Xoyyg (e) ittfylli x#3-' ifteiy- 'liTM TY 
<Png> & vr&figs 'Ayvoitg T/tc^vcc rh J&-#eiE£*f/lsf, rov KoXvttzci; 
€)vrig l?tv a -cVQXXdxiS ipag ««$■' ug&t (f) rsXu'&v U-t*recs y o\0 



(a) Oi'rvis ] Mount Oetahath never been remarkable for fire 
or volcanos. But, as £tHa was, both for those and for the 
forge of the Cyclops, in which were made Jupiter's thun- 
derbolts, I have no doubt butLucian wrote it Atrv-^, I have 
found Faber, too, of this opinion. — 'Byavftft£t£jw£, read dvav* 
cccviivtg^ says Faber, especially, because Erasmus translates 
it, w redaccenso;" which he must have done, because he 
found it so written, in his book.— This emendation is, cer* 
tainly, just; because, as the thunderbolt had been extinct, 
it was, therefore, to be re kindled," or again made red hot. 

(b) K^<ra>y.] See the story of Jupiter in your dictionary. 

(c) oJ^di.'] It seems, Jupiter could not, atthat vast height, 
distinctly see whether Timon was digging, or not: but he 
very judiciously guesses, from his stooping posture, that he 
was at that sort of work. 

(d) ®iX6<ro<pag*'\ Many of the philosophers were wont to 
decry the chimerical deities of the Heathen. On this account 
was Socrates, the greatest of them, put to death by the 
Athenians. 

(e) hi%iu ] The third person singular of the preterpluper- 
feet tense of the middle voice : iu%ilp,i, properly signifying, 
as it were, fierexeo; but, often, used for edisseroj or oratione- 
percurro. 

(f) TsAi/Wv.] Such beasts were chosen for sacrifices, as 
were without blemish: which custom, doubtless, was origi- 
nally taken from the commands given by God, at the insti- 
tution of the passover, and of the consecration of priests : 
" YtHir lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first 
" year." Exod. xii. 5. And, "take one young bullock, and 



142 

(a) veiirXxroG 9 o rag oXatg Ixurlp&eLq* mcif? £> XcipTrpws itati&tf&i* 
lo^rditziv rot diccrix. ZEYS. Qivryig d\ku,yw* 'O xecXog ixsTvog, 9 
tarXxcriog, erip\ ov ot roo-zrot (ptXoi; TtGracSav kv roiQrog Wtv, uv%/u,yi- 
f>lg, uQkiog* x^ o-xotiracnvg^ x^ purS-WTOf* otg zoixtv, vrej fiot^iictv xotroLtyi- 
5 Qtov rv)V oUhXXocy ; EPM. (I)) O vrcavi p&lv ii7ruv* x^sorqg i7tirpn]/iv 
Mvrov, x^ <piXxvQ(>a7ricC) Xj Togog rssg ieoftivvg u7rccvroig oixrog* ag $t 
&M§'ii Xoya avoioc- *J (c) tvvfhtx, k} dxgio-iti zn^t rkg (ptteg, %g 
h <7vmi« xogotfy •*£ Xvxotg xxgi^oftivbg' ctXX' \j7r0 yv7rw rocrisrcay 

XCtXOdtZlfit&V Kil^dfilVOg TO j) 7t0t^ <pl\%g ItVOti UVTitg Xj iTCttpXg COiTd) 

10 V7T zvvciotg ryg tff^og otvrov, %ai£0VTccg rv\ floret. Ot Ss ret o<roi 
yvpva>7<x>VTZg uxpt&aig, >£ art? treaty ovrtg, it Tig >£ pvlXog Ivijv Ixpvtp- 
cctvlig *£ rarov iv fioiXot ivi{4,&Xa)g, o)%ovTO) acvov oevrov x^ rug 
frZotg v7TOTzruv}uivov cc'roXt7royrig' %Ti yvM^t^ovTlg $TJ, £2i zrpov- 
Sa*7t«vt£?. Hohv yot,^ h Irtxa^prig^ y i7rtdtdovng h rm ftzpit ; 

*5 Aioz ravrei OiXiXXntg i§ di<ph^lotg. cog opu$, 067roXi7Ta)v V7T ctt<r%vviig 
to ct,<?v t ut?B'is yioipyit; (AihoLyfroXcov Toig xctxotg* on ot 7?XxrisvTig 
(&a£ uvtQ* f/.dXec V7ripo7rliZMg Txroc^^cviat, %dl Txvoptct* u Tipav 
xciXotro* itoorig* ZEY2. Koct jaw k ssrot^oyrriog uvvify »Ss a^eAjj- 
riog' eixirot yap, iyotvuxrn ovg-v^m' \-nii x^ optotcc earctho-opiv ro7g 
20vt#T#g«ro;$ xoXoc^iv lxiiv*t$, iTrtMhno-ft&voi avopif (d) rorocvTot, tocv^mv 



"two rams, without blemish." Exod. xxix. 1. The word 
rzXitm) applied to sacrifices, is of frequent use, in Homer; 
which makes^Lucian use it, here, in the way of humour. 

(a) viQ7rXxTog.~] Not suddenly enriched, and, therefore, an 
upstart (which is the usual signification of this word), but, 
u lately enriched," i. e. who lately came into a great fortune ; 
and such there had been, in Timon's family, as appears by 
his discourse with Plutus below. Stephanus, too> shews 
that vsottXvt®* is sometimes taken in this sense of nuper- 
•ditatus. 

(b) OvraKriph ztnuv.'] " That I may so say : that is, to talk 
fc in the way of the world." 

(c) ivv$uoi.~] Properly, good morals; that is, honesty, or, 
no guile. Hence, it hath been used to signify that kind of 
simplicity which makes an honest man think every other as 
undesigning as himself, and which, therefore, h&th a mixture 
of folly in it. See Steph. 

(d) TOG-ocvTse,.] Faber justly observes that twuvtx, 'artirartt 
is barbarous Greek, and that, in the royal manuscript at Paris, 



ua 

fsxj ei\yw <&iorctrec Kuvs-c.vrog ip7v Ins rSv fiapav' zrt yvv tv Talk 
ftri rnv (a) tcvt<r<rccv ccvrcov i%a' zpXhv i»t' u<r%*}.iciq t«s, t£ $-0(>v%% 
TsroXXS rav \-mopKXvrav, t£ fiiGcfyf&ivavy >y agTrct^ovr&v, in dl £ 
(fio£x rQ zretpei rcov hpovvXiSvlojv (zreAAoi yfag kroi Kj ovtr$v\dx\oii 
Kj %}l lie oXiycl x.ci\ctpv<Toc,t iph l$tZs-i) <zroAi>j/ q3fl fflivov,' &S' £ 
e67riZteij/cc iU TM 'AtI/w, *£ pdXiret \\ k <pi\oo~o<piot) s^ (b) Xoyw 
SgiSs?, l^"S7r<j'A#<r«p ocvroig. M.&%opsvm yag zsrpo$ aXXvjXag^ v$ 
xixpxyorav, »Ss IttolyAuv \$\ rav sv%&v* c a Qff4 lirfovo-dfAivov %pli 
rd droc KecBiiorB'ettyvi sV*Tg«S3*#* <nrp)>s ocvraov, dgdiv rivcc } ?£ (c) d<rd- 
poilx) Kj xi^xg ftiydx? ty\ (pavy ^vvupuvrav. Aid raevret rot x} \() 
rtsrov etf&iXniviveti vvv&ii, argo? ipois * (potvXov ofla. '0/&&; ol rov 
IIaStov, & 'Eg/Livy zrcc^eeXaidvy uttiB-i T&ctg etvrov xktx rd%<&>. 
' AyiToi Ss 6 IIaSt®-' *§ rov Qqcravpov fill 9 ocvrx, y^ [Aiviraectv dptyca 
tarocgd tm Ttu&tvij UYi$i 6L7rQtXXc6T%<7§-ei)<Toe,v hto) petijaf) kqlv on 
pciXifct v7ro %pyi?iriflos &bU$ Izdiaxf uvTXg t?s oiicctg* I7sg/ J^lj 
r&v xoXdxajv zxitvaV) y£ rtii dftxaieixs, %v Iveiufyeivl* tf^os avrov, 
*£ avQig ph erxQoft&ij *£ itmv etdetscriv, hruidv rov Kifctvvbv \7c1a- 
xivdra' xotlsayptivcti ydg cevris t£ d-roropxtuvcci zhrt ?yo (d) in&rbts 
oti {tiyifcti) 07ro]i tyiXoriporipov vKGvlicrct e&£a%y \n\ rov (e) votptfw 



it is, roo-ccvTx pigict rotvom^ &c u So many thighs of bulls." 
For the thighs, especially, were wont to be offered. 

-move* ft'-i^t &tvix» Horn* 

(a) xv!<rfftt,v "%*>•'] As Jupiter utters these words, he, no 
doubt, must be supposed, as it were, to snuff up the delicious 
fume. 

(b) Xoyvv ggjjgs.] Disputes, in which was no just reasoning, 
because they were only about words. 

(c) dedpetr*.'] See the note to this word, Lib. I. Dial, 
xxx ii. 

(d) *Wyg$.] 'Axrh properly signifies a sun-beam. I sup- 
pose, the shafts darted by Jupiter, or the thunderbolts, were 
called ctKTivig, both as they were supposed to resemble the 
rays of the sun, in point of brightness, and to be darted with 
much the same velocity, 

(e) &*q>t?w i Avot%ayogocv.'] Diogenes Laertius observes that 
the <7dpdi, or wise-men, afterwards called tyXo<?&<pot, were, 
anciently, styled croQtmt. 

Anaxagoras was very eminent for his knowledge in natu- 
ral philosophy, especially the astronomical part. He held 

o 



144 

'Av<z£ccyc£ctV) og vri&i ixg o/LtLXr^ag, (&vXi cX&$ sheet Ttvug i,Uoig 
ri<g G)ii>g. AA>/ iKtivx ph oiifAxplcv' vm^ta-fts yxp avrS TW 
yii^ot> UipocXiig. 'O oz Kipuvvag^ sig to (a) dvux,nov -zs-x^oto-KYi'^/xgy 
Iksivo re Kcfltfitefy, >£ HVTog oXtya oiiv o-vvfl^n ^«£# rh zr'trpuv' 

5 tnrXijv iKocvy) Vi TOTiSTto *£ e&vrm Ttpagtx i?eti ctVTo'ig, u vTi^Xar^vlx, 
tcv Tt'u&vct opaxriv* 

At, 'ETM. Oiov v\v to iciyotr y.ZKpayivoi^ t£ oftXnpoi uvui, j£ 
$-£y.crvY - } H rotg otxoiioXoyv<ri ftovoig, dXXci Kj ro7g ivftoptivoig t£t« 
^cy,o-i^ov, 'ld» yotQ xvrtxot fictXa -srXiSG-tcg \k is cm? tit h Kctlotfi- 

\Qg-ztmi o TipcaV) fioirccg *J srGtj>fao-icto*ol{/*sv(&' \v ?% ivyfr, ^ Xm.SpQa.z 



that the sun was a pv$p)g litHnvptg, candens ferrum, " a red- 
11 hot mass of iron," as the translator of Laertes renders it: 
but, according to others, and with more truth, " a red-hot 
;< round mass of matter; which, he asserted, was larger than 
all the Peloponnesus. He likewise held that the moon was 
inhabited, and had mountains and valleys in it. His opinion 
of the sun's being a very large red-hot mass of matter, and 
of the moon's having mountains and valleys, is demonstrated 
by the modern philosophers. And, perhaps, they have 
arrived at this knowledge, because their masters, the ancients, 
have shown them the way to it. 

Anaxagoras was, by one Cleon, arraigned of impiety to- 
ward the Gods, for holding the above opinion ; but he was 
only fined five talents, and banished, uTroXoyno-upivis hnl^ uvrS 
Ut^Xbg tS ^S-jjTfef- " his scholar, Pericles, having defended 
him." Lucian, here, makes him an atheist; but the con- 
trary is evident, from that memorable answer he once made 
to a man who asked him, why he did not take care of his 
country ? " Yes (said he), I take great care of my country ;" 
at the same time pointing to heaven. Diog. Laert. 

I know not what Lucian means by saying that the thun- 
derbolt, that had missed Anaxagoras, destroyed the temple 
of Castor and Pollux ; except that he alludes to some history 
that gave an account that this temple had, in the time of 
Pericles, been destroyed by lightning: but I doubt whether 
we have any such history now extant. 

(a) kiixttM.'] Castor and Pollux were, peculiarly, called 
hxKtg, the kings, or guardians, and their temple, avdxuov. 
SUehh, 



145 

tov Aix, Ef Ss g-^jts? £s-KX7rle9 l-riniy-vQcos, iti xv ursca-rlt* 
apaX%(Xivo<;. I1AOYT. AAA* lyco Isx. uv x7r'zXQoi/Lti, do Ziv, &■&% 
kvtov, ZEY2. Aix t/, co aat?z IIaSt5, j£ txvtx, iu% xiXiL- 
exvros > y IIAOTT. "Ori vl, Aix vZoifyv s/$ ifftii ^ H^*£ s< ? *£ g/$ 

■&oXXx x.ccls t u't(>i?i (t£ TotvTdt, tjxIq&ov xvtoo (pfaov ovra) ^ (a-iiqv 5 

&;£.' 0,;ig#y0/£^s 'e^^Oit TVS OtXlXf) K.&B'd'Ve^ 01 TO 7ZVQ Ik TfOV %U(WV 

a t 7roppt'7flisvTig. Avhq %v x<k&&a, ^xoxq-Ito^^ %} y.oXa.%^ k} irxi- 
P^xis 7sr<x,£nho&7 t cr!iuiv&*$ 'Ek iKStvxg, co Zsy. krkfMFS til, tz$ x\j- 

tfYjrwAvXq TY>-; istgiZfi TXq ^TZp/i'^/OVTXS, Cl% TlUl(&> lyCO iC -M-t^TTO- 

Qnrdf. Ojrot %i oi fa) Xx^qi t? zrivt'x t.vnr^rxv^ *)" ^fOTiptSs'lrlQ 

Vt/aCOV, Kj dfpSipM TZX* Ci'JTiig XXoQVTzS-, >£ OlKlXXxV, XyX7VXT0)7XV 
k&XiOl*, TiTlXPXS $SoA*$ UTTO'PZCMTi';* ol aiX.XTXXxVTi*': OVQZUV 

xu,iXy\t) zTgoiipiSftt* ZEYS Ovhlv \ri tgiStov o ttp.m igyxflf&t 
?7ipi crgj zrdyv y&p »vrov ■/] tf/sesAAaa 'zrvnestdce.yayiiix.lv (it f&h &c&vT£&- 

vxnv xvxXyA?c$ 'i-r; t?jV oo~$vi>) &S X^ v d <Mr< *"£$ <zrivsx$ tosxi- I 5 
fjjUff&ait, 2v t&i'JToi -srxvv tiip?fyifMt^1&* uvstt f&$i #$$£{£, 'o$ vZv 
yAv To* T'tpavx euTtaLy Siori <roi tx$ B~vpag xvx7tC\x<7xg, ipiu .-&i£i- 
'joruy \\iv%- : .£6);i s'ts «Vo*:As/W, »rg fyXorwrroov. AAAars ol 
rxyxvliov iyotvdiclus kxtx too* wXxvi&l) xxTxxlKXiiefj-xi }&y&9 
rsrplg xvt&h vttq ixoy^XoTg s£. kXsic}, yl cvimtcoy %7ii^oXxi%K so$ u/)ol20 
Grxpxx.'j-y/xi trot tg to $&$ dvvxTov uvxi. Txvrx yxv air&dvpx rr-pog 
f/*l- ciTroTyiyzcrB'Xi Xtyav h -zroWu tS c-xfiT®. Ka:/ 01a t£to cov^poq 
iptv ipccr>>8) kj $>06V7ido$ cwiiTrteQjZ) crvHff7ms(.&s r%$ dx»lvX%$ 
(b) <urp)>q to z$(§r> Tccv (c) o~v\Xoyicru&V) *£ uitth ^.(j&i^Xi artiX&'j, 
i\ x.xip% Xsi^ooio ^x^ x'jtcov. Kxi oXy-j: to zrpxycix vTrzoSiwov idotUi SO 

(a) Xxpoi.'] Axpo^ properly, signifies a sea-gull, which boys 
usually catch, by holding up a little froth to him. Ste/ih. 

We, too, call Tiien who are easily imposed on, or dupes, 
by the name of gulls. 

(b) .-©-go? to sQcs, Sec.] Agreeably to the custom of com- 
putation, that is, as tellers, or reckoners, of money are apt 
to have their fingers crumpled, while they reckon the cash. 
ZvXXoyie-pos, originally, signifies " the casting up of an 
account," being u arithmetlcorum vocabulum." Stefih. 

(c) ervXXoyiruav.'] " Adscripsit pater forte o-vAAcy/V^v." 
Gronov. His father's correction seems right", for, to say- 
that his fingers were crumpled, u according to the custom 
" of reckoners of money," is much more, natural than to say 
they were so, u according to the custom of computation," 
which is a harsh expression. 



144 

e-oi iv v«:Ax£ y) <riar,f>a &xAc£My, ucc&dntg t«j» Attvdr t v -zrug&ivebir- 

B-xi, V7T ctx-Q^in %} -zrafi-roviigeig (a) tzraioccyaycTf kvc&Tyi(pofJt.%vov 
(oj rw Text** >£ t® 'Acyicpa) "Ato7Tcc yQv tcoiiTv itpevrxiq <zirr*f, 

$ uoiiiti %,ic>:pv,uc r&> zg&Tt, xv^ixs ys ovlccs, uXXcl tyvXarliiv iywyo- 
fcrxg. U to (T^UUov #J tov t/.c^jv utryLzfiotpvxlt fite7rovToc$, Ixstvif 
ciTToXava-^ ciaf<tiv%s, » to &isr%$ a.7ro\ctvw ?^t/v, ctAAa to p,'4$ivi 

JLCITCC 01 66Vdt, T1\i U^oXcci(ri6J^ X&B-U'Trip T>!V iV TY\ (pdTVf XVVS&> UY,Tl 

'AuTW iV&lVVCiV TGV >CCl$&-J. fiJ'/TS TA> 'iXTVlb <nr%tV&VTi i7T iT^l7FH7Ct,y. 

ti.sK.Sii TV^CQiTl yt *} KOLTCCylACCS CCVTMV <pil0~OU'tV&V ) jCj $VAlCTi<>v]toV Kj 

(TO XtCii'OTofiOv) {C)0LVT%$ ^XOTV',T^flMV* CiyVOXVTMV Oi &<; v~6i\ &£&?(&» 

eixiTr,;, H olxovo^c^>^ q sx.,do7 ^^ (d) v7ru<nG))/ Au5-pcau$, lu7rcicch 

VK'Tit 10V KCCXOOXIUOVM, t£ (ti) #i^£#<T«V difTTTOTriV) w(f'.i CCUCiV^OV Tt 
*£ filLXeJfO.UOy AVVVlO^iOV, ^ (t ) l$;\(,x\i6V S^VCCA-Al^tOV, (g) 171 cty- 

16 QVTiVtiv ix<rx$ tc7$ tIkoi$. H&>$ xv vx ct^ixov. ci vrdXect ph TavTct 
tt.iTik&a.i) Vvv bi too Ttfcc*)ft tcc. ivuviict In txecAiT"? j 

5. IIAOYT. Kai pw iiyi t#,A7&v izfldZpis* upityea cot tvAoyu 
J«|a> <t4reiu>>. (h) Ti< rg yag Ttf,tav(§r to >rp-&ivv t£to eivup&'ivov, 
acp,tXs$, f£ %x ivvoi/Sov^ &$ i?^$ i^ctf, 11x010)$ o\v coxoiTi' t%s t% civ 
aaTCixXueov (i) b &v^cti$, t£ q-xotw ^)vac^t\ov\cc^ qt&s adroit 

(a) OT«i3#y#y«?$.] Misers are, in many particulars, like 
tutors, with regard to their money. They confine it: they 
let it go abroad, with the greatest caution : they are for mak* 
lag the most of it, and the like. 

(b) toxw ^ A-oytc-pZ.] Interest and accounts feed and swell 
up wealth. 

(c) *Jt»$ Z > yiX6tv7t£vt$>v.'] A miser is never out of dread. 
Nay, he is afraid, )est he himself should rcb himself; and so 
is jealous, or suspicious, of himself. 

(d) vKSurtm*] HaYinp;-privately'gone-into the miser's closet 
to steal his money. 

(e) dvipxs'ov.'] All misers are hateful, and hated. 

(f) ^s^ciA^ov.l Because he will not allow it oil enough. 

(g) ijroygKffyuJu] He will spend some sleepless nights, 
in computing what his money will bring him in, clear, till 
he hath missed it. 

(h) TS te.] I cannot see what ts can mean here, and 
believe Lucian never wrote it. 

(i) h $-v%c&ts.~] Faber would have it, lv S-nxx7$, "in arcis;'* 
for, says he, Lucian wpuld have written it, yno §v$mi> as he 



147 

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pi wo Torero* hrpok xxl X7* *ov\x<;, kx. ii2otxs w p£" f*>iK$* ^ 
ot7rix7i9 dxXu Tin rm ivtxiuov09 pi kxIxXittovtzs- Ovr %v tr-iivUs^ 

fSTi T%q uretVV ^^O^il^q Uq lf*i T%T%q 1**190) xXXct T8$, 0*1^ Ct^ifOV 
Iflj fAiT^OV tVl$yiff6VT*S T0 zrpuffficcri, *§ p4*t *P«{«jMW to txxpx- 
nxv, pr,re tpgwe-opbiSf to 0X09. Xxo7rtt ydg, Zsv, (a) tz^<z ?% 
Aio$i it Tis 96pm (b) yipxq yv9x7x.cc HeLV, *J xaXw, smiTX py,TS 
<PvXxt%i, f/tnn £j?,\oTviroi to <ur&e > d*X9, tkQnk >$ fixii&tv zv&a av 10 
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ryj$ G-xgxog lx.TZTr,xvix$, «^ tmv o(p§etXp09 iyjroSsSuKOTft/y, 2<7$" O7T0$ 
q TOttST®* * -zrxgx-ra/liv $b'%nzv cev, li'iov -aroiidoTroizio'S-oii; *£ uttq^Zv 

X01VU9 T% yt£(4Sh KetloLfJLOlQOliv&V SV7T£1 70*09 %T0 *£ S7TS*S*S"3V KO£W, 

x.aS-d7ri(> iigBM* ty} (d) B~t7 potpo^n rgi<p09 $ici 73-oc9 n ,og t% &i% ; 

At07TZ(> T&VTCC *£ XVTQ$ ??o\KOlKl$ UyclVX,XT0-. TUT^C^ IH09 UlV OCTIUZX; 
XolK\lZ i 0fA,i9(&>) 7^ Xol9v770UZ9(&>s K^ i%C6vlX%Ui*(&>* V* bt09 ff€, 

«77ti^ (e) ftyfAxli'ecs ^^xttity^ «ar£7rg§^«sy(^ J * ZEYS. T/ %9 uyx^S 



hath, in this very dialogue, said, v*o ^to^Xoig *£ ztetet — This 
is very probablej for, h B-v^xig seems to border upon non- 
sense. 

(a) <&£>$ rQ A^?.] The swearing by Jove, to Jupiter's 
own face, is very humourous. 

(b) yviftxq.'] Pro yxpwus, per syncopen, a yxpim* 

(c) x7rxyot.~\ Faber would have it <ar%oo6yot, because Eras- 
mus hath, out of his book, rendered it " producat ;° and 
because -zr£o4y0yog signifies, u a man who piostitutes his 
" wife.' , 

(d) S-iG-poQopu. ] Ceres was called bi7uo<po%*s, because hus- 
bandry occasioned laws about the division of land3. 

(e) &y pxli'xs.'] One who had been branded on the fore- 
head with <p<p. Such, generally, were slaves who had run 

2 



148 

v#*72<£, X.&T uvtvv ; Aioocto-i yu^ cL[t(poj KosXitv TJJV etxw* Ol 

f&iV) &77Tl% Tc/.v1ccX<&>, 0i7T6T0l) f£ (&yiV?Ol, ?£ fypoi TO slfJLX., 

iTriKi^vorsg povov Tea %ov<ri'ji> m oi Ss, Kcc$-oi7rip o <Pm£$, ano tjjs <pd- 
%vyy(&> tw TroVw fao tm 'Apirvtav dpon^pivoi.' — 'AAA' e&7rt6t 
5v)d4, crapgovic-ipn vecpctirtbir t£ Ttu&vt ivTiv^opiv^. ITAOYT. 
Ex.iiv(&> yx,^ -&o~l GZ-ctVQ-lT&i, U(nrl^ h Ko^iva TeT^v/rYipiva, <arph 
oXwg sio-pvqvxt ps, xcctc\ F7r%}v)V- V^xvtX&V) (p&oitroct fi%Xopiv&> TJJV 

tlTtfftWn (AV V7TSgetvlXo$ tlO-TTSFM S7riKXVG~a C6VT0V j f '£2$-g \$ TOV TCOV 

Aotvotidojy (a) tziQov v^^opogsicreiy po4 ioxa, 9^ pdrviv Woc\TXv\<niv, 

\GT% XVTZC fill CiyoVTt&y MhXti, SS^h U(/^VViVXl G-ftihoV iKftvOnG-O/aivX 

tov Z7Tipp$ovT(&>, mag ttpvTipov to <&po$ T«v '{k%vo-iv 9t6%;v*i t£ <nr/3-», 
?§ uko>Xvt(&> yj i%o2&». ZETS. Ovxtiv el fiij IpQ £*,%*? at to Mfflvos 

TXTO, (b) «J gig TO U7FCt% UVOi7FS7f\otpZVOV y IxfrvS-'iVTOS h fi^X^il <T&?, 



away from their masters, and who, when taken, were thus 
branded. They were, by way of joke, called "literati." 
I conjecture the above letters stood for <p£g <pvyx$, " a fugi- 
" tive thief;" Faber, who mentions them, does not account 
for them. 

(a) orjfov.] By this vessel, he means Timon. 

(b) 7$ ik to iV*f eivuTri'Trlex.ftivov.'] I cannot see why Eras- 
mus, who is author of the other translation, renders these 
words, '• perpetuamque perstillationem;'' for, how can g/'s to 
a7roi^ signify "perpetuus?" or, tLmiwi]*. pivot, pro dvoLTMri- 
rczG-ftzvosi ab itonriTeitu, " expando." How, I say, can it sig- 
nify "perstillatio?" The natural and most usual meaning 
of iU ro avoL% is (as Stephanus shews) " una vice," as if a 
thing was said to be done, u by one single effort," or, 
" at once." And as Timon is, here, considered as letting his 
wealth flow through him, " all at once," and not, as it were, 
"drop by drop," I think iU to #V#| dva7ri7rT#/Lt,ivov will, con- 
sistently, signify, «« simul ac semel expansum,'* or, " uno 
" instante expansum," that is, " a passage opened, all at 
" once;" as if Timon were a vessel, whose bottom, upon 
the pouring of any thing into it, dropped out intirely, in an 
instant, and so made this us to <hrct% dvecTnn-Totphov, or, 
" passage opened, all at once;" which if he will not stop up, 
he shall suffer. Faber judges that ik oL^ot^ originally, 
stood before lp$£ot%nTett. It certainly wouldj so, make very 
good sense : " therefore, if he will not, at once, have stopped 



149 

-rn'dv. 'AAA' aiem «?>?, ^ -srAj/J/^erg c«i;Toy. 2v Sg pz^wio-o, at 
'Egpti) tTTMviav* zr^og 'a^cl; c&yuv rxg Kvx.X&7ra<; g| t>js A/tvjk, 
oV<y$ rov xepavvov axovqrc&vlzs iytcrx.ivuo'&fa'iv, ce$ «§»f ys Tg0jjy^£gytf 
d&yrS Sgjjs-o^g&fc. 5 

6. EPM. Tlpa)i&[4,iV)d) TlXxri* — Titxto', X7r6cr>cccfyi$ -, EAsAjj- 
htg ^g, 6) yiwddoC) £ tv$\q$ povov, aXXa *£ %g>X6$ cov. IIAOYT. 
Ovx. au t»to 5 a Egp&ti. 'AAA o7totocv f/Av unit*) <mccqoc rtvcc 
(a) 73-^u^hig v7ro t£ Ato$i %k oiS' ovwg figxdvg elpt y$ p£#Aos 
upQorzpoig* Gig [toXt$ tsAs?v nr\ to Ti^f&ot, t&QoyyiyctroiyT®** iviozi tS 10 
73'igipivovT&*. 'Ottqt&v §s dTroiXXurlsa-B-ect ^g»7, &T7)voy o-^zt, aroXv 
T#y ogviav anvTi^ov* "Aacc y%9 garse-gv jj (b) vVcrA>jy|, yciya ijor, 

tt up," Sec. Or, perhaps, Jupiter would, here, extenuate 
Timon's former ill usage to Plutus, by saying that this pas- 
sage, for wealth to flow out at, hath been, but once, thrown 
open by Timon ; that is, that Timon hath, but once in his 
life-time, been guilty of prodigality, and that, having been 
severely punished for it, he certainly would, for the future, 
be frugal. The expression g/Wx^g is used, in this very sense 
of once, or for-once, by Lucian himself, in the fifteenth 
paragraph of this dialogue; which, though it be there one 
word, yet differs not, in its meaning, from sk to a7ra%. 

(a) snuhk v7ro ts Ails.] Jove (that is, Providence) gene- 
rally enriches men, by rendering their honest industry suc- 
cessful ; and that, not all at once, but by degrees. But the 
supreme god of wealth is, a little below, said to send such 
riches as come suddenly : by which, I suppose, is meant, 
that the nature of wealth is such, that it, sometimes, must 
inrich some persons, all at once ; as, when a man, at his 
death, must leave his wealth to somebody ; or, when a hidden 
treasure happens to be found; or, when a fortune comes, 
any way, unexpectedly. 

Pluto hath been reckoned the supreme god of riches, 
because they are found in the depths of the earth. Stefih. 

When men, suddenly, enrich themselves, by fraud and 
villany, and we understand Pluto as their benefactor, we may, 
not improperly, by Pluto, understand the real Pluto; that is, 
that the devil provides for them. 

(b) iWA)jy|.] Properly, " a swineherd's whip." The 
cord, or rope, behind which men, or horses, stood waitiqg to 



150 

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IvtOTi TCOV &IKTUV* 'EPM. O UK cLX'/frri (c) TUVTX $%$* 'jLyC'J ?s 

xj zsraAAirj « v unuv l%otul cot) y$\g fA.lv kol oZoXov a?i •zsqiaL&at.i 

fig6%0V lu-ftYlKOTOiq, U$V6t $1 FyjUZfOV Zj'h'H^i^q £> TXTOAVTiXltg \%\ XzVKH 

5 Zfivyxg l^sXxvvovTxg^ oi$ »Jg y^ ov(&> i>7ry£%i zsrcoTrole, Ka} opus 

-ZTOgtyv^i) 9^ %%V(T0%Up r sS GrZgttgfcOVTCil. #0 UVTOi i^Ti^iVOVTig OlUXi, 

crt jah (d) ov#g ftrXiiTiscriv. FFAOYT. 'Erg^otov tSt' eVii>, co Eppy, 
*£ %%) rots ipctvTX sTort fictile* to'ts, &3e o Zii/$, «sAA* o TlXxrav 

«T05"SAAf< pAi -zrcig c&vTXg, ati ^AgroJdTiJs *£ ^lyxAoho)^^ xj 

\OocvTog coy' oyjXoT y£y >£ tco ovo/ut&lt. 'E.7rttd>xv roivvv fU,iioixiF&yjVcci 

3g;» {*>& <arcx.£ Wl£% ■ZoQdt; STi^oVs lg (e) JaAro? IpZc&Xovris f/^ *£ not,' 

TXtrvifAfVotf&woi l7ri^iXcog, (po^/ioov x^cc/xtvoi farxKOfti^xcn. Kx} c 

f&lv (f ) ViKQOq iV CTKOTilVM 7V% TVS OtKlO&g <UrQOX.il\xi, VTTiQ TX yQVXTX 

'srxAxix t? o$ov? G-itiTropivog. c iptudfc'/tTog rx7g yx/\x7g* *Eui Ss 
I5*i briXiriravTSs (g) Iv rvj xyopx Gri^ipivxri Ki^vong, co<T7ri£ T/ t v 
%iAi2ovx <nrgo(r7riT6ft'v>Y}V) tit ^ty or ig ol vgorlot. 'Em) 3' uv 21 to 
cviUitov cxtpxtgiS'vj* i£ to Xhov gW^ftiji)"?, k} i ?8Ato; xvoi%Qvj, *£ 
avx>cygv%6vj px o xoavog 2i<r7T6Tn$) qrot crvyyir^g T<s 5 h «oA#|, i 



start in a race, was called ©WAuy| - 3 and the fall of this rope, 
which was extended before them, was the signal for them 
to start. See Stefih. 

(a) v?rgg5r/;?ij<7*s to rethov.'] " Having made but one spring, 
or bound, over the whole stadium." The stadium was the 
Athenian race-course, and was one hundred and twenty-five 
paces long, but sometimes a great deal longer. See Dr. 
Potter. When Plutus leaves a man, he is a racer; that is, 
he goes off exceedingly fast. 

(b) »Sg ftivrm.'] Great fortunes are often spent and melted 
away, we know not how. 

(c) rxvrx.'] Mercury intends to say, rxvrx ITANTA: for 
he questions the truth of only the former part of Plutus's 
speech, in wnich, he says, he is slow, in coming to a man. 

(d) ovx%.~] The usual expression is kxt ovxp. But ivetg is, 
sometimes, put absolutely, as, n B-ihg aWg (pxwrx* Plut. in 
Pericl. Stcjih, 

(e) SsAt*v.] The last will of the sick man. 

(f ) mt^og.'] His corpse. 

(g) \v tyj ayogc.'] Hence, it appears, that the last wills of 
the, Athenians were to be opened, publicly, in the forum. 



151 

xxrxTrvyuv q)k\tv\$, Ix tareuiixZv t/u.i&>) y**g|y|i^vt^' (a) iTt 7*j» 
yvaidovj uvr; wcixiXav >£ txxvtoox'VM qdovaiv, xg lion £%&>(>og cov vim- 
^ZTYiCiv xvtco ftiyte, to pic&odpx a yivvxlog xwoXxvMV) ixuvcg ^sv, eg 
Tig uv y,i f&tiTi x^vrxo-x/xtyog pi y xvry SsAt« &i$t $$£&)?, xvt) tU 
Tiuq Uvppfe) r, A^opmog, q T*S/s', MiyxxXw^ * MtydZv^og, q Jlga*- 5 
Txg%og fiilovoicae-B-ik, Tdg ftmrw xiyvvoTxg Ixiivxg tig xXXi^vg 
UTro^oXiTToyrocg xxTxXiTrsov^ (b) aXY$\g xyovTxg to Tzh§~dg* Qiog ctvTUg 
e S*vvvog Ix ftvyjs T%g cxywrfig oi'ctyvyiv, hx oXtyov to (c) dzXixq 
kclIcwfiw* 'O 21 ipntem x$go&)g \g \fx\ x-nit^cxxXog, r^ zrx^vds^cg 
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cg&tcv iptg-ag to %g, f£ toy ftvXafx, a>Vflrg£ to kvxxTO^ev srgocrxvyaJv, 
Hx sti fyo^YiTog lei Tdig ivlvyftdvsciv, uXXx Tiig Ti lXiv2~Z£%g vZgiJ^it) 
£ TSs c'jxoo&Xxg jxx&iyo7, cc7ro'7rsiga{M,ivoz ) tt ?£ uvtu to, toixvtx 
i\zg*iv, &%p$ xy »} \g isrc(>iiidtov Ti i t U7nc~av, v\ t7?7ro\%*<pixg imtivph- 
trxg^ i xoXx^i -Mxzx^zg zxvtov opvvxo'it, « tvptcgQoTtgov M,h Hi(?z*)g \5 
thxt &i/rcv, tvytvifEg** $£ tx Kixgcv®-') if K<iJg8, o~vyiT&Ti^ov Ja t£ 
OdvcG-z#g, GrXvc-tvTi^ov S£ evvxpx Kgois-a)ytxxaL(Gtxa) h xxxgii t% 
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k} VFXVXQyiasy trvttiXfyusvct* 

7, *£PM. AvTci -zrss <r«/g3oy ®ng ta yiyvopuvei. 'Oirirxv S& ^20 
avrinrvg /&*£/£-$, <&&$ Via Tvpkbg w vj^texug tjjv <?Sovj 5N H stag 
^ixyiva&xitg, 1$' &g xv q-% o Zihg XTrog-uXy, x^lvxg ihxi r£ vrXzTiTv 
«|*fc5 j FIAOTT. Oht y#(> ivghxsty /xt ohing u<rt; \EPM. Ma tov 
Aix z -zrdvv* Ov ya% (d) 'A^tg-ildyv xxlxXiKM^ 'inn-Mixa) ^ 
KxXXt'x Tz-gociiiig) ^ zroXXoTg xXXoig *A&wxlm<, &2g oZoXov xfyoig. 25 
T\X?,v xXXx Tt far^xTliiq xxTXTrsfAtp&stg. TIAOTT. "A»«i kj xxtco 
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W^soTOg uot 7& r igtTw%?j XTTxyxycov i%a- ci Ti.y {£) J&^.-e-tjjv, gr/ T« 
-KxzxXtycf t£ xzqdx g > & %ocrxvv£Y * *EVM. Qdx&f. \%^7rxTY t TXi o Zi\jg % 



(a) srr] Still. That is, continuing to set himself off, 
though grown eld. 

(b) dxrfrlg*'] Their grief is now real; but, before, it was 
only feigned, for the death of the deceased, by whose will 
they expected a fortune. 

(c) 3sA2<*£.] This bait was the presents they sent him, to 
make him remember them, or leave them all he hud, in his 
will. 

(d) 9 Af*re/Si»».] See his story, in your dictionary. 

(e) e £^iv,] He was, reckoned the god of gain. 



152 

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KffXHTUV tt%4Xg ; IIAOYT. Kelt pdXot, 3;»at/<w$, a \ot^ log ye 

rvpXov 09T4t eidag, eneftirsy dwEpnirofTet ^vcev^ray %tu> (a) %$if*-*) 

Kj tsrpo vroXXx exXiXa^og lx tS /3/g, cmp ko o Avyxivg uv t^tv^ot 

5 feotag, etpstvphv XTto j£ fAtxpoy ov. Toiyapxv uti rav (>dv dyoc.&u* 

cXiym OUTM) 736V4QM 21 GrXitg-fiJV) IV ToCtg <BroXtCi TO ZTXV IWt^«>T«f^ 

petcv ig Tisg roiiSTXg tp'xi'ffTco -Ts-iQiiav, *£ cr&ynvzvotccii rrp}g uvray. 
£PM. ILitcc (Brag, lieitbav xxTetX/irqg uvrxgy pt&itoeg $ivyug<> ovx 
eidag rh eioy > I1AOYT. '0|vSsg*ij$ re're <&otg xj U£\i%xg ytyvo* 

\Opxt tarqag [aqvov rov xxt^ov t?jS <f>vy>is, 

8. 'EPM. £t« it pen j£ tSto d?rcx^tvxt' Tsug rvQXog a^v, (e/gn- 
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et p,y Tvfy'Xoi k} ocvio( -zzcvmg lio-i ; IIAOYT. Ov rv$X*l a &^se* 
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ipttv to >cuXX<&>.. l^wsri ^ aToXXvvTott /an tVTvy%d?69TG§, £lg u 
ye Ttg civrolg oXov c'Troyy&varag, \7Fiditi*. ue- ; S^jAcv <v$ x.cf,Tlyii>a<7Xoy 
civ ecvraV) upZxvarlcvlig tu TriXixavrcc, t§ i^mteg kn%d*m y% 

SQaufyQav <ar*xypdT6Jv. *E¥M. T; yv, on h mv?oo Jj'Jji t&I ttXuntv 



(a) #pS/**.] A p;ood man. 

(b) fixS-vx,v,Tic& zrcvTov — et -snTpav xd}* yXiZdrav.'] These are 
poetical expressions, taken out of the following distich of 
Theognis. Faher. 

"Hy (Ueytotv. sciL) 2i %p}, tpzvyovTct *£ etg fix^vxinot nzovroy 
ViTTT'tiy^ xj *GriTp%y^ Kvpvh kut vXtQczTav. 

See the same, in Pint, srtp) 2t#;v ; Imvf. 

(c) Thv *?%kv-~] Pwt adverbially, and signifies " aprincipio," 
or, u ante omnia. Stefi/h 



153 

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z iyr i%lt?(& t i evfioptp/a Wi*i hoo&iv roc zrdvrcc cgavrxg IIAOYT. 
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T« ttoTcc; I1AOYT. 'Enu^cc* rig iilvftin to vtpmtov oivocTtil civets 
rnvfrvpctv i\(rht](iTGii pi, (Jv^a^iiii^iTcti f4.it \[i% XccB-av o rv(p^y 
j£ n etvotx, *£ n piytzXccvx,U, xj n [AoiXotKiot., *£ J'Sgis, >£ «t«t>), ^ 
*AA# arret pvpix. 'Y7To Si T«T#y cnrctvrav x,»ru\npfoU W ^v;^*, 
$~ctvpcit}i ri Tct £ Sat/^ocs'a, ^ oggygT#< t£? <ptvxl&V} (b) fca^glO 
rov GrdvTav bceivtav <tsretrkpec tmv uciX'/iXv&or&y xaxav (h) riS-qm^ 

*. / e » 5 ~ \ / / /,, 'V 5\ » X 

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/ Q « / * 

-zs-gocG-j-aci v7ro[Ativeiiv ccv. 

9, *EPM. *fl$ Js \H(&> g/, &> I7A£ts< ^ oXurSviplsi t£ dvtfxcz- 
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uA\' dyVsrgg iy%$><it$<) vi ol 'Itpas 2;« T#y ^ockIvXm 3gtfft"sr£vs<$, *sk 
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yog th? %KeitA.vo*e<i "tt>%^$ av <&p\$ TijV \o~%eiTiciy uQutafAait. IIAOYT. 
Ey s-o<gr$, a» 'Eg/tfcSj £g;g<*ya/y£v, br%t%* yi *7roXiirr , $ ^g, (d) 'Yjrgg- 

(a) «rpoo/yTo.] The third person plural of the second aorist 
of the middle voice, from -aptUph "projicio," poetice pro 
-zs-^oiivro. The second aorist, from wpoir.^ is Targowi thence 
is the second aorist of the middle voice, -apo'i^w, imperat. 
-argosVo ; optat. ^^os/^rjy, whose third person plural is «-go£w«, 
not to be found in lexicons. 

(b) %#pX Ts^^s.] Translated, "et me stupet;" in which, 
me is the accusative case. So Virgil: 

" Pars siupet innuptas donum exitiale Minervae.'* 
In which sc-nse stufteo s _;. it-s, to admire-to astonishment." 

(c) a,vi$y,r t [A.ou.~\ The MS, hath du before dn^y^uoa. Faber. 

(d) 'Y^ggSoA* / KA'^y*.] Some scoundrels. See Aristoph, 
in Pace. Fader. 



154 

&ohaf Ydfcoc *j KXicJVi Ipfttviptu <arzgtv6f3v. 'AAA* rig o •^oQtt 
Srog In, KocB-ccTfi^ ci^iipx <r?gc$ XtQov; 'EPM. e O Tlpm kroel 
CKtHifiu Gr'K-Aviov, o^uvov ?£ iiroXidcv yjjS;ov. — TlxTTacr k} i TJivtcc 
wd^i^t, k) o Hovog lttt7v6S, k} i Kccpn^tcc, Vj i Hotptoc, t£ jj 'Avigict, 

S xj o roi%Tc$ o'^Aos r ® v v*d t£ Aipa rccrlopivtov U7rdyr&v, 'sroXv 
ecputai rav cav ^ogvtpo^av. ITAdYT. 17 &v *$k dTrccXXccrlipiB-cC^ 
to 'Egfivj) rlit ruftfew ; Ot) ytfg e&v ri iput dgdrscipir d^ioXoytv 
T^fa «v3g« lira Tv)Xix,t*TV fgctroTrQu •zs i t£iirx t Yipivov. 'EPM."AA- 
Aa/$ %%t%i rat Ad, M« ditobuhioiptv £*. 

10 10. I1ENIA. 11*7 r3r*y eciraytii* to AgyuQivrot, %tigxya- 

yM j EPM. Ett) TtiTdVf T6V Tip&DOC i7TZp(p&V)piV VTTO ThtAlC$. 

IIEN. Nvn IlA»Td5 bri Tipwoc, ottoti ccvrh iyu x,otx.a$ z%6vt& 
vto TVS r£v<py t $ •sfapcchocGSo'cc, T%loi<rt irct^eti^o-^ rfj EdQt'ec ^ r£ 
IT<}yw« yivvalov civi^cc f£ sTdAAS afyov dtr'ihu^oi; Ovrag a get ivkcc- 

1 5 Tflt^g^vjjT®* vpiv i Iliv tec ^okoo, j£ ivacbtKVir<&>, to<rd 'o povov xjvipot 
ti%oV) uQeuguflh ps, dtcgiZm Trfa ugirw l%VP > yct<rpiv6V > i'v ocv&i$ o 
TIXvt®* vrozpccXcMcov avroy "TfegEi j£ Tvtpa gy%s*£jW$, {opotov rax 
tfxXgci) ftxXdacKOV) k) dytvii, *£ ccvoyitov dtirotptvots, d^ro^a vrdXiv 
tpot (a) pdxcf »j5)j yiyiVYipivov; *EPM. v E5o|s tccvtcc^ to Iltvicc, 

20 t£ A*' t# IIEN. 'ATrigxopGii*— YLoci vpz7$ Jg, a Iloyg. ^ 2d^>/<sc, 
k} el Ao/TTd/, dzoXahtri pot* Ovrog Ss rdy/nt ilTixcti^ eYotv pi htcscv 
dtrohityih dycc6yiv o-yyg^yov, ^ diddwaXov im d^Uuv. vi cvvm^ 
vyiuvos ph to rupee* If fa pi*®* il tkv yvapyv SjgTgAgc-gv, dv}ge$ 
file* t^av, 7^ (b) 'srgos tfftvroj» ojVoSaetwv, t<« Sg wi^trld ^ w«AAa 

25TccvTcc y aTtiri^ \?w, dxXorgicc v7roXccpZdvM» 'EPM. 9 Airip%6flccf 
ipi7$ Js 'sr^ocriupi* uvra. 

1 I Tm$ if gj ^ x.ccrcc£ccT6i ; *H t/ fixXopsvoi ?gygo Sj^grs, aiii^n 
tpydrnv ^ ^/c-Syxpogov ev6%bv,G'*vTt9 ; AAA* » ^Ac/govrgs anni 
ptocpol "srdvns s{\h] lya ya% vp&% avrUoc pdXoc j&csXhwf vols 

SOfiahoiS 9^ to7$ Xi$-oif crvvT^itya. *EPM- Mvi$3ip&$, to Ttpav, pn 
fidtyf 8 y«g dv$-£toins$ cvrctf fictXu$. 'AAA* Iy» ph'E^pii liptj 
«t^ Sg nAyT^. "ETnp-^/i ^g Zsv5^ hrcucxa-ecs rw iu%£v. 
"n^-g dyctSi) Tvyy? ^y(M ** 9 oA?oy, 0?iT0$-«$ t^^ irivtov* TIM. Kofi 
y^g/g oiptofyr&s J'Jjjj Kccrtot ®tol ovm, a<; <pctri* ndvrctg y*£ 



(a) jpdzos*'] A metaphor, from one who borrows a new 
coat, and returns it quite worn. Fabcr, 

(b) sofa oevrov dweQxi&av.'] " Looking toward himself.' 1 
That is, seeking his happiness in nothing but himself. 

* — ^-Nec te qu&siveris extra. Persius. 



155 

Hum *£ ©g£c j£ oivttpaTrvg uifco. Tarovt dl t'ov rvQXov* o?tg kv 
>j, t£ iTrnory/iiv p>ot ooko) tv\ duczXXv}. IIAOYT. ATnopiv^ a) 
JLetCij) t&pog tS Atog, (piXccyftoXccv ycc.% o a,&£a-7:<&> £ pSTgtute poi 
2ox,u\pi t; x.c&yJov aTtiX^a rar^o^Xx^aiv. *£PM. (a) Mnoh crx&tov, 
& Ttpcov' uXXk rl (srcivv tzto ay^tov s§ T^vy ftttraGxAw, tr^o- 5 
nivocg to) p&lgs, XdpZc&vz tkv &y&&iu tv^v, k} -ztXxtu (arkXtv^ ^ 
ta-fh A$-?ivciUjv (b) ru t&gaTc&y f£ vTngogot t&v kftx^isav i»&vav^ 
povog uvTog I'Sbonpovoov. TIM. Ovolv vp&v d'copat pi IvtyXCiTi 
pot' ixxvog luoi as-XtST©^ y ti iteXXa,' t<z o ciXXoi tvo&tpMVS GLTtg upt^ 
pqoivog pot -ZTXyitri at^o flog. EPM. QvTcag*6) t&v., kTttkv§rpte7S<&" 7 \() 

Tov dl (plea At'i' pv$ov k^r-finot ti, tigezT-v^ov rs 3 - 
Kx} p\v ititbq w p&tcrdvS'gC'JTrov ph shut o~i, tof&vtm bii uvtZv duvet, 
zriTdvB'droc^ picroS'eov ol pvidap&S) &Toog ItfiuO&sphm 7U tcvv Q>io)v. 
TIM. AXXa <roi ph, 2 E"£jm.£, ?£ too Att *zghit<?Yi %&^g rfe vkipi- 
Xitoig y tmtou 3s tov UXStov kn, civ XciZotpt. 'EPM. T* 2s, ; TIM. 1 5 
OTt ttj -zraXat pv^iav ytaTcoav pot ecinog kTog jcotrifVi) xoXaty ti 
-zrx^id'dg, *£ Irfo&Xvg iTruyayaV) k} pta-og ixlyiU&g* ^ jj3»sr#Jf/es 
diotQfatgcif) ** i7ri(p§ovov u'TTOj^ivQig^ TtXog Ss, #$#&>. H,o£lx,X(?r&v» krag 
k7n<5'0g 9 yZ vr^oooliy-ag. H^sAt/Vu Ss Hsvtca wwng ca ToTg clvo^iko)- 
TUTotg KUTeLyvpvoivoHTet) ^ (c) piT aXvfritcts ^ ^sot^fn^m^ «7207o-20 
ptXao-Xy T(i ts uvaytuita x,dpvovrt TPaguffi) ttj (d) ro?i> -sroXXav 



(a) MjjSsv ffx.utov*'] " Nihil sinistrum ;" that is (as we are 
wont to say in English}, " Nothing unlucky," i. e. u rashly 
" violent," good Timon. 

(b) tc6 mpaToi*~] u Interdum ver6 dicitur allquis esse t& 
fi &p%t<x,i i. e. firincefis." Siefl/i. 

(c) plrdMB'itetg ^ zrapfaUg.'] " With truth and freedom." 
That is, like a friend, who speaks nothing but truth, and that 
with full freedom ; and is, therefore, void of falsehood and 
flattery. 

(d) tmv ssoXXav Ixii-jw ] I have followed Erasmus, in isen- 
dering -zroXXm, u vu!garia;" as I have also done, in render- 
ing -sroXXk, page 14 5, line 52. But Faber says, that Eras- 
mus is mistaken : that, indeed, ol zroXXol frequently signifies 
i% vulgus," but that the usage of the Greek tongue will not 
allow t# ss-oxxk to signify "vulgaria.^ And he, therefore, 
renders vroXXav Uuvavj here, u tot ilia." I lliink he is in 
the right; for I could not, after much enquiry, ihid that 
^roXXcc ever signified " vulearia." 



156 

\x,ilvo)v xctTuQ£0Vi7v iieottotviv, 1% avTis l/xx rag IXrtjdoct uTFat^ricretffei 

&CJ7TSV&JV, %tz evKotyavTYis (poZav, k dvpc(&> Grago^vvfriig, Xx- IkxXyi- 
ciaTM -^nQofio^r&g, a tv%xvv(&> l-riZtsXivrxg) uQiXiaS-cit ^vvxit 
5 civ. 'Epf6t)[Aiv(& > roiyxgSv vir6 tcov tjqvcov^ tXtovi tov ccypov (piXoTio- 
vo)g l7T££yctL ) ou,tv(&>) hoh op&v toov h asu xax&v, Ikocvcc k} dicce** 
'£%(*) rci aXtyiTM tzapk t^g ot-AxXvig. v Q?i <Grah!v}go i u@~' ctTri&i) a 
*Equ?)) tcv TIXxtov U7ruyxy&v r& Ait. 'iLpo} til TXTO 'tKOCVOV fo 
ma-iT&S av3-£a>7rv<; (a) n%Y)2oy oipafytv f&oiiicrtci. 'EFM. Mqixpafy 



(a) v£r i 2ov.'] Stephanus says that v&vihh is taken in the same 
manner as " viritim," in Latin ; that is, that it signifies xcc& 
iZStTMs (as is said xar ecv^^xg) " per totam pubem," or, 
" complectendo totam pubem," and, then, he quotes these 

words of Herodotus: SyCagfej yk% aXxevg MiXviTLOi vrdvTiS 
iZ'/}0Gv airexupettro Tug KtqiaXcig. Now, as, fc«r' av'Sgag signifies 
"viritim, "or, "per singulos viros," xctS- 9 iQavrag, too, being 
a parallel expression, must, strictly, signify " per singulos 
" puberes, sive pubescentes." And, as *«0 S ^mrxg, thus 
taken, is laid down as strictly explanative of a&j&y, therefore, 
«??j.§oy, too, must signify " per singulos puberes." But yet, 
after all, this cannot be either Herodotus's, or Lucian's 
meaning: for how could " all the Milesians" cut off their 
hair, youth by youth, as if they had all been nothing but 
youths? Or, how, in this place, could "all men" bewail, 
youth by youth, as if mankind consisted of nothing but 
striplings ? Hence, it is evident that, though iSs^y, strictly 
and properly, signifies " per singulos pubescentes," yet it 
must, both in that place of Herodotus, and in this of Lucian, 
be understood in an extensive sense, as if one sort of age 
were put for every age, in general, and, therefore, must sig- 
nify "uniuscujusque aetatis." At least, Tim on could not, 
possibly, mean less, no more than u all the Milesians could 
be shorn, " youth by youth." 

Stephanus, indeed, says (but without insisting much upon 
it) that v&iShv is taken in the same manner as the adverb 
TroudnfMh which signifies "universum populum complecten- 
" do,", or "in universum." — I know no reason why Erasmus 
" should render it, ab ineunte xtate." 



157 

60 9 yxS* 9 & yx% TU'dyng z\<r)v (a) Imyjoaot T&plg otf&dyW) uXX ix 
rx hpylXx rxvrx, x) ptugoix,tGiovi, xj tI'j YIXhtqv 'Zirx^xXx^i' (b) art 
UTr&Xrirx ii<n rx oa>px rx ^rxp^x •?£ A tog, 

12. I1AOYT. BsAg/, co Ti'uav, dixutoXoyicrofAXi 'sr^og eg, i 
^xXiTxiviig ftoi Xsyovrt ; TIM. As-yg, (iq pxxp^x f&ivroi^ ^.r t oi 5 

(AITX TS QOO ifAt OJVy &)(r77t£ 01 Z7TiT£i7rT0l pJjT0gg£, XVi^OfAXt y#g <?& 

Ixiyx Xiyetrx, iix rov 'Ep.uvv tztovi. IIAOYT. 'E^jJv phrot 
i'r&g (c) x) pxxpx it?rt7v, xt a zroXXx vttq c% xxlriyo^nBivrx' opus 
Ss opx, u ri cris &g ffisi i^txfixx^ S$ rav uh ioifav xttxvtmv xirtog 
coi x.xrWi]Vs xj T*^3§1 *£ <©-£«g3g/<s?$, 9$ ?%<p4*6>Pi x) TVS ctXX'SiS rgvlpte' 10 
Tli^iZXtTflog 3£tm *j *Qivi{£*$ ot If&l ncr$-et) ?£ 7?iPi77r\i2x<,og. El 
dz rt %xXi7rlv \x tcov xoXxxav srgTcySwj, uvxiTiog fyw <rof t uxXXc9 
$1 xvrog i^txvifActi rxro V7T0 eg, Oion pi xrcog xripag (d) inr'zZxXXtf 
avo^gxci xxTX^xTGig, iTrxtvSct* xj K&TecyoqnuitG-t, xj <arxvrx rgo-rev 
i7riZxXiv'dcri pou K«i re yi nXivrxlov 'ip^a-B m et 9 ag tzqog ko^axx eg* 1 5 
rssvxPitcv ol xvrog lyxctXiraifAt <roi <zvdvrx rgOTrcv. x7rtXx7$-tlg vto 
c3, x} Wt xiQxXttv \%ca^ug rv,g otx/txg* ToiyxpPv xvrt /xxXxxvjg 
^A« ( «y^, txvtw rhv dup&gxv (e) j5 rtfAtardrv o~oi Uivix <ai^i- 
tifaiKiv. "Sirs pxprvg o ^Epjpqg zstof}, mag Ix'irivov toy Aix 
(f) p,Y& Hxziv -arx^x <72 ? sir a dvcpzvag pot -zr^oo-ivvviypivcv. \EPM.20 
9 AXXx vvv o%x$, a JlA^Tg, oi(jj^ %2i) yiyUwirat', f/ n^g Sa'pfav |vv- 
o*toLrpi%z &ur£. JC#/ cv uzv G-Kcc7rle, &>^5^;g^. 2t» Si tov fr/jG-ocvpot 
yva.yct.yl rv\ otxiXXvf wpro&xiSG'trett yctf? i^ona-xvrt coi t 

13. TIM. IIg;fgfly, a Eg.uq, xj avQi$ GrXurnriov. Tiye?pczv?£ 
Tsro&o* rig, @7rorxv a ©go/ fiiu^oivro; ITA^v 'ogx yg, i)g eld pi -z3-pc&y-25 
pxrx ip&ctXug rov xxxo^xipovu, %g #%£< vvv ivoxi[A.ovi^xrx ^ixyaov % 
Xgvo-cv atyvo) rocrQrov X^opxi, (g) k^lv xhixqvxg, >£ roo-xvrccg 
y^ovridecg dvah^opcci* \EPM. ^nl^^h *> TJMa* } 5*' g^S, x) tl 



(a) \vnr-3u6i.~] Idonei) or, habiks; by which is here meant, 
naturally fitted or disposed. 

(b) «Tg tfWo'CAiJTflJ. 

Ov re/ air q<oXvit hi Oiaiv Ipixv^ix dagx. Horn. 

(c) k) pxxqx.'] Timon's word repeated. 

(d) vTriGaXXig.] A metaphor, from prostituting ycurg 
women. Fader* 

(e) i TipiarUm rigy/flt.] The right honourable Mrs. Poverty. 

(f ) fiitf.] The MS. hath it better ukxiB-\ Fabtr. 

(g) xhh xhxfoxe.] That is, having done nothing to deserve 
this curse, of being again inriched. 



\5S 

%UAi7TG'J T%TO 9§ %K tt^OV Eg**V, OTTNq Of XO^&Ktq iKllvOl iiCCppatyZc:? 

V7T0 t£ (pbWd' iya al (a) Irio rnv A/riw, e? Tof sg^vav ctvetTrlyio-o- 
f&eti. I7AOTT. O ptv w?rshfavOeV) &g coksT* rsstfAXtgofteu yci^ t? 

5 &47ctvp t iv etTrtt&a*'* pclXXov dt tsroui. 2 s Qqpi y §~/,<rccvp\ y^ppcx, 

tit Tt[.i&)v- y (b) fiafoicts xc&TcctpZftav, \ya> 2s lfx.lv (c) V5rar>j<7 , 6 | tt#i. 

14. TIM. "Ayz Si, a> dUzXXcc' vvv tioi ivtofao-oy asatvriiVj ?£ 
(£v) xdu^ \k ri& fic&Qus t&p $'/ l <retvgov 1$ TistiQctvis urgoxaXxffiivvi.— • 



(a) v5r£^ tJv AiV»uy.] He returns to Heaven, by the way of 
-&tna, because Jupiter had ordered him to bring- up the 
Cyctofiee from thence, to mend his thunderbolts. See above, 
paragraph five, at the end. 

(b) fizfat'act xo[\u.tpiP i 6)v.~] Erasmus has rendered fiafhtus, 
" alti-us," I know not why; nor do ^ know any such adverb 
as ficdhixg; fixB-'w; being the only immediate one from 
fiu,$lq. I must own, I know not what sort of a word fiochtus 
is ; and, therefore, cannot help thinking that Lucian wrote 
it fixS-'ws. — .K«7*<pgg«F is, here, the same as hutc* 3-^6/v, 
<c deorsum impingens; as appears, from Stephanus's account 
of the verb KotrctSri^a. 

(c) vTrofirofAsti."] ThomasMagister(accordingtoStephanus) 
takes virorfooftoit, in this place, to be the same as v7ro%a£foe* 9 
signifying, " clam-discedam." But, I think, he should, at 
the same time, have shown us how the dative vfuv can signify, 
tC a vobis. 5 ' — He, otherwise, interprets the verb v?/V*f6*<, by 
Ktytplaq leapxt) which would make tolerable sense, here, by 
Plutus's saying, " 1 will stand by you, so as to be invisible;" 
I say, this would be tolerable sense, did not Plutus tell Timon, 
in the word *7nx$a>v, just above, that he would go off; which 
lie could not we'll do, and stand privately by, at the same time, 
for these reasons I cannot but conclude that Lucian wrote it 
l.uav itTTpfiffoudti, " a vobis digrediar," agreeably to km>.bM, 
above. And thus doth the other translation, by Erasmus, 
render it; so that, most probably, Erasmus found the text, 

' (d) Kegt£*vTs$.] These priests of Rhea were enthusiasts, 
who, at their solemnities, danced in armour, and, with the 



159 



ivga xviy^opivog* \AAA# [*,& %ov<rtov z?tv STrfavpoV) v%ipy^po^ 
ficcov, j§ tjjv zr go arty iv (a) v7r&g$t?ov. '£1 %£i>c-S, ai%ic')pcc KaXXifov 
figCToTg. M (b) AlQopivov ycig z?v% Ctrl ^ torn pin ug v^ vvk1&% *£ 
pi$ iftzpxv. 'EA$"S, a> (piXrxrij >£ lpcc<rpid>Tefli* Kvv zruQcpui 5 
yi *£ A/<* 7totI yiv'iT§-ot.t (c) %%v<70V» Tig ya.^ XX uv /aapfiivog 

&VC&7ri7flxUZV0tg To7$ XO\7To7$ VTTO^i^CClTO %T6) PCCthlv \p&T4V Old T% 

rzyxg zaT&pfavrxj y Q. M/2#, x} Kgd*Vs, ^ td h AiXtpolg dvetGi- 
ftxrx, kg k^lv M^x nn &rpbs Ttpcova^ k} tov TtjiMog mhSrov a yl 
vSs fiotc-iXivg o Uiptrav '/?<&>. T li 2UiXXct, *£ <p;Ar#TS 3«p0sga4, 10 
iftZs ph rS (d) Havl r%ra> avetthivxt kccXov. AvTog ol yon vrucctv 
^idpivog Thv IrftUTiciV) zwv^ylov oixodoftqrdfAtvog VTrlg tov $"/irecv%S 



vtca 



mixed uproar of piping, drumming, and shouting, raised a 
great astonishment in the minds of the spectators. Stefih. 
-Perhaps, then, it was usual with such persons, upon any 
extraordinary surprise, to cry out, a KogvZxvris; and that 
thence it became a common exclamation, in the mouths of 
such as were struck with any sudden astonishment. 

(a) &*«£»}<?«»*] When Mr. Locke was reckoning up the 
qualities of gold, such as fusible, malleable, ductile, &c. he 
forgot this of farspij5«w; which omission a tolerable miser 
would never pardon. 

(b) Aidopivov, &c] These words are take© from the first 
Ode of Pindar, which begins thus-: 

3 Agirov ulv vaap* o Ss 
Xgye-sj, xldopivov asrvp 
"Ats oic6?rpS7rit vv- 
ICr/, plydvopog l%*%a stA^ts. 

In the version thus: 

Optima quidem est aqua; ^cd 

Aurum, ardens ignis 

Velut) excellit no- 

ctit sujierbificas supra divilias. 

(c) N ^y<ro'y.] As when he courted Danal 1 . 

(d) Uav) TXTa>.~\ "To Fan here." It is supposed that 
some temple, or statue, of Pan stood near him, to which 
rural deity he offers up his rustic implements* 

p2 



160 
juova zjxct txuvov ivotciiraGr&ai) rov otvrov (a) *£ reipcv wTro&otvav 

Z7Tt?iOl?r6V /3/oV, CtlLlfy'eC GTgog U7T0tv\uq 9 >cj UyVUflCC, XJ VTifiC^/lX* 

<X>/Aoj 2s, i] |sv©^, jj irut^t&y vj (b) sAey yS^oj, vOX(&* <&oXv$* *J 

5 ' TO OlxriTgOtl OO&XgVMTX) vj WITCH $7011 OiOfClVUi, (TrCt^UVOfLlUy KJ XUrd.- 

Xvrig jm ibvv. Moving 2s jj dtuirei, xotQctTTig rolq Xvxoiq^ <pfa<§* 
ii$ *t ifim* ol 2s aXXot GrdvTiS) l%6got) <$ hriZvhot) ^ to ^t^oco^MJj- 
7xirtvt avrootr fitu7p.eC' Kut it rivu lid a/ (uovov, ot7ro$£uq i if&'igu* 
K.oci oXojg eivogtdvrav hiS-i'va*, y, ftuXxav ftqolv ifctv 0tu$ipzrw7ccvy 

*0 j£ (c) fAiirt xi^vxot ozy^ftiSu ?zot.£ uvr&JV) fjt^ri ttcovous 77avooo- 
fc&X) (d) i IgAftioc ol op®* tft* zrpog otVT^q. QvXircti 2s, *£ 
(ppdjo^iq Ttj oquoreti. *£ *) zroiTptg uvTtj y yy^^j ^ uvmQiXa ovoftulocj 
r* uvoKTwy civogav (pihoTiuiitturu. Tl\nritra ol Tiftuv fcov®^ y y^ 
virtpogdro) ctTruvrav, j£ rpytycirco ftov®* kuB- luvrbv, xoXuxitug x} 

1 5 \lFottvw fiopltxcov U7rqXXccyfi£v6$ . YLut B~zo7s Svira, f£ (e) tvar%u'r&fy 
fcov<®> l&vrZ yitraviA ofto^®*, txnwv (f ) rocv olXXojv. Kut uwot% 
luvlh ^'cZiaceirS-ut $so*o%6&>, %y 3sn u7roB-otvi7vy i) otvrw (g) $z$uvov 

(a) ;£ reitpdv.] " As a sepulchre also;" that is, " as well as 
" he, before, had it for a house." 

(b) \hhi fia>po$.~\ Altars, among the heathen, were places 
of protection to such as fled to them. 

H<zc Ara tuebitur omnes. Virg. 

(c) [tire xfyvKx, Sec] The meaning is, that he will remain 
m a constant state of war, with mankind: for peace was 
usually made, among the Grecians, by sending the x^vxig, 
or heralds, to propose it, and by making libations to the 
Gods, that they might ratify it. See //. iii. 

(d) -a IpAfAlu.'] He would have a whole desert between him 
and mankind ; so that the bounds should not be any thing so 
thin as a wall, an hedge, or the like. 

(e) ivcoy^iiToi.'] Lege ivayjt7&u). Nam syoj%'w significat 
" aliquem convivio accipere," ivoj^it70ut autem, "epulari." 
Error turpissimus. Faber. 

(f) rm uXXoov.'] I cannot account for this genitive case. 
Faber is also at a loss about it, but conjectures that Ixniai 
rm otXXuiv should be ixu$ m "tcvv uXXojv; which may be true. 

(g) fiQetvov imvzyxuv.'] Among the Grecians, crowns of 
laurel, palm, parsley, and, upon some occasions, of gold, 
were the rewards of such as conquered at the games, or 
served their country, in peace, or war. Potter. 



161 



lmny*tuf *J ovopx ph ?*»* o MIZA'NGPailOS 5iS^oy. Ti 
TgoVs* Se yv6)%i<7U.eiret>) SvrxoXtcc, xj r^x^vr^. ?£ neuters, nj o£yi) 

vvvect ixsTiiiovTct) srir!? i§ \?\uia> xctTM<?€ivvvvc&t. Kx} nv n 



%tifAm(&> o TFOTctpos tarugctQigvi, o 3e, rag #e7g#? ogiyav, avIiXctZzc- 
B-xt Kftvu* cosily 9^ txtov 1%) ki$cl\w (a) ^ri7TToyrx, ooq juqSi 
uvotKv-fycii dvvqfain' VTayag civ ry,y ivw a7roXci£oisy. — (b) Eirviyi- 



Perhaps, then, Timon here intimates, that he will execute 
some signal actions, which shall deserve a crown, but, that 
he will present himself with one. 

Or, as he here talks of his death, he, perhaps, more pro- 
bably, means that crown which was wont to be offered 
to the deceased, and with which their ?*ixxt, or sepulchral 
pillars, were hung; as we learn from the dialogue of Charon, 
where it is said, ^ GipeLvwri rxg Xt&ug. 

If this be, as I am strongly persuaded it is, the sense here, 
observe how Timon will do impossibilities, out of spite to 
mankind. He will crown his own sepulchre, after he is 
dead, rather than have it done by any human creature. 

The following was Timon's epitaph, written by himself: 

Txvoum ^' k zrva-oirS'i, x.dKot oi y-XKOog ctTroXotcrB'S, Faber. 

(a) <Br»9TTevTflft.] Faber has it, fixTfltfytra. I think he justly 
finds fault with wiviM*, because the man in the w r ater can- 
not well be said " to fall." But, is not fietTfufyvr* applied 
to the same man (as he has it) still worse, being an active 
participle ? For, surely the man cannot be supposed " to sink 
" himself" into the water. It might, however, make sense, 
if referred to ^s, which is understood, before a/Bslv; so that 
Timon might be the person understood to be /3#t7/£0vt#, 
" sinking the other, 5 ' into the water. 

(b) E/Vuy«V«To.] This verb, strictly, signifies, "proposuit," 
or, " autor introduxit :" but I have rendered it, " rogavit," 
in the translation, because that was the Roman expression 
for proposing a law to be passed. The Romans termed the 
proposing a law to the people, " rogare," because he who 
proposed it to them, did it, by asking these questions, 
"Velitisne, or, Jubcatisne, Quiritesi" 



162 

voiro tov vipov T^^y(a) 'E^sxgatT/Sg KoAtiTlfci?.— (b^E^s^^cs 
tjj zx.x.XYi<ric£. Tt'pav i ocvTog' itiv. Tc&vrx vipltv oiho^Qa^ j£ uvh^txag 
sppivapiv civrolg. 

15. IIA«v <kX\a stip) <nroAA« #v motwdpYiV utccg-i yvi^pd zrag 
5 T#t/T# ylvia-B-ottj StOTt v7rip7rhxTa>, ay%iv*i y#g #v to mroaypot, yl- 

WT0 #jJto?V. Ktffc/TO* r/ tStOj C>2V Tg T^»$* -2cT<aCVTflf^0^1» 

crvv&teffi) xixovtpivot y^ tsrvivriavTig) hx. o]$x, ohv orty^oitvo pivot tS 
pC^vsvW. IIoti^ov kv In} tov (ardyov txtov avccZug U7ri'hctvva otvrag 
To7g XtQotg, (c) i| v7Tippi\l(av UK^oZoXtt^opiv©^, $ Toyi tooStov 

10 ^x^xvopiiaopiv^ tiffa7ra,% ccvTotg cpiX'^crotvTig^ ag zrteov civtavTO 
(otoi^opco pivot ; TSto oipott >Cj cUpuvov' £Vg ii%cbp&ot, %$q uvriig^ 
v7ro?ciV7ig. <J>egg, /?#, Tig o ztdcoi •(&> olvtcov krog ifij Vvot^avi^g o 
xoA#|, o vf^oitiv (d) tgctvov xiTvjcxvrt pot o^\otg tov fieoy^ov, -zri&ag 
oh%g?<rug ipoizroXXoiKtg ipnplxag. AAA ivyi Ittoiwiv atyiKopivog' 

\5oipa%iTeii yu% <urel tcov clXXm. TNA0. Ovx, \yoo iMyov ag %k 
apihivxcri Tipav&> uyK&S uvo^fog otOio}; XocTgi T t'pav ivpottpo- 
TctTi) ^ lilies, fcj e-vp7roTtx.aTGCTi. TIM. Ni y^ a-v yi, co TvctdM- 
viov\, ywrm kirdvTWV ^odudtolti^ ^ uv$-ga)7r&v \7rtTOt7FTOTXTU 
FN A©. A it (ptXoG-x&ppcitv o~v yi* AAA« ^5 to cvp7roG-tovi 

20 *&$ Kottvov t/ rot ujpx tZv (e) nohthdxTuv ^fov^apQav %%&> 



(a) ^E^ixoccTt^a.'] " ! E;£2*ga5T/^>js lege 'E^ik^octi^h. Faber" 
So it is, above, where Mercury first mentions Timcn to 
Jupiter, and below, where Demeas reads the decree. 

(b) *%w%'tyiqfwi tjj [hcjcMo-UJ] "Decretum concionis con- 
firmavit." Steph. 

(c) \% v7rt£$i%iM.'] 'X-Trifiiifyog (tott(&> being understood) 
signifies a " place, where one stands so much higher than 
" another, that he may lift his right-hand over him, so as to 
give him the heavier blow." And v-nifiify^ m, neut. plur. 
{%&&# being understood) signifies " places of such advan- 
tage, as that persons may, from them, lift their right-hands 
over those below them." See Steph, 

(d) gg*Fflv.} ' v Eg«yos,from g*#&;, amo^ properly signifies "an 
" entertainment, where every one contributes his part of the 
" expense, or his club." And, hence, it hath been used to 
signify " a contribution, or part of a contribution, to relieve 
a person in want." See Steph. 

(e) viobtbaKTuv ^&vo£,y£>o)v^ " Bithyrambics" (which were 
songs in praise of Bacchus) " lately taught," that is, lately 



163 

KGiu'fyv. TIM. Kcct fiw \Xiyiid ys tf<rp puXx 'Riyxu&us (a) vwo 
TavT?Tr,c)ixiAX?. rNA©. T/ Tbsro; Tloitiis, co Ttpojv -, Magrv- 
^opui) 6) HgdjcXus' ii& , is" <zt^oKxX^pxt 91 T(>avua,T(&> us' A%aov 
**rdyoy. TIM. Kcci f&viv Ikv yl pttcpov l7rt£px$vvri$) tyova ?ci%x 
■5jpoxsx.Xii.7q fit* TNA0. Myidx/uas, uXXci rv yt -srciyras to rgetvpa 5 
ixo-cti, pizeby l^ri7rciiTcig rS XZ V7 ^' " iLV ®$ V*% iffftetifAo* ift to 
tpdpuxKoy. TIM. '''En pints ; TNA0. v A7rupt' orv 21 * %at- 
§*«<*, %T6J deaths Ik %£>?rS yivouivf^. 

I 6. Tig iros Is'tv o -srgocrtQV) o xvx^xXxyrixs ; QiXtdaqs koXglkuv 
ifrivTtw o (b) fi$iXv(>a)TXT<&>, Ovt(^» dl -srag \pH uyohv cXoy 10 
XxZctiv, k} rvi B-vyecr^i (c) <©■£©?*# eve rdxxvrcc ptrfroy, rx i7rciiv%y 
47roT^uTxyroi pi } arxvT&y <rt»)7rmray^ poy&> vTrioinhnciV) iTroporot,- 
piv<&> a^iK&ngov uvect icoy KVKy&v, STruih yo<?£yTsc zfq&w llh uiy 
f£ *r gowX&oy inty-K^las §s^sv@-* ? <wXnyu.s ytwxTos ZTgocriViTZivt. 
<i>IA. *£l TV*; uvetio'fcvvltets. Nvv Tipmu. yyu^itprt; Nvv TyxB-cj- 15 
yi^A-> (y'tXos k) e-vuiroms ; ToiyapQv iUottet wWovBiv »t^» a%dgtf(§* 
&)9. *Hpii$ 21 01 ztrccXxi %vvijfais : >£ %vv'i$r&ot) *} 8fyMTtt*> op&s 



u published." The authors of plays, or songs, among the 
Grecians were called 2i2c6g-kgcXoI) as, Kapu'ho2thu<7KoiXot* r^ya- 
do^iduo-KxXot, $i9-v£ce,u£o$Ldu<7KxXot, Horace uses the same 
manner of expression : 

Vel qui Prtstextas, vel qui docuere Togatas. 
The reason of the expression is, that the authors taught 
the actors, or singers, how to speak or sing their perform- 
ances. 

(a) vno 3/*sAA»j.] Quod Latine dicitur, " canare, vel saltare, 
" ad tibiam, ad citharam," id Greece est, cihtv, vel 0£%uffB-eu 9 
wo to7$ xvXois, v7ro t? Kt&d^u, I ta ridicule, qui vertunt, 
{< ab hoc doctus ligone." Faber. 

This sense, from this consideration, seems just, and fur- 
ther deserves acceptance, on account of the humour it 
expresses. 

(b) fihxv%aT£CT<&>.'] Bhxv^os (a /3§£#, " flatum ventris 
u emitto") imfiiiruS) or sfmrcus ; " a dirty fellow, who does 
" not matter doing the filthiest things, before people's faces." 
And, hence, the word hath signified, "quite impudent," or 
" brazen." Stefih. 

(c) sr^ffctf.] The accusative case singular of *r%otK — fxoj, 
" dos a patre data fili^e." Steph, 



164 

fZiTQict^ofW) &<; ph i7F^viim Itoxapiv. XetTgz, at VivTCtroC s£ oV#$ 
tv$ pixels $ rxr%$ KoXaxotg ^vA«| f "j t%$ Itti rns t p&niCps povov, rcc 
ocXXa di xogccKUv $s$iv etixtpipovrcts* Ovk fr/ zn^ivriec rm «Jv * 3g»/. 
UatTis &%stpi?6t ^ <&6VYigoi. 3 Eya> §2 ruXocvrov cot xouifyv, a$ 

5 l%ot$ 73-^0; rol xctls7rtt'yoVTat xfi&oii-, xx& oTgv jj'Sjj t&Xfiffiov ijfcSfcaft 
&>S Ts-XxToivis v7ri£fA,iyz$Yi rtvcc iorXSrcy. "Hxct rotyu^v rxvra cri 
vnB^nie-ofv' fcxtroi ffv yi £t# o-opog w, Hh 'foot* iticvi rm '&ct.£ 
ip.% XoyuV) og t^ ta> Nffagi to Ssoy wuffettviffUMf ecv* TlM. v E$-#* 
t#2toc, a <PiXid^n> riA^y «AA# TtrgofftQi, iq ;£ cri <piXo@£OVK<ro/Liczt 

10 t* otxzXXy, © I A. "AvlgAifroj, x#T£#y# rS xpotviX V7ro t£ *%&£i&*y 
ctoTi ra rv/LtfigcvTct Uytiritv uvrov. 

17. TIM.'l3£,Tg/T@«' £t(^-» o pirwg Avjitiotg i&^oi^ireti^i^tv* 
fict i%6Jv iv rvj dsfyuy it} c-vfyivvis npiripo$ that Xiyav» Git&> Utcxt- 
difcct &»g i ( M8 rotXccvrx (Alois i/*'s%ct$ tariff x$ rjj zsriXu^ttxretiiitKct^ 

I5y&fy 9§ ihi&iro, %k XTrodtdzS)) Kotya iXinffccg iXvcrecftqv ecvrbr iTruo'n 
tv^oow IXcffci tyi (a) 'EgifcQwh QvXy itxvipuv to (b) £-£#£;>cov, *<*yi 
'sr%o(rv i \&ov ctlrw to yiyvofAevoVi %k i<Pn yvapifyiv stoXitw ovrcc fti* 
AHM. Xotigiy oo TiptvV) to piya, o$bX&* tS y'zvxs, to tgiicr/act rm 
ASy,vmiu9, to <b> QoZxnpct tyis "EAA«3(^». K#/ jttijv -zsoiXui a o 

20l^@-» fyvmMyfiiv®*) *£ $< (O fixXctt uftfiregui fartpipcivacri^ 

(a) 'E^s^fS*.] Lege A2yu?3*. Quippe ICoAvtIoj erat SS^of 
4>yAj5$ A/y»J^?, teste Harpocratione. Faber. 

(b) 3-«4^;&ov.] 056^*ov (#f^tf being understood) signified, 
4i Money paid out of the treasury, for the admission of the 
" poorer citizens into the theatre." Hence it was used to 
signify, " Money granted out of the treasury, for the relief of 
" the poor." See Potter and Stefih. 

(c) fax*} upQirzpeti.'] That is, not only the /3*aJ, or senate 
of five-hundred, of which I have spoken, in the notes upon 
&im 'ExxXvo-iot) but also the court of Areopagus, which, for 
its great dignity, as Dr. Potter shews, was styled i uw@vX.ny 
the upper senate or court. 

This court, held upon the hill of Mars, at Athens, and 
thence called Areopagus, consisted of fifty judges, was the 
supreme court of justice, and decided all law disputes, whe^ 
ther concerning property, or injuries done to men in their 
persons or reputations, or blasphemy against the gods. So 
wise and upright were the judges of this tribunal, that it 
hath been asserted by Demosthenes, that they had not, from 



165 



TlpoTZ£Ov 5s axwrtv to iriQicrpat, 8 vTrig ch y'zygxQ** " 'JiIlElAH 
" Tiftav o'EftixpoiTidx KoXvtIsvsi uvy>f i* ttfl'j'dy >s#A6£ xuyx&bg, 
" #AA# ?£ cro^os, a?? Irx #AAd? |y t*j 'EAA#2<, sr^d advice x^ovov 
" dixrsXu rot, ugteat ftp ctrl av t'5 zroXii' vtVrttiyts dl &v%, f§ WAjjv, 

" *b ^POUC9 iV 'OAVWT^ £&<£? Vipk^Cl$, ?£ (a) Tihli'A cigfCOLTly 7$ 5 

" (rvvapidt Tzr&XiKYJ." — TIM. 'AAA* £3s l^ico^o-oi lya -zta-rrtTi i\<z 
9 OXvu7Ticcv. AHM. T/&vj €>sapiitrit5 v?iP09, Ta Toioivrcc oi 



the time of their institution, down to his days, made one 
unjust decree. Potter. 

(a) TgAs/ft) u^etn."] Stephanus shews that the Greeks dis- 
tinguished their horses into the aZoXoi and the rzteiot. The 
utoXot were such as had not, as yet, cast their teeth, in which 
were the marks of their age : the fixem, such as had cast 
those teeth, and being, therefore, reckoned to have arrived 
at their full strength and vigour, were called rixaou 

Now el^xj from apa^ " apto," originally and properly, 
signifies, not " a chariot," but " a-set-of-horses-joined in 
" a draught;" which is evident from Stephanus's quotation 
upon this word. First, from Xenoph. PaSd. a/, u^a Xsvxov 
y^vo-olvyovj " a set of white horses with golden harnesses;" 
and, again, from Herodian, u u^ua Ifasr&'AtfH, " a set of six 
young horses." Besides that, Eustathius, upon Homer's 
Odyss. xvii, puts it out of all dispute, that el^pa properly 
signifies, " a set of draught-horses." 

From these considerations, I think it evident that the 
word u^ccti, here, having riknu an epithet, as I have shewn, 
of full grown horses, joined to it, must signify, " a set-of 
" horses;" and that r$Agi« #gjmn must signify "a set-of- 
full-grown-horses." And this, I think, is further evident 
from the opposition of the following words, crvvaptit maxd* 
(" a pair of <sr«Ao*, or young horses") to tim/o) «^«t;, 
" a set of full-grown horses," I have rendered agpccit by 
c; currus," knowing no word, in the Latin tongue, that sig- 
nifies, u a set of draught horses," as cl^ux does in the Greek. 
Faber quotes only the Scholiast of Pindar upon this passage, 
in these words: <J>So-< ^s rmj,, ott Itabszce dgo&xg awn to TiXnoy 
cizpoC) to Ss -sroXiKov oKTca, The former might have run twelve 
heats, and the latter eight; but this gives us no light into 
the, nature of the tsAsw, or the -zraXiKov a^px* 



166 

" Grz^vrt (a) (&eoq A^xpvzxg, ?£ koltixo-^/I (b) IIiX07rOVVYI(rU)V 
" (c) Sl»o pot£X$. 33 TIM. 11^?,- A;# y*£ to ^i zyjiv otfXcc, a^s 
T^^ogy^^^v 2v ta» fcatracAoya. AHM. Mzrgtoe, ret tvi?) o-ctvrhs As- 
ys;?' ^£% 2s a-fc&y.sst civ unpi* etpviiifiovisvTtg — m TBt# 2s, ^ 
M irmQiFfietTct y%d<po)V) *£ u-vp&xtevM* i§ rga-TYiyav, ov ptngot 
? o)(piX? t cri tJv zroXiv. 'Emi rzroig ct7reto-ty AE'AOKTAI t? 
44 /3gA>j, ^ r£> S^a, ^ t? 'Hhtou'a (d) x#t# <pvA#$, x^ ro7j difAois 



(a) *£Of 9 A%x prices."] We must not, here, take srgos for 
4< contra," but " apud." For 5 A##£v» was a JS/xe?, or dis- 
trict of Attica. Therefore, Timon, being an Athenian, 
must not be supposed to fight against his own countrymen, 
but against their common enemy, the Peloponnesians, who 
are supposed to have met him, in that district of Attica, and 
whom he, therefore, fought, wgaj, " apud," " among," the 
Acharnansians. 

(b) Il$Xo7rovvAc-im.] Timon lived in the time of that 
memorable war, between the Athenians and Spartans, called 
the Peloponnesian. 

(c) dvopcigag.] Mille armatOS. Namw^e/g#y uvx7r>^criv 
avdgif zjtvTxx,G(rui» Faber. 

(d) X.XT&1 <pvA#?.] The Elisea was a court of justice at 
Athens, the next in dignity to that of Areopagus, and said 
to be so called from i'A;(^, so/, because it sat under the sun, 
or in the open air. The number of judges belonging to it 
were, as Dr. Potter sets forth, sometimes, only fifty, but 
generally two, or five, hundred. 

Now, why this decree should be said to be agreed to by 
the judges of this court, kxtk tyvXag, "by their tribes," is 
what I cannot well account for; because I know no tribes of 
Athens, but the ten tribes, into which the people of the city, 
and those of ali Attica, had been divided. Perhaps, as this 
court of Elisea often consisted of five hundred judges, it was 
like the fixXv, or senate of Athens, made up of men chosen 
out of all the tribes, from each an equal number; so that, in 
this view, the whole court might have confirmed any decree, 
xxTcl <pt>A*s, by their tribes. Or, perhaps, the text, originally, 
was, not kxtcI <pvXu$) but j£ t ^ <P«a#*$, which seems to hang 
well together with the other parts of the sentence, and to be 






167 



** thiot* Kj KQttf srtifh %%v&%9 uvct<?Z(rc&i rev Tipavot sr#£# tkv 

U 'A$-Y}Vciv 6V T?J aKg07Td><St) (a) XigSCVVOV h TV, JgfiS l%OVTOt, ;£ 

** e&fcih&$ iff} tv) xiCPaXy, XJ Gitpavajai mvtqv X,ev(T6i$ fitpcivots 
u inlet) 9§ uvaJtYi^vfrfwon rx$ fitydvvs vipi^M (b) Aiovvtrioif t%q&- 



agreeable to reason ; as it, also* was easy to be mistran- 
scribed to xxroi QvXxq* And I am the more of this opinion, 
because, as Dr. Potter shews, the 3^**, mentioned imme- 
diately after, were subdivisions of the <pvx<zt, being in num- 
ber^ one hundred and seventy-four smaller districts of the 
country of Attica : for, to gain a certain universal assent of 
the whole state, it was necessary to take the votes of every 
particular body of the people: such as, first, of the supreme 
part of the constitution, or the ylsXi: then, of the 3^(^, that 
is, of the principal 3?^^*, that of Athens, the capital: then, 
of the court of Elixa, by its tribes : then, of all the 3?^*, or 
smaller corporations of Attica, one by one : and lastly, of all 
their bodies, in common. 

(a) tczpawop, &c] In order to make a Jupiter of him. 

(b) Atow&i6i$ r%xyu$o7$'] Tgaya>3o$ signifies either the 
writer of a tragedy, or the player who acts it upon the stage: 
but that, in either sense, r^otyuhl^ the person, should be put 
for Tgaya3/#, the play, or entertainment, seems, to me, an 
extraordinary hypallage. Yet, Horace hath used the like 
expression, where he says, 

— — «Nam sic 

Et Laberi mimos ut pulchra poemata mirets 
The Athenians were restrained, by law, from presenting 
crowns to men of signal merit, either in the theatre, or at 
public games $ because these places were, generally, fre* 
quented by great numbers of men from other cities, and it 
Was thought impolitic to recommend any great Athenian to 
the notice or esteem of any other people. Wherefore, such 
persons as deserved this honour were to receive it either in 
the fiaXhj or senate; or in the assembly of the people; or in 
the tribe, or 3^^*, to which they belonged. Potter. 

Yet, we find, that Demosthenes's famous crown was pro- 
claimed in the theatre. But this, no doubt, was an innova- 
tion, and an extraordinary compliment to so great a defender 
*©f the state; and it was afterwards objected to him, as a 



i63 

ci yu2c7g xuivo7g* (aftdivkt yao 2/ uvto\ dJ &qpLigoy tu. Atovvria.) 
iC E/fg tJjv yvafiw Anpzocg o py,T(*)£ crv[ysvt)$ oi,vTV } uy%ifivg) *£ 
u paSr/aw <zvt% cov, K#* y#g ptjtag upt?o$ o Tift&v, y^ to, aXXot, 
" 'ar&vlcc oTfoa-oc kv gS&Aof. — T&t/ {.tzv &v crot to "i"/}$t(r/Lic&,— , Ey&) ^a 

5 (a) act *tj tov v'iov iZvXofitev ciyocyuv arot^ci <ri' 3 ' Ov t:re tco goo ovq- 
ftocTi Tipcova covopaxot. TIM. Hag, co Avidia, eg &?i yiyd^tcug^ 
ccet yi Xj ypcig udivoct; AHM. 'AAXei yafta } $9 di^ai ©gd?, Ig 
viufTd* Kj 7&&>io67rci'/)crc[Ac>ci) *£ to ysvvfiQ'/iropisvoV) affiw yao i^cti^ 
Ttuava fidy xaXa. TIM. Ov>t oldx^ st yafc^ctts sVi, So XTog, 

\Qz-q\txotvTYtV "&"#•%' ip&whiyw Xotp^dvuv. AHM. Qiy.ot. T/tStoj 
(b)Tvgfl6vW3j Ttpw Iwt^tOit^ x} rMug Tkg gAst/$"ggs$, ov KcCru^g 

IXlV&i^Oq, ko' (c) Ufog «»j ^AA^ 2^(TS^ SV Ttiyjit T>}V J/«J|V, TOLTi 

aXXcC) t£ oTt tw axponoXcv h27T^nTotg. TIM. AAA' hx. ifiTr'iTrpvi- 

r&i, So (jux,p>1) *5 axgoVflAJs* oo?i oviXog ti rvxetpuflcov. AHM. 'AAA# 

15x} <srX%7itSi tov (d) o7riG-3-o}o!609 $td£v%cc$» TIM. Oi^ dicoovttloti kai 

very great crime- Whence it is most probable that Demeas, 
here intends to puff up and flatter Timon, by conferring on 
him a singular and unprecedented honour. 

(a) cot.'] Faber thinks crci, here, impertinent, because of 

(b) Tvoctw/dt.'] TvfUjffU signifies kingly or arbitrary 
power. Now, as the supreme power was lodged in the 
people of Athens, it was high treason, and the most flagrant 
crime, in any one man, to attempt making himself absolute 
in the state ; and the Athenians could never forget what they 
suffered under the usurpation of Pisistratus, and his son 
Hippias. 

(c) (&•*&•] The city of Athens was, peculiarly, called *?v 9 
and the citizens thereof dfct. Stefihanus^ from Eustathiusj 
p. 3491 and 1383. 

(d) oTriG'&idopo'v.'] At the back of Minerva's temple stood 
the public treasury, called, from its situation, oKto-S-odcpog ; 
wherein, beside other public money, a thousand talents were 
laid up in store, against any great exigency; If any man 
expended them, upon a trivial account, he was put to 
death. Potter. 

Demeas will charge Timon with none but the m6st capi- 
tal offences. — rg before ss-Abts/s, in the preceding line, signifies 5 
u also ;" that is, " You are, also, grown rich, &€. beside 
* having burned the citadel/ 3 



169 

5xds* u?i e67>&xvd (T6V :£ rctZra. AHM. A io gv%,$ m i<rs'p&i (Ap 
vzigo-j' J'Sifl Si cv zedyrei rd h c£vt& iyjt$. TIM. Ovzxv *£ oO.\ry 
XdpZxvs. AHM. Oi&oi rl .uzradpivov. TIM. Mig (a) x.\x.%»% t $-f 
KUT6tc& ysio era ttj tpitW %iru *£ yzXolcc ^r^y^civ ■sr<A&ot i uc, cvo 

tu'jV pJi iTiTgitye&if Mam? yx? kv&'w *£ vwix.rix.as Q\vp7Zis& <u ry|, 

9^ ■ZS'StXVi'J* 

18. ? AAA^ t/ r%TOi. Ov © potrvx^c I idi\o?dp6$ uroz \$'.V i 
Qj uh kv kx>.og. JLwriT&iroii y^v tav .sr^y^y^i, kj roig otypv? 

fiXl'/k&J) otvxarlffQ'yf,i!.iV§f* Ttj9~ iVt rJ»Jt$T&'X t & %d,66qy, (c) AvT4+>0?U&§ 



(a) Ks*g<&#3^] Pro *2Kga6^s, the third person singular of 
the perfect tense active, from «*#£«>. 

(b) riJxvadig.] " Like a Titan." The Titans were giants, 
sons to Titan , the elder brother of Saturn. Titan and Saturn 
were the sons of Ccelus and Vesta. Titan gave up his birth- 
right of the kingdom of Heaven to Saturn, on condition he 
would not breed up any male-children ; but when he found 
out that Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto had been, privately, 
reared by Ops, Saturn's wife, he dethroned and confined 
Saturn. When Jupiter was grown up, he made war upon 
his uncle, Titan, and his sons, called xir&m* recovered the 
kingdom, and released his father, Saturn* Stefih,. 

(c) 'AvtoZooixs Ttg.'] Timon compares Thrasycles to 
Boreas, or Triton, because he came puffing and blowing, so 
as to make a face like that of the god Boreas, when he blows, 
or that of Triton, sounding his trumpet. But, as I have 
never, elsewhere, met with the wind Bonces called At/ftCspsofej 
nor could, upon much enquiry, find it so called, I conjecture 
that, here, Avro%c^ccr i s the name of some celebrated picture 
of the god of that wind, which the great Zeuxis had drawn, 
and which, on account of the excellence of the performance, 
was called, not B*gW 5 "a Boreas " but Avro^ix^ "a very 
"Boreas," or, "Boreas himself." And the tendency of 
the words, «IW eyf*? 8 ' o Zsvg*$, seems to favour this opinion. 

(d) rx$P* s^Ak.j Not that he was so now, being much 
ruffled ; but because he usually appeared so, in his philoso- 
phical character and dress. 



170 

t£ xoptctog to fixoijfsiec, o-wQ^ovixos riv «6!>#Si»aJv, ivS'iv uvp/x, otnt 
«rsgi ctesrqg 0ts%i&Hy ftj tojv qoovvj •fc&t^QVTMv xccT^yo^anf^ k} to 
iXiyot^x-Zs tiroiiywv, iTrttr/j A%crcii>t2v@"> eiptxoiro fcrj to otfovov, t£j o 
73-x7$ piyxX/iV rjy zvXtxx. op^azv oivtw (tm ^moot'i^m Sg #^'£s' 

5 fA.d.X'.^A) xafr&vtg to A«j3"jjs t/5&>£ \xwt&v y Ivavrt&TxrM l7Tiiuy.VV\0H 
to7$ $&$tyo7s Zx-utoig Aoyot$, TxpocL^nctZjJv ao-Trig 'IxtTvos tu, 0^5, 
K. TO'J <arAi)G~lov <GrctPc&yy.&)yi?6f62v(&') (a) xe&gvxvif to y.vuov 
»y&ifcki&$i Jiwvoov ZfApopxutvos, ZTrixixv $&<;-, xezS'stTrtp Iv t<x7$ 
Ao.TtiJt t/>v ctotrw ivgqo-ztv (ur^ovdoKccv, ccx^i'vag to, T^vnXicc Tea 

JO h'>x,xvco ***sfii%fiiV) 00$ fiv$i oAiyov rS (b) ^vtIcoth xc&Tc&Xt7rot' 
jX2yrl/{(Ltot(?oc Ait a)g tov wA'XKXVTa oXov, I) tov fvv povog tmv kxxojv 
hcioOi' on Tsig (c) Aiyjii&c, y^ ctTrAviri&s (ci) i'psAas, jU,z3-v<ro$ x} 
-VTo&^ot.o',) kx otyr^ig coom x. op%Y)?vo$ ptovcV) ccXXa x^ Xoiao^/ag y& 
<egyjs <ar(>ocriTt) x^ Xoyot ^nroXXoi ztci t? xvXixi, toti ov *j fi>cceXi<?& 

J5^"Sg/ vtoppocrvvvt;* xj xoo-uiotzitci;, x>. tc&vto, Qyig-iv, J'Jjj V7ro t£ 
wtQaTX -zror^®$ s%#v, Xj vTTOT^otvXtC^oiv yzXotoq' itroc g^gres g-r/ 
t&to;?, ;£ T3 r£Agvr<a£?c)j' ) c&pezfiivoi tivk; zxtpegxo'iv c&vtov Zx t£ 
rvft>7ro<ji% t?s uvX-^t ^loo% c&utyoTSgeiis Z7riiXv\(Af/-hov* HAw ciXXa 

?£ Vq!p&)V) isclzvt TMV *&*Mf$i&V T3 CCQ O&ftojpjl CZiZV 01)1 -fyiVO'p.SLT©* iVZXOty 

$ S-go&rvTViTOSy v\ (piXagyvpiccg. 'AXXei k} xoXotx&v 1$] t<* ztpZtm.) 
*§ iwwpxu t&goftU^OTQiTot) xj q (e) yoY k TUU zs-gonyuretiy x^ yj covcCi- 

(a) xc&Pvxn$-~\ Avoiov toto-ftX) s| oilUdTog x^ e&XAw. Hesych. 

(b) fAwflarov.] A strong sauce, made of garlick, leeks, 
cheese, eggs, oil, and vinegar. Stefi/ianusy from the scholiast 
upon Aristofihancs. 

(c) Aj^s/W ] (i Gluttony, '! from A;#va$ (a Ag/^«, lingo) 
a lick-plate. 

(d) tfpsAos.] " The advantage." Generally, the greatest 
epicure, at a table, gets the greatest share of the most deli* 
cate eatables. "~ 

(e) yoqru'ei <nrowyMTxi.'\ I apprehend that there is an 
allegory in these words: " Imposture goes before him, and 
impudence walks close by him." That is, " fie skulks 
" behind imposture, which he puts before him, to hide him- 
" self from the world ; but if he should be discovered, he has 
" impudence close at his side, by the assistance of which, he 
" shall brazen it out against mankind." Had yonnU and 
#vottr%vvltc6 been the dative case, 'with t? repeated, instead 
of j», the sense would be obv'ous, in this light: 

4i That he led the way, that is, was foremost, in impos- 
" ture, and equalled any one in impudence.." 



171 



+%vvV* 'zret^tfiaeru' £j oXvg &oiv<?o(p6v (a) to %#&*><> >§ &xv™ m 
%otev ax^&ig, 9$ noixiXag IvlsXk' otfAa&Tat Totya^iv ax us 
pxxguv %pvro$ cov. Ti txto; Xlaweii. X^ovtog ipiv O^o-vxXiig. 
0PAZ. Ovxar* ravr*, go Ttpav, Toig ^oXXolg TXTO'.g aQtypxi, 
(b) ao-nig ol tov gtXxtov o-oi TihTTOTSSj «gyvg<», X; %%vvte'> y * 
hiTTvav vroXvTiXav eXiriii <rvv$ih%ot,pixoL?t, tzoXXw fit xoXaxuav 




v#v. To %rit(rh$ fA%v yk^ Hit tiuigoti^ov tm sv To7g ettytaXotg 
^,r$l^yv pot "hoxit. 25 Se #*jt5 %dgiv (e) \?&Mh ®$ t& otxtpkiej 
G-i to xdxi^ov tzto k? iTtZaXoTetTcv tclvzcM o etAst©-*, o mroXXotg 
i&oXXaxig c&tTtog uvvix&swv o-vpCpo^oov yiy<iVYit£ivog. Et ya^ pot 
TPiiQotO) [AoLXifx oXov ug tw B-uXotrlctf IpZaXitg avrbv* kmv c6Voty- 15 
xcuov av^pl dyc&B-S) ovrciy v^ tov tyiXocrotplcig hrX%T0 opav dvyzpivn. 
•Mh f/JtVTOi \g fidQo$) S 'yct&2, kX"X ocov \g fixv&va? liFipvS&f oXtycv 
-zrpo TVs xvfA9tTaing yy,g, ipuH op®vt'&> [tow. El o\ ph tzto fiaXit) 
ev oi ojAAsv T0O7TO9 au*!v& xolto, Tcty^og Ixtpopuffey-eivrov tx Tv,g otx:&.g' 
r^ [AYtP (f ) ovoXov <xvt® &v%$\ 'hicchidkg cLttc&gi Tolg i$b[#&Mtf ch ^63*, 20 
-zi'ivri dgx%ftoiG, a> 21 ^cvafiv, a> 21 rctXxvrov, El dz Tig (hiXoo-o'pog 
sit* titiiotfiixy* jj TPiuotptccv (pip-srS'abt dtxatog' z^oi el {xcziTOt %x 
tuavTZ %&%i» atra, aXX 07rc»)g p,iT<x.dod rav iTeti^av Tag QiouVicig) 
iKc&yov il ravTviv riv <afAPjxv lf&TXv,crcig waeoio-fcoig, kdi tX&$ dvo 
l£l%i>A,v%g %.o0p%o~&iv AsyirATix.%g. ^OXtyoL^KVi Js ^ tziTPiOV yj>*. lteeu%$ 
tov <piXo<?o(p5'JTct,) t£ x/^ly virl? tav nrqexv <p(?&vliv» TIM. E/nziv^ 
T&VTci. ^ a Qp&G-vxXzig. II go ySv t'^j &ipousy U ipku^ Oi^i orei 



(a) re.] Lege t?\ Faber* 
. (b) 6>Wg£-] Dclendum. Faber. 

(c) o-^ovJ] I know no word, in the English tongue. Hiat 
answers to tyov ; but it signifies any thing we eat with bread ; 
and so is a general name for all other sorts of victuals. 
- (d) 'EvvMxe t %i(&','] The public well in Athens, that sent forth 
water through nine pipes, otherwise called Callirrhoe. 

(e) if&Xnri\ This second. aorist passive is, here, taken in 
the neuter sense, "^oncessi," or, " veni," which is extra- 
ordinary,, But Stephanas shews that it is so, in other 
authors. 

.■• (f) iUxh*"] See the note to }gt%/wh) Lib. I. Dial, id. 

q_2 



172 

tJ* xitpaXw lp,7FXi<76f xovdvXav, l7rifi6l^ia-xg T>} iutiXXy. GPA2. 
(a) J n dY\pox,£UTJc&) t£ vo'^o; TFxio^iSet v7ro Til xctToc£ctTi£ Iv itev&gae 
rvj zjoXu* TIM. T| tfyofVAtxTS*?, # 'yedH ®%xo-vxXu$ ; Mav 
(b) <® , <££<J6fc2;£g«<7 / a#/ as -j Koct pyv gTrg^Sot AftJ ^omx^s V7tiq to ^st^o* 

5 t'itIjC^ccs. 'AxXos, ri t2to; IloXXoi%vvig%o*rctt' BM-^iug Ixuv^, 
*£ Kctyjiq, y^ Tvitpav) oXu>$ to o-vflccypx tgov oifta^ofAZMv. "H^g 
Tt zx mi tkv Gnrguv Tdvrviv emA3-#v, ryjv [tiv otxsXXocv oXtyov uvcc 
7rciva), -zrcihcti <g?Z7Tovyixv(M) o&vto$ Ss ort ^As;Va£ A/ta? |v^po- 
gna-xs) iTriftaXx^o) -zroppafov&vTiss ; BAE^r. Mi fiaXXz. a TifAUVy 

10 uTTtftev yc&£. TIM. 'AAA' kx. uvatpaTi yi vfiil$> *3g uvtv rguv- 



(a) *£2 2np6X£otriat.'] " Is it not hard to suffer thus in a free 
" state, where no man hath arbitrary power?" 

(b) tarx£ccxix.£i£rpctl.'] Put deponently, and signifies, " de- 
" fraudavi." The metaphor is taken from those who, in 
weighing out any thing, bear down the scale, in which the 
commodity is, unknown to the buyer, to make him believe 
he has his just weight 5 or from buyers who, when any sort 
of grain is measured to them, give the vessel a shake, or a 
kick, unknown to the sellers, to make it hold more. Stefifi. 



AIA'A. 2'. Afxii Qawibrar* 

(a) *£fll' (b) <&£Xovt(&> (c) 'A£/s-^£#* (d) ^etXvi^ia^ (e) ITv-r 
wi-tyiav©* iZ$op? WotpiW) ygottph* 'i&tr* to Xiypee, <erfa to Txv 



(a) *$.&! Zzx&vt®*'"] This manner of expression is usual; 
as, ia-"AAg|osv2§», u tempore Alexandri; sV/Kgo?*, "tempore 
" Saturni." Stefi/i. 

(b) ip^oyT®-.] Athens was, first, governed by kings. 
Of these, Qgyges (in whose reign a deluge destroyed all 
Attica) was the first. History is quite silent as to what 
passed in Attica, from the time of his reign to that of 
Cecropsj being an interval of an hundred and ninety years. 



173 

The succeeding kings, from Cecrops to Codrus, inclusive* 
were seventeen; of which number the most memorable 
were Pandion, iEgeus, Theseus, and Demophoon. After 
Codrus had, in a battle with the Dorians, gone in disguise 
into the enemy's army, and provoked them to kill him, (the 
oracle having promised the victory to that side whose king 
should fall by his enemy, that day) the Athenians, in honour 
to his name, give the title of king to none of his successors 
(" Post Codrum nemo Athenis regnavit, quod memorize ejus 
** nominis tributum est " Justin.) but called each of their 
succeeding princes, down to Alcmason, inclusive, being, in 
all, thirteen, by the name of a%x,*)y. After the time of 
Alcmxon, the supreme power having, in a great measure, 
devolved upon the people, they limited the reign of their 
archon, or ruler, to ten years: but they had begun that limit- 
ation with Cecrops, the son of ^Eschylus, who reigned just 
before Alcmason. In about seventy years after, they reduced 
their archon to an annual magistrate. Though neither Dr. 
Potter, nor others whom I have consulted, informs us, upon 
what occasion the nine great magistrates of Athens, called 
archons, were created, yet, I am persuaded, it must have 
been, upon this, when the archon, or prince, was reduced to 
an annual magistrate ; because it is probable that the people, 
having now gotten the supreme power, were fond of lessen- 
ing that title, by dividing it among nine of their first magis- 
trates. 

Of these nine, i*A%%a9, " The Archon/' so called, by way 
of pre-eminence, was Chief. His jurisdiction reached all 
causes arising from marriage-settlements, last-wills, orphans, 
and guardians. It was, also, his peculiar province to hear 
disputes between near neighbours, and to redress the injured 
party. 

And this, probably, is the reason why Lucian has this com- 
plaint of Sigma, against his next neighbour Tau, brought on 
when Aristarchus, as it were, was The Archon, or Chief 
Archon. 

The next Archon, after the Chief, was styled fixtnMv^ and 
wore a crown. He heard all accusations of blasphemy against 
the gods, or profanations of mysteries, temples, and other 
sacred things. 




174 

The third was called UoX^uoc^x 6 ^- He exercised the same 
jurisdiction over strangers and sojourners, as the archon did 
over the citizens; and took care that the children of such as 
died in defence of their country should have a sufficient 
maintenance, out ol the treasury. 

The remaining six archons were all called beo-poS-irea. 
They lodged appeals, from the courts of justice, before the 
assembly of the people, and heard accusations of calumny, 
bribery, &c. and took care that no law should, through the 
policy of seducing and designing men, be passed by the 
people, contrary to the real interests of the commonwealth. 
See all these accounts more fully, in the most learned Dr. 
Potter. 

(c) 'A^d^ov.'] Aristarchus was a very great grammarian 
and critic, and lived at Alexandria. Horace says, of a good 
critic, 

Fiet Aristarchus, neque dicet, cur ego amicum 
OfTendam in nugis? 

And iEiian says, that it was not allowed to be one of 
Homer's verses, which Aristarchus had not approved of. 
Lucian, therefore, with justice and humour, constitutes him 
Chief Archon, when the letters go to law. 

(d) <&ciXyi£w$ ] As our author hath made Aristarchus a 
magistrate of Athens, he takes the same liberty to make him 
a <bu\Yi%iv$, or native of Phaleron, a village and port of 
Attica ; though, as Stephanus shews, he was born in Samo- 
thracia. 

(e) Hvavi'$>iav<& j iQa^.] Tlvein^iatv was a Grecian month, 
the same (as authors conjecture) with our October; and 
was so called from the festival Puanepsia, which was cele- 
brated in this month. — Puanepsia was so called, uno tS tym 
'-ztvolvX) a from boiling pulse, or pease," in memory of 
Theseus and his companions, who, when they had returned 
safe from Crete and the Minotaur, boiled all the pulse they 
had left, and made merry all together, at one common ban- 
quet. Potter.— Whom see, for a full account of the Grecian 
months. And, for i%$opy 'Va^sya, see the note upon the 
same words ; in the *H'<H2MA of ®im 'Rkkm™*) p« 123. 



175 

(a) IttI rat \-7i\k <£>#v/,5VT#y, (b) fi/xg vnotpfcovrttv, «J igirxytig 

ME'XPI { uh, a Qawitflot Aizxext) oXtyu $ik%{&iv vtto TXT&i 
tS Tasy, ft3iTa%g&[4,ivis Tolg \pbi$, ft) xotTxi*o»7&> VjS-m ph Ss7, £ 
fi&g'z&g (tyipov itj* ^A*£jj>* 9§ ■Zj-x^Jizxov {'not t&v Xiyouivav v*o ^g 5 
fciTgiOT-/ l T(&> J y t y /Vs fit (pvXc&rcrQVTce. (fr^og n v&cig, kj Tag etXXctg 
vvXXo&£d$. '£srii Se Ij roc-ssrov %x.u srXedVfcfik^ xj &»Ciag-, airs, 



(a) sVi.] A little above, s*i 'signifies, "tempore," and, 
here, " coram." 

(b) fiUg v7rctg%ovT&v, *§ *e*at,yi$."\ I cannot make sense 
of these words, as they stand here ; nor can 1 apprehend 
the justness of the other translation, which renders them, 
u constitutis judicibus de vi et rapina ;" which, however, 
I leave as I found it, to keep the text company. But 
hath the verb Ivet^a ever signified " constituor ?" or, 
with what propriety are the words, "judicibus," and 
" de," here, understood? — I, therefore, cannot but think 
that Lucian wrote it vTrugxcv, because, so, it will make 
tolerable sense: for Stephanus plainly shews that V7rd%%&> 
very frequently, signifies, " primus facio," as from Hero- 
dotus, v7rd%%6> abiyJois, u prior infero injuriam ;" and from 
Plutarch, {/-*ȣ%& fi/xg, "prior vim infero." So that, upon 
this alteration, the text will run thus, ypatyh skrs to 2typ# 
sr£og to Tav) nr\ Tafv InTa <&&vmvIm, fitc&g vTrd^ov, *§ kgr&yif. 
The grammatical order of which is plainly thus: to S;y t uc& 

ihTO yQCttp^V l7Tt TMV 895"T,5ft <bW)ftlVT6M ZTPOg TO T(3iV VTTMflfcOV /3/<9$£, 

tCj d^ixixg. " Sigma instituit actionem coram septem Vo- 
14 ci ■tibus contra Tau, incipiens, sive prius-inferens vim et 
" injuslitiam," — " against Tau, being the first agressor. — 
But we must not omit a pretty opinion of Gronovius, upon 
this place, who says, that v-Tret^ivrav is not the genitive 
case plural of v7rd%%*>V) but of the neuter plural vTrd^ovrec — 
tjov, which signifies, " bona," worldly goods or possessions. 
So that, thus, the sense will be? 2&m y^u(pk» fiUg *£ u^-roty^ 
l-Tru^xovTuyy " He laid an action of violence and rapine of 
« goods/ 1 Stephanus shews, that vn-d^ovTx does signify 
goods* 



if 6 

kvzyyfi&s uvtI (a) ivtivw vvu trainee rolg aftfylripH ublvtv vzuv. 
Ag^- M » fAtx^ov (4i iTtt ?/■$ uK$&\r'/zn; t7rip%eTctt ?%$ luxvrS. 
Tc/V y#f »|eTg«f^»y^fv*^ Lit n uu^ov argofiS-h, ccq2y,<j u% rvi$ 

5 y^dupzety aoifyttl.&xi, (b) I? <>» Ss a.iis-3-ut rz <pe>cV. A/kccio? 
v» %% vpx$) «/ ptfik*%Ti vv9) a\xi y^ ret, ?.oi7roi ypLptfyxret r£« 
"BTugs&f s%Sh rtvet (pvXa:'J,v* Ej yag ifs**rtj ro7g /3%Xou:vci$ kft\ 
(c) t3s xc&t aura ri%t»t iU uKX^rpixv fitxfyfr&at, *£ r^ro Itt*- 

Tg$$/iTi V&iU--, #>' %*>?U *t&h (d) UOlfroXX Tl ypl$l?Ui, *% CPU) TIV& 



(a) n'6w**] This verb, properly, signifies, "quod-pravum- 
" et-obliquum-est-corrigo." iforf. Hence, I suppose, it came 
to signify, "reum-facio:" because, accusing or arraigning 
a man, for what he has done amiss, is, as it were, making 
him " straight,'* who is bent and warped from his moral 
rectitude. 

It governs a genitive case of the crime, as, iMm nxlirw. 
Plutlm Cic. 

(b) h iV« ol Kitten tS <pc'S*.] I do not think it possible to 
make sense, or grammar, of these words. Bourdolotius 
says, we have the authority of one MS. for reading rot Xotva 
yp£pu.xrot after <poZa -, which words are found upon the 
margin of that MS. He is very good authority for this ; 
but still, though the language will, thus, make good sense, 
yet there seems to be something harsh and unclassical in 
the expression, h Ifra rS ^<>£s, the literal meaning of which 
must be, " in pari-conditione metus ;" which substantive 
sense of ttrta seems forced. Hence, I am persuaded that 
Lucian wrote it, b l&a di kzio-B-xi rZ QeZy rx Xoi7ra ygeiftftarx. 

(c) tv$ Kofo* xvrx t^|s^?.] Rendered, u ex ordine suo," 
in the other translation ; but xx& xvrx cannot possibly sig- 
nify <c suo," the plain mealing being, a juxta hasc:" 1 there- 
fore take the preposition xctS- 9 to be here taken, as it is a 
little below, in kolt kyjt^ and the whole to mean u ex ordine 
" juxta has (iiteras) constitute 

(d) x.c&SoXx.'] " Integre," et u perfected" Gronov. 

(e) ri kxt £g#«*.] u Res a principio." T#, by itself, is 
often used to signify, "res, affairs." So Xenophon fre- 
quently says,r# ran moteplavj and Stephanus fully shews, from 



If? 

K izpviu 9 AAA ! in t^tf? blfieti gtctz ug to7%t6v etfaXitug ?s i£ 

tqv dyava vpilg^ \poi Grct^otXiiTnioy i<?h aeixxpv.to- Q.g ifoi kj tcov : 
aXXav uHKOTFYiu-xv tots «/ ToXpoct^ zvQvg d^uuzvav i&6Q£&9op.uvi 
Kotl hx. oiv InoXzpoi fcSfcgl vvv to Aclp&^x,, ra '?& $ixu$icrGv)Tisy 5 
<m?\ T*ig x,ia-crii(>e&>$, k} xiQaX&Xyixg. Ovtsto Tappet t& X.oi7r7rct, 
cttyavi^iTO, k} \g %&£&$ ptx^S %z7y %£%&& ttoXXctitig sv t5 yve&puc* 
V7rlp yvxtpxXav' \7t'i'Tr&vT6 V &v k} nsp^og to AebpZooe, pay^opsyov to 
MoXig apougxpivov avT&, (a) *£ pobXisot, TsragctxteTFTov. Ka} ?& 
XotTTos, ay §' igifAti (?vy%v<7icr)g dgftirS-at Trx^&vopx* KaXov y#g jq 
$$*?•¥ pzvstv, scp' J5 nrvffl** Tti^iag. To ^5 hwipfntintv ig u p.\ 
%{k) Xvovrog Wt to ^iKdiov. K.&} (b) eys «rga;T^ J iJ/tfc/V t&£ vopxg 
TXT^g dtxTUTraG-ag) lin Kd'Sp®* (c) H}jsr20rai?3 srrs HeiXoip.$q$ 



Demosthenes and others, that xcit *%%&$ often signifies, 
" in principle " 

(a) *£ ^A;^.] Stephanus says, of this expression, "Est 
" concedentis'cum.affirmatione, ut si dicaa, prorsus id qui* 
dem." But it seems to me, in this place, to be rather 
" exaggerantis^ 5 ' "quasi dice-ret," "imo prorsus. 53 

(b) oys <crp^T(3>>.] This nominative case singular hath the 
verb, S^gio-^v, below j in the plural number, which may seem 
strange : but, in a long period, the person who speaks may 
forget the first tendency of his phrase, and, several names of 
persons coming between the beginning and the end of his 
sentence, he may, in speaking it, naturally enough, apply 
the subsequent verb in the plural number. This, I say, is 
natural in speaking; especially, when our speech is preci- 
pitate and vehement, as it often happens to be, in pleading a 
cause. 

(c) ytfroftK-] There have been two Cadmus's: Cadmus, 
the son of Agenor, who, no doubt, is here meant, by 
c iwt&tiiQ "the islander ;" and Cadmus Milesius, an histo- 
rian, who, as Suidas says, wrote the history of Miletus and 
Ionia, and was said, us Stephanus relates, to have added n 

• and o) to the Greek alphabet. 

But Cadmus, the son of Agenor, was the person whti 
brought into Greece the sixteen letters, #, /3, y, 3, g, g, 1, a, ^ 
fc 0, #, g, r,t,Ki to which in the time of the Trojan war* 
Palamedcs added, |, $> <p, #. Suid. 



178 

b Hxvnkiv (*J fa) Jlifzwvify Js wict 2r(>o<?x7t%a*t ttjv &£6Uilfata'1 

VXVTW) & TY\ TX%ii jXOVOV, KX& Y t V XI TZPOlhpixi /B&XtVVTXi "hl&)Pl<TXVy 

k} ovvdp&g rvvzioov Kxi vfxtv /xlv. So AiKxexi, riv /xz/fy otoa* 
* Keen Tt/x^Vs on kxS xvtx e)vvx<r&t tpdzyytc-frcit. 'Hft,i$&voi$ 3s, 

TV,V &$&%%& C7l TT^&iKM l\s TO UKUoSiivcLl ^ItTXL. UxffCOV S* 
ip%4TtlV iVOfitO'otVZftUV ftoiqotV IViX TUV ZTXVTOJVs 01$ ifSs tyUVVi TZPOGlSl. 

K.at-9- xvtx ptlv §v tx (pavviivTci <pvXx<r<ruv touts ?%$ vo/xas T«r«g. 

To oi Txv txto {% yxg z%a xvto ftttgdvt ovoftxrxt pYipxTi, » *> 

*v xxautxi) 3. ^^ t»? ©g»£, g/ ^ti s| v t ucov dvo o-vvkX&ov xyxQoi k} 

XxQlixOvliS Opo(.@>ivXts TO, Tl^AXtpX) >£ 10 Y, &fc XV yjX.%!7$"/l U6*vOV y 
T2T0 «I/ iTOAfiYITZV X^UCllV fXi ZT Alibi TCOV <BrC07roji filXO-XfAWMV) QVOfXX- 

rav fii, y^ p/,u,x7&v x\iAX<j-xv tarxlgcoav, lx.o"i6)%oiax7 Sg o/xQ 2t»v5g<r- 

fXCJV CiUX *£ H^oGlQ-iMV, 00% pLYlKlTl <£>?£g*V T'/)V iXT07T0V tOTAiOVlQXV* 
-«>"O0gV Sg, Y^ X7T0 TIV6JV U,a\xXlVOV, copx teyuv. 

2. 'E^gS^*!/ T3o\\ (I)) Kl/£gAa> ^TO Jg Wl TZOAlftVlOV »« «>jS*V 

xnotxovj as liti%u Aoy(^ ) 'AS-jjva&iAfv} Wiiy^ijv il f£ to (c^xgdrtfof 
*P&?, yiiTov&fv to ^ati^ov. K.x\nyo(*W o\ -zrx^x xafi*2tav Tivt 
frOMTvi (AvG-t/&x%&> izxM7toj (d) BotcoTtos ply, a>s tyxiviTo, tI 

I know nothing that accounts for his being called the 
islander, so well as that opinion related by Quintus CUrtius* 
in his fourth book of Alexander's life, viz. that Agenor, who 
was Cadmus's father, had not only built Sidon, but Tyre 
also. He does not mean the Palx-Tyrus, or ancient Tyre, 
on the coast of Phoenicia, but the younger Tyre, that 
Alexander took, and which was built in an island, at a small 
distance from old Tyres I say, Agenor* having built this 
Tyre, too, in th£ island, he and his children, and conse- 
quently Cadmus, no doubt, has been inhabitants thereof. 
And, hence, without question, was this Cadmus called, 
" the Islander," to distinguish him from the other famous 
Cadmus. 

(a) 2^* ,J "%] There were many poets of this name, be- 
sides the famous Ccean lyric writer. Sttid. But the inven- 
tion of letters hath been, generally, attributed to the Cosan. 

(b) KvZza'j.'] See Bourdolotius and Pausanias. 

(c) xgxTts-eiv.} Alluding to the roughness of the letter 
Rho. 

(d) BoiaTios.) Boeotia Was said to have a gross air, and to 
produce stupid men, such as Lucian makes Lysimachus, 



179 

ylv&> «»g*«Stv) u^ro pivnt 3s a%tSvTi Xtyzj&xi tvs 'Arlixyg* Ua^oc, 
TXTG> ih t*> %w& rhv rs T#y t%t% -&Xiovi%lctv (a) l$c&£etcra. Mk%£t 
ph yap oXiyotg \wi%ueii) wflugoiJCdVTet (b) Xiytty i e&Trofegtiv pi rSf 
vvyyeywnpswv pot> <?v»yi§Uo&v apnv trvVTiQgotppzvav y^xpparav, 
(c) *Eri 3i lipi^ov *& t<* ope tot lirto-irapsvov, tattoo rccvri Xkyitv^ «J 5 

0/fOV J» pOt TO <AKX<7f£U* K} & 7TCCW Tl lOOtZVOpYiV iTT GCVTo7g. QirOTl 

21 £ Ik t^rav apfeuuivov iroXptia Karl he gov ukuv, t£ Ksirlvpoi, 
*£ Il/rlflsv, itrot, MTUgvGgtUerecv, x} BcttriXirlav ovo,u,oL?iiv, x pvrgiag 
$i r^rotg ayxvazTW, *£ -zzipTTQupcti) diotbg p» tS ft^wa j£ to\ IZvkoo 
Tuzci rig houdrr,. ¥Leoi' pti srpos Ailg a$-vp%vri* *£ ptpov&gpf* 
rcov ficydvicroyTM) cvyyvari r^g itz-atoig opyvg. Ov yug 'siifjt rco 
ptzqa. £ ru, TvfcovTa Wtv o zivo*vv(& j ) eeipeitffSfe&Qi rav qvii&&v f£ 
(Fvvio-fcoActKOTOJit poi ygocppeirav, Kiffruv pa XaXov cpviov, \z 
picrav, cog it*g sinrgiv, ray KoX-rav #g5T«jV#i>, Ktrlecv mopoinv. 
'ApttXiTO d'i pa Quo-rav ctpaNiirGrtttgTZ f^Kos-G-vQttg, aLirotyoptvw- ' 5 
t&* 'AgtT'Zpx,*. Ui^tiT'Trcx.s-z 5i j£ plhittSv %z oXiy&g. 'Ett' 
'ArliKiiv 2s j$A0sj, t§ ix. pivv\g ecvr^.g avtjgKctm uvopcag 'YpyrioV) 
eQQVTuJv vpSf kJ ray aXXav avXXot^av. 'AAA# rt Xtyw rxvrcc ; 
QiveotXioog pilifiZottev oAijj, ©sr1#A/<*s» k\i*y xiyUV) (d) k} zsa^ocy 



Attica, on the other hand, was remarkable for men of taste 
and genius. Lucian here censures Lysimachus, for pre- 
tending to an elegant Attic style, at the same time that he 
rendered his language uncouth and barbarous, by a wrong 
use of the letter T, instead of 2. 

($) ipv^o-x.'] Qa^da signifies, " in furto capioj" in Latin, 
as near as maybe, il depreheiido." 

(b) xiyuv] I cannot make sense or grammar of this 
Asys<v, though I have endeavoured to make both of the 
translation. What if rar eV* were understood, just after 
i^X^i u } The pla-e is certainly corrupted ; for Lucian was 
incapable of writing it thus. 

(c) v Et<.] From this to A=ys<v, inclusive^ the phrase does 
not seem to me very classical. 

(d) r£ &&trw, Sec.] What language is this, down to cnvrX^v^ 
inclusive ? In what case, or in what sense, does this $ couple 
the passive participle of the preterperfectj iTt*x.i#Ku<rp&tt^ 
with the active of the present tense, *%t5fl Or, how does SSs 
couple $i*F2f&stov with nTroKixXtiffpivM) when this latter partici- 
ple is, manifestly, applied to Sigma, and the former to Tau? 

R 



180 

ctrroKiZAtivft'cVOV rltv B"dXxcr(rxy 9 kdi rav zv jciwotg (pucdtuvcv <n'vT' 
Xmv (a) £)$, to dh Aiyo.utyoV) " frir,oi ftrd<r<ra}<ov poi »xrxXt7n7v. 9 * 

'On §£ <55VS§/*#fcOV ttjUl y^dflf&Ctx (ACAgTV^UTz ftOi ^ xvroi ^tfl&woTg 

lyxe&Aicrxvri rS> Zvrcij Fj&dgayoov c&irotmdvxHi) t£ vr&<rxv aptXo- 

5 fiiva TKV IjpvgVS&V) fAiViTl TO St/, TtX(PXV <rirQt£0&oiv\t eVV$4)CYiVi Ky TQV 

evyygxQix rm rmirsi/i^mti ©g»i/?/Sjjv (rvp/uxftov. Ta> ph ydg 
yiiTovi ft* *P# vocrie&vii, trvyyveo/uv} rtj n-etg xvrZ (pivrSvcrxvTt /tfcg 
rug f&vpptmS) k} zrccta-ccvTi f-i ?so\\ vtto ftiAXy^OAtxg i7Tt ncpfa. 

l<iay&) f&h TOIXTCV. 

)0 3. To §s Tav risro roa^w a>q tyvtrzi filxtov, *£ zr£o$ rx aovtx' 
ott^at h^l rm uaXuv MTrirfciro yQccppcLruv, xXXx >£ rb A«a1#, >£ 
rbGnrX) K; toZxtx, (AiKf>* oelv ardvTx vioiKYivi rd ^oi^eTx. Ajurd 
ptot (b) todhu rx ahiwfih'T* y^dft^XTX. 9 Ax.itiTi, <b&)VYllVTX 
AiKcisalj r% fth Aw A3yovT(^», " 9 A$tiXiU p% rhv Iv^iM^axv^ 
" hnxi^zixy a%mv Aiyt<r$~xt txx^x wdvrxg r%$ voftvf" ri €)£t# 
xgtQVT(&, *£ tS« xs$xXyi$ rug *{(%«$ ti\aovt(&, \n) ro Ttig 
koaoyJj&ya fftgifjrdiftJ' to Zijras " t5 <rv£ii^uV) k} er«Afl7£s*v, i)$ 
4i uaflfae xvra k^iiixi fA'/ial ygv^sr/." Tig dv (c) r'irm xvd<r%oiroj 



Because it was Sigma that "was shut cut,' 5 and a Tau that 
" did not spare/' Or, lastly, how can it be turxrxv S-xaxg-g-xv, 
when dit6x&.ii*p&h never governs any but the genitive case 
of the place whence any thing is shut out, as #Vo*As/so-3-#* 
rm i%<3* ? &teph. I think it would make some sense, if it 
ran thus, ^ zrdwis ecTroKAUs-afiWov t?j ^xXxva-ng^ xol rav h 
m$ots tyuvdptvov «7st»TAft>y, "Having, also, s-hut me out of the 
" whole sea, and not spared even the beets in my garden." 
And I think that the participle of the first aorist of the middle 
voice, (piurdpmr, which we find in the text, makes it proba- 
ble that Lucian wrote the other participle also in the same 
way, iTWLteicrdpMov ; especially since otherwise the whole 
appears, at least to me, nonsense. The transition from the 
sea to beets is a very odd one. — It wTtoi^ i. e. " which I 
" might have thought well secured, by being in my garden. 5 ' 

(a) £$, rl j &tc] To teyoptvov, aliquando per parenthesin 
ponitur pro, "quod dici solet; 5 ' »*svj ro Xvybpiifgf, dhX(pog 
dv$ps iragik. Flat, ill Rep. Stcfih. 

(b) xdAM.l Speaking, as it were, to the crier of the court. 

(c) ruvm dvdrftoiTt.'] * A^opxh " tolero,*' generally go- 
verns ati accusative case ? but, sometimes, a genitive, as. 



isi 

*H *U\%*%X.ittl% %i*>ii VTP)? TO WOWPOT&'rdV T8T* TfitV, TO 3g, U£& 

hio opotpvXov tm rciftUcav f/Jv69 ctdtx,s7 yiv&>, uX^non *j zrfa t« 
«j»^6»ts;ov ^fc]«Ss£»j«£, tistov; top Tgoarov* s y#g wiyp&id ye at>7V$ 
kxt Z&&V tptpio-S-MfrxTs yXaio-crxig. MoiXXov ol, & AtKXfcct) 
(ptiTx^v yelp pi sraXiv tc& tm etvS-gdirav -zrgdypxToi, eXvifLvqvi zhp\ 5 
rvjs yXaorns* on *£ tkVTW f*z to pi^(& #,7riXoL<7i) f£ yXarlcct 
■zsokii rhv yXao-cr»V #> yXono-o-v^ dxv&as vlrvif&fit Tesv. AXX«, ^sf#- 
GitroptM -sroiXiv W hciho ) j£ to?s dv^gd^otg rvvuyoQtva-0 vm^ m 
**$ civtzsi; ZFXqupsXu. Ai<rp,oi$ ydg rttri fgteXxv ?£ <7T#g#T/g*f 
mvtoiv rijy (pmw hri^npu. Kstt f*iv ti zaXov low, xciXov uarut \Q 
fi&teroli) to %\ <GreigZio~7ricrcVy rxXov tiffilv ctVTils dvotyxcifyt) h ec7rccci 
/ts-poi^pixv 'Iftiiv u%£v* TidXiV zn^©-* tsip) 7cXhpcn(&> ot&XzyQect* 
to 3s (rXiiftov yoip l?tv &XvB-&g) tXv/&& GwroiqKi rl v.A^«. Keel & 
Liowv yi T%g TV%ovTMg uotKU, ciXX '/0*j t£. r$ (a) fAiydXrz /3a,o~i>Xt7i 
w *£ yw >£ B-dXocG-o-£i,v u^xi (pari) ?£ tjjs etvray <pyo-s#s Ik^vch^ to 15 

^S, Kj 78? a> ivtSuXSVU* tt) (b) K.VP6V OiVTOV OPTXy TVgOV TiV& U7fi' 



tfjtZ^av T2 *£ ixits hu'xovto. Herod* Stefih. But, yet, it should 
be observed that no verb really governs a genitive case; 
for, when such is put after any verb, it is only a short way 
of speaking, as, w accuso te furti,'' instead ©f " accuso te de 
" crimine furti." And so some idea of "oppression" is 
understood, before t»t«V, in the text; as are, also, those of 
" violence" and kt heat," before oyX^v and «a/s, in the pas- 
sage quoted. 

(a) peydxa fisuriXit.'] In the time of the Assyrian monar- 
chy, the king of Assyria was styled, the great king. See 2 
Kings xviii, 19, and isa. xxxvi, 4, 13. The same title was 
continued to the monarchs of the Medesand Persians, when 
the empire came down to them; and therefore it is, th«& 
Terence, talking of a young man, who went into the army, 
said, that he wentin to Asia " ad regem," to the king: that is, 
the great king. 

(b) Kvpov.] It is strange that Lucian should call Xerxes, 
Cyrus : for it was Xerxes who marched an army often hun- 
dred thousand, or a million, of men over the Hellespont, upon 
a bridge of ships, and who cut a channel through the neck 
of the peninsula, upon which mount Athos stands, in Mace- 
donia, that he might have it to say, he sailed over land. See 
Xerxes's expedition, in Justin. 



1S2 

fpii. Ovrv fih fcfy e<rcv U Qmhv uv$-gairts$ aiiKU' "ey* Sg sr&$; 
Khutxviv uvS-%6>7r6i, x} rh avrw rv%w oSt^dyr**, r§ K«S^a *.cnct- 
gavlat tzoXXukis, liri ro Tecv 8$ to rm foi%u'av yh(&> zrxpviyctyi. 
Tw ycip r&rx (jd>pd\i Quel rss rvpcivvxs <%xote$vi<r octrees {ti/Awa/LiivHs 

5 uvrx ro GrXclcrptM) inura, ff%v>{Actrt toiktu %vXcc rixlvivotvTMs , otvS-^a- 
vvg ayeto-zoXoTrit^iiv \tf eivrci. 'Atto Si r^ra j£ ra> riftvvipuli r£ 
•zycvYi^a rqv -zrovvigc&v nrmvpic&v (rvvihhh. — Ixrav &v aTrdvitov tvttcety 
tarotrav S-o&vcItm ro Txv ufyov ilvai voptfyrt; "Eya> [tiv yxg oiuut 
^uca,ia$ Tyro juovov h TW r & Tctv riftwgtav v7rotei7rtG-$-xt) ro r<a 

\0 (r%ip,uli rS ccvrQ rvjv iiftr t v vrorfciTv. (a)*Y) Si fetv^os that) fao 
rxrv plv IdvptxpyiQvi) biro %i uv$"ga>7rm hopxZ^rou* 



Perhaps, the name of Cyrus, who was the great erecter 
of the Persian monarchy, devolved upon his heirs and suc- 
cessors; and, therefore, upon Xerxes, who was his grandson: 
for (as Justin relates) Darius, the father of Xerxes, married 
Cyrus's daughter. This custom of calling a succession of 
princes by the name of the first great one, obtained in many 
nations: witness the Caesars of Rome, the Ptolemies of 
Egypt, Sec. Though I must own this a pretty groundless 
conjecture, because it is no way supported by history ; and 
wish to be better informed. 

(a) tV Si rxvfa iivxt. &c] These and the following words 
are, to me, strange language ; or, rather, no language at all. 
The meaning I would fain pick out of them is this : u That 
44 a cross is, (that is, " that there is any such thing as a cross 
" in the world,") hath been worked out by this Tau [that is, 
** is owing to this Tau"] but it is called thus [that is, " by 
" the name s-«t>gW] by men :" That is, and men have given 
" it the name sav(oq, from this Tau." 

But I cannot be reconciled to the nominative case savpoc, 
after the infinitive mood s*W, and much less to the grammar 
of the whole sentence. 

Rodiginus, in talking of the letter T, says, u Crucis nomen 
"Gnecum, quod est ?etve}s 9 non aliunde videtur appella- 
** tionem duxisse." CccL Rodig. Lib. x. 

T E' A O Z. 




DIALOGORUM LUCIANI 



SAMOSATENSIS. 



DIALOGUS I. 

CYCLOPIS ET NEPTUNI. 



OpATE 



c\cl. \^j PATER, qualia passus sum ab hospite isto execrabifi, 
qui, postquam inebriasset, excascavit me, adortus sopitura ? Nept. 
Quis vero erat ille ausus haee, 6 Polypheme ? Pol. Primo qui- 
dem vocabat se neminem, postquam vero effugerat, et erat extra 
telurn, dixit se nominari Ulyssem. Nept. Novi qnem dicis, 
neinpe, Ithacensem ilium ; renavigabat autem a Troja. Sed quo- 
modo patravit hsec, cum esset rion admcdum fortis ? Cycl. Re ver- 
sus a pascuo, deprehendi in antro complnres quosdam insidiafl- 
tes proculdubio gregibus. Postquam vero opposueram ostio oper- 
culum (saxumenim estmihi ingens) et incendens arborem, quarn a 
monte portavi, accendi ignem, apparebant conantes occuitare sese. 
Ego vero, corripiens quosdam eorum, ut par erat, devoravi eos 9 
quippe qui essent latrones. Hie versutissimus ille (sive Nemo erat 
sive Ulysses) postquam infuderat pharmacum quoddam, dat 
mihi ebibendum, dulce quid em et fragrans, insidiosissiunum vero 
ac turbulentissimum. Nam omnia statim videbantur mihi, post- 
quam biberam, circumferri, et specus ipse invertebatur, et non 
diutius omnino eram apud me. Postremo autem decrsurti- 
trahebar in somimm. Ille vero, postquam-exacuisset sudem, et 
insuper ignitam-reddidisset, excaxavit me dormientem, et ab illo 
tempore crccus sum tibi, 6 Neptune. Nept. Quam ahum dor- 
miebas, 6 fili, qui non exsiluisti, dum excaecareris ! Ulysses autem 
ille quomodo effugit \ Bene enim novi, quod non potuit amovere 

A 



saxum ab ostio. Cyol. At ego abstuli, ut facilius comprehen- 
derem eum exeuntem. Et sedens ad ostium venabar, extendens 
ftianus, przetermittens solas ovcs in pascuum, er mandans arieti 
qiice oporteret eum agere pro me. Nept. Intelligo, nempe, quod 
sub illis clam evadens latuit te. At oportv.it te inclamare alios 
Cyclopas adversus eum. Cycl. Convocavi, 6 pater, et venerunt; 
postquam autem rogaverunt nomen insidiatoris, et ego dixi quod 
Nemo, arbitrati me insanire, discedebant abeuntes. Ifa execrabi- 
lis illesophistice-elusit me nomine. Et quod maxime angebat me 
erat, quod exprobrans mihi infortunium, " Ne pater (inquit) 
Neptunus sanabit te." Nept. Bono sis animo, 6 fili ; ulciscar 
enim eum, ut discat, quod, etsi sit mihi impossibile sanare priva- 
tionem oculorum, quod attinet vero ad res navigantium, in me est 
servare eos, vel perdere. Navigat autem adhuc. 



DIALOGUS II. 

MENELAI ET PROTEI. 

Men. AT tequidem fieri aquam, 6 Proteu, non est incredibile* 
cum sis maris-incola : et porro Jt /?er/ te arborem est tolerabile : et 
quando muteris in leonem, attamen neque hoc extra fidem est. Si 
vero possibile est, te hab'tantem in mari fieri etiam ignem* 
omnino miror hoc, et non credo. Prot. Ne mireris, 6 Menelae, 
fio enim et ignis. Men. Vidi et ipse. Mihi tamen videris (nam 
aperte dicetur apud te) adjicere prsestigias quasdam buic rei, et 
failere oculos spectantium, ipse interim factus nil tale. Prot. Et 
queenam deceptio fieri-possit in rebus tarn manifestis ? Nonne vi- 
disti oculis apertis, in quotformas transmutavi me ipsum ? Si vero 
usque difiidis, et res videtur esse ficta, hoc est simulachrum quod- 
dam obversans ante oculos tuos, postquam factus-fuero ignis, ad- 
moveto mihi, 6 generosissime, manum : scies enim, num solum- 
modo videar esse ignis, an etiam urere, i. e. urendi potentia, tunc 
mihi insit. Men. Experimentum eat minime tutum, 6 Proteu. 
X^rot. TuauterOj 6 Menelae, videris mild nunquam vidisse Poly- 
pum, nee nosse quid piscis ille patitut* Men. At vidi sane Po- 
Jypum ; qu;e vero patitur, libenter discerem ex te- Prot. Quod- 
cunque ad saxum accedens applieuerit acetabula, et coalescens 
tenet idem per cirros (/*. e. cirris sius) reddit se similem illi, et 
imitatus saxum mutat colorem, ut lateat piscatores, per hoc (i. e. 
banc mutationem) non differens, neque manifestus, sed lapidi 
assimulatus. Men. Ferunthsc: iliud vero tuum est multo incre- 
dibilius, 6 Proteu. Prot. Nescio, 6 Menelae, cuinam alii cre- 
deres, non credens tai-ipsius oculis. Men. Videns vidi; sed res 
est monstrosa, eundem fieri igneni et aquam, 



DIALOGUS III. 

NEPTUNIET DELPHINUM. 

Nept. EUGE, 6 Delphi nes, quoniam semper estis horninibus- 

aniici ! Et clim quidem portastis filium Inus in Isthmum, cum- 

susceperatis etim, postquam-incidit una-cum matre a sccpulis- 
Scironiis. — Et til nunc, postquam-recepisti citbaraedum hunc 
Methymnensem, enatasti in Tamarum cum ipso ejus ornatu et 
cithara ; neque negiexisti eum indigne pereuntem ex nautis. 
Delph. Ne mireris, 6 Neptune, si benefaciamus hominibus, 
cum simus et ipsi facti pisces ex hominibus. Nept. Et sane 
repreh*»ndoBacchumqu6d,postquam-navali-pr3Elio-vicissetvosmu- 
taverit, cum opcrteretsubjugaretantum,utsubegit alios. — Quomeda 
\g\xx\rf acinar a ilia contra Arionem hunc sunt-patrata ■ Delph. 
Periander, cpinor, delectabatur eo, et ssspe accersebat eum 
propter artem. Ille vero, ditatus a tyranno, cupiebat, navigans 
domum in Methymnam, ostentare divitias : et cum conscenderat 
navigium quoddam scelestorum hominum, ut ostendat ferensA'. e. 
seferrej multum auri et argenti, turn nautse, postquam pervenerat 
ad medium iEgeum, insidiantur ei Ille vero (nam, adnatans navi, 
audiebam omnia) « Quoniam (inquit) hsec visa-sunt vobis, saltern 
" sinite me, postquam-assumpsero ornatum, et cecinero in me 
" quoddam funebre carmen, sinite, inquam, volentem prsecipitare 
f 1 me ipsum." Permisere nautse. Et assumpsit ornatum, et cecinit 
prorsus canore, et decidit in mare, ut statim omnino periturus. 
Ego vero postquam-suscepissem, et collocassem eum in dor so meo, 
gerens enatavi in Tcenarum. Nept. Laudo te ob music?e studi- 
um: rependisti enim ei dignam mercedem/?ro auscultatione. 



DIALOGUS IV. 

NEPTUNI ET NERL DUM. 

Nept. FRETUM sane hoc, in quodpuellademersa-est, vocetur 
Hellespontus ab eadem. Vos vero, 6 Nereides, acceptum cadaver 
Troadem asportate, ut sepeiiatur ab incolis. Ner. "^Neqnaquam, 
6 Neptune, sed sepeiiatur hie in cognomini pelago; miseremur 
enim ejus passse miserrima a noverca. Nept. Koc quidem, 6 
Amphitrite, non fas. Neque alias decorum est earn jacere hie 
alicubi sub arena : sed, quod dixi, sepeiiatur in Troade in Cher- 
sonese Illud autem erit ipsi solatium, quodpaulo post Ino etiani 
patietur eadem, et, propulsa ab A than- ante, cadet in mare a sum- 
mo Cithserone, qua mons ille excurrit in mare, hubens etiam natum 



in ulnis 

facias Bacc 



Ner. Seel oportcbit te servare et illam, quo gratnm- 
cho ; Ino cnim est altrix et mitrix ejus. Nept. Non 
oporteret servare adeo scelestam. Attamen non decet, 6 Amphi- 
trite, displicere Baccho. Ner. Quid vero hcec passa decidit^z. e. 
Quid aceidit hide ut decider et ) ab ariete, frater vero ejus Phryxu 
turd vehitur? Nept. Non-abs-re id evenit. Hie enim juveni 



xus 
s 



eat, et potest obsistere contra impetum: ilia vero, postqnam-con- 
scenderat vehiculuni incredibile, et despexerat in vastum profun- 
di 1 rn, ex desuetudine ejusmodi rerum perculsa, et simul stupore 
aifecta, et vertigine-correpta, prse impetu volatus facta est impo- 
tens cornuum (i. p. impotens tenmdi convua ) arietis, quae eo usqne 
renebat, et decidit in in are. Ner. Nonne oportebat matrem 
Nephelen succurrere ipadenti ? Nept. Oportebat. Sed Parca 
niulto potentior e$t Nephele. 



DIALOGUS V. 
XANTHI ET MARIS. 



Zantu. EXCIPE me, 6 Mare passum dira ; extingue vulnera 
mea. Mar. Quid hoc, 6 Xanthe ? Quistedeussit ? Xanth. Vulca- 
bus. — Atpenitusin carbonem redaetus sum miser, et aestuo. Mar. 
At quapropter injecit tibi ignem ? Xanth. Propter filium Thet- 
iclis : pos?quam enim supplex-oravj emn oecidentem Phrygas, ille 
autem non desistebat ab ira, sed obstruebat mini alveum cadaveri- 
bus, tunc ego., misertus infelicium, invadebam eum, volens undis- 
proluere, ut territus abstineret a viris. Ibi Vulcanus (contigit enim 
esse alicubi prope) ferens totum ignem, quantum, opinor, habuit, 
et quantum est in j£tna, et sicubi alibi habet quid ignis, invasit me, 
et combussit lilmos et mvricas "trie as : assavit vero miseros pisces 
et: ailguiHas. Faciens vero me ipsam rnagno-cnm strepitu-ebullire, 
param abfuit-<p«*/& reddiderit totum siccum. Viden* ergo quomodo 
me-habeo e pustulis-ii . ivjtis ? Mar. Tnrbidus es, 6 Xanthe, et 
fervidus, ut par est: cruor enim provev.it a cadaveribus, fervor 
autem, ut dicis, ab igr.e. Et merito, 6 Xanthe, hoc aceidit tibi, qui 
impetum-feceris in menm natum, non veritus quod esset Nerei- 
dis tilius. Xanth. Nonne igitur oportuit me misereri Phrygum 
viciucrum ineorum ? Mar. Nonne vero oportuit Vulcanum quoque 
misereri Achillis, qui erat films Thetidis I 



DIALOGUS VI. 

JOVI3, iESCULAPII, ET HERCULIS 

Jup. DESINITE, 6 ^Esculapi, et tu Hercules, rixantes alter- 
cum-altero, sicut homines. Haec etenim sunt indecora, et aliena 
a convivio Deorum. Herc. At, 6 Jupiter, visne medicastrum 
hunc discumbere supra me ? /Esc. Sum etenim prsestantior, per 
Jovem. Herc. Qua in re, 6 fulminate? anne quia Jupiter 
fulmine-percussit te agentem quae non fas erat ? Nunc vero 
denuofactus-es-particepsimmortalitatis,per misericordiarn. TEsc. 
Tu quoque in Oeta deustus oblitus ergo es, quandoquidem ex- 
probras mihi ignem. Herc. An-itaque paria et similia in vita- 
gesta-sunt a nobis, te scilicet, et me qui nlius sum Jovis, tot autem 
labores-sustinui, expurgans vitam, belluas devincens, et puniens 
homines contumeliosos : tu vero es radicum-sector, et agyrta ; forte 
quidem utilis aegrotantibus applicando aliquid medicamentorum, 
exhibens autem nil virile. iEsc. Recte dicis, quia curavi tuas 
pustulas inustas, cum nuper ascendisti semiustus, et ccrruptus 
corpore ex ambobus, primo tunica, et post hoc, igne. Ego vero, 
etiamsi prcestiterim nil aliud, neque servivi, sicut tu, neque carmi- 
navi lanam in Lydia, indutus purpura, et verberatus ab Omphale 
sandalio aureo, sed neque insaniens occidi liberos et uxorem. 
Herc Nisi desines mihi convitiari, statim admodum senties, 
quod immortaiitas non multum tibi profuerit, cum tollens te de- 
jecero in caput (i. e. pracipitemj e ccelo ; ita ut ne quidem Paeon 
curaverit te contusum cranio. Jup. Desinite, inquam, et ne ob- 
turbate nobis coetum, alioqui ablegabo vos ambos e convivio. Et 
quidem, 6 Hercules, justum-ea-* .Esculapium accumbere-superiorem 
te, utpote prius mortuum. 



DIALOGUS VII. 

MARTIS ET MERCURII. 

Mars. ^ AUDISTIN', 6 Mercuri, quse Jupiter minatus est 
nobis, quam fastuosa et incredibiiia ? "Ego* sane (inquit) si 
<* voluero, demittam catenam e ccelo ; si vero vos omnes, Dii, inde- 
« suspensi nitamini deorsum-trahere me, frustra laborabitis ; non 
"enimdetraxeritis. Si autem ego voluero sursum-trahere, turn, 
" una-suspendens tollam in sublime non solum vos, veriim etiam 

" terram simul et mare." Et cetera, quotquot et tu audisti 

Ego autem non negarem,quod prsestantior est et robustior nobis 
omnibus sigillatim, i. e. singulis. At minime persuaderer cum 

A 2 



6 

prsestare tot-tantisque simul, ita ut non degravaturi simus eum, 
etiamsi adscisceremus terram et mare. Merc. Bona verba, 
6 Mars ; non enim tutum est dicere talia, ne lucremur aliquid 
etiam mali ex garrulitate. Mars. Putasvero me dicturum fuisse 
h?ec apud omnes ? Ndnne vero apud te solum, quern intellexi 
continentem-esse-linguae ? Non ergo potui reticere apud te id 
quod inter minas ejus visum est mini audienti maxime ridicu- 
lum. Memini enim, non ita multo ante, cum Neptunus et 
Juno, et Minerva insurgentes machinati-essent vincire eum 
captum, memini, inquam, quomodo time omnimodus fuit, i. e. 
in omnes versabat se partes, dum expaveret, idque, tres cum-essent 
solummodo. Et, nisi Thetis, miserta ejus, vocasset centimanum 
Briareum ill i auxiliatorem, vinctus-fuisset cum ipso fulmine ac 
tronitru. Subiit itaque mihi hzec reputanti ridere propter ejus 
grandiloquentiam. Merc Tace, bona-verba. Non enim est 
tutum aut tibi dicere, aut mihi audire taiia. 



DIALOGUS VIII. 

DIOGENIS ET POLLUCIS 

Diog. MANDO tibi, 6 Pollux (est enim, opinor, tuum revi- 
viscere eras) postquam celerrime (i. e. quamprimum) ascenderis, 
sicubi videris Menippum canem ilium (invenias vero eum Corinthi 
circa Craneum, vel in Lyceo, deridentem philosophos alterum- 
cum-altero rixantes) mando, inquam, tibi dicere, illi, quod 
u Diogenes, 6 Menippe, jubette, si ert-quse sunt in terra satis derisa- 
" sunt a te, venire hue derisurunn multo plura. Illic enim fsciL 
*' in vita J risus erat tibi adhuc in incerto, et dictum illud poterat 
" frequens objici tibi, nempe, Quis enim penitus novit quxjutura 
i( sunt post banc vitam ? Hie autem non desines firmiter (i. e. 
" vera de causa J ridere, quemadmodum ego nunc : Et praecipud 
61 cum videas divites, et satrapas, et tyrannos humiles adeo et 
'* obscuros, agnitos ab aliis solo ploratu ; et ex eo quod molles sint 

*' et degeneres, semper recordati terrestrium." Dicito haec 

illi : et praeterea, " ipsum venire pera impleta multis lupinis, et, 
" sicubi invenerit ccenam Hecates jacentem in trivio, vel ovum ex 
*' lustratione, vel tale quiddam." Pol. At renunciabo haec, d 
"Diogenes. Qualis vero est homo qua~ad-f&ciem, ut optime agnos- 
cam eum ? Diog. Senex calvaster, gerens tritum-pallium fe- 
nestratum, pervium omni vento, et variegatum assumentis panno- 
rum-tritorum. Ridet autem perpetuo, et plerumque vellicat arro- 
gantes hosce philosophos. Pol. Facile erit reperire eum ex 
hisce signis. Diog. Visne ut mandem aliquid ad ipsos etiam 
illos philosophos ? Pol. Loquere ; neque enim est hoc grave. 



Dioc. In summa, adhortare eos ut-desinant nugari, ct conten- 
dere de Totis, et cornua generare sibi-invicem et crocodilos facere, 
et docere mentem suam interrogare talia inutilia. Pol. At 
dicent me, reprehendentem ipsorum sapientiam, esse indoctum 
et ineruditum. Diog. Tu verO illis plorare a me dicito. Pol. 
Remmciabo et haec, 6 Diogenes. Diog. Nuncia vero di- 
"vitibus, 6 charissime Poliucule, hsec a nobis: "Quid custoditis 
"aurum, 6 vani ? Quid vero excruciatis vosmet, supputantes foe- 
" nora, et congerentes talenta super talenta, quos necesse-est paulo 
" post hue venire, habentes unicum obolum ?" Pol. Dicentur iis 
et hsec. Diog. At die etiam pulchris et robustis, nempe, et Me- 
gillo Corinthio illi et Damoxeno palaestritx, quod apud nos nee 
flava coma, neque laeti nigrive oculi, aut rubor est amplms in facie 
aut nervi intenti, aut humeri robusti ; sed omnia nobis-cwm sunt 
idem pulvis, ut aiun, tcum-sint crania pulchritudine nuda. Pol. 
Non molestum est neque hacc dicere pulchris et robustis. Diog. 
Et die, 6 Lacon, pauperibus (sunt vero plurimi et gravati ea 
re et deplorantes inopiam suam) neque lachrymare, neque plovare ; 
exponens iis sequalitatem hie existentem, quod videbunt eos, qui 
illic sunt divites, nil praestantiores se ipsis. Et, si videtur, expro- 
brato hxc Laced?emoniis tuis a me, dicens eos enervatos-esse. 
Pol. Dicito nihil, 6 Diogenes, de Lacedaemoniis ; non enim 
tolerabo. Renunciabo autem ilia qu?e mandasti ad cseteros. Diog. 
Omittemus hos, quoniam tibi videtur. Tu autem deferto sermo- 
nes a me ad eos quibus ante dixi. 



DIALOGUS IX. 

PLUTO, SEU CONTRA MENIPPUM. 

Croesus. NON ferre-possumus, 6 Pluto, CanCm hunc Men- 
ippum juxta-habitantem. Quare aut alicubi collocato eum amotum 
a nobis, aut transmigrabimus nos in alium locum. Plut. Qiiid 
autem grave vobis facit, cum sit pariter mortuus? Croes. Post- 
quam nos ploramus et gemimus, recordati eorum supra ft. e. 
rerum terrestriumj Midas quidem hicce auri, Sardanapalus verd 
multarum deliciarum, ego autem thesaurorum, turn iste irridet, et 
convitiatur, vocans nos mancipia et piacula. Nonnunquam autem 
et cantans obturbat ploratus nostros, et prorsus molestus est. Plut. 
Quare dicunt haec, 6 Menippe ? Men. Vera dicunt, 6 Pluto. Odi 
enim ipsos quod-smt degeneres et perditi ; quibus npn satis erat 
male vixisse, sed et mortui adhuc recordantur, ac tenaces-sunt 
terrestrium. Delector igitur eos angens. Plut. At non op- 
ortet ; contristantur enim, non parvis privati. Men. Tune etiam- 
deliras, 6 Pluto, qui-suffragaris horum gemitibus ? Plut. Nequa- 



quam, sed non vellem vos dissidias movere. Men. Et sane, 6 
pessimi Lydorum et Phrygum, et Assyriorum, ita cognoscite de 
me, quasi non cessaturo. Quocunque enim iveritis, usque sequar 
angens, et cantu-obstrepens, et deridens. Croes. Annon hxc 
sunt contumelia : Men. Non ; sed ilia erant contumelia, quae voa 
egistis dignantes ft. e. dignum censentesj adorari, et prse-petulan- 
tia-illudentes viris liberis, et non omnino mortis memores : plorate 
ergo omnibus istis spoliati. Creos. Multis 6 Dii, et magnis 
possessionibus ! Mid. Quanto ego auro ! Sard. Quantis ego 
deliciis! Men. Euge ! ita facite: vos quidem lugete : verd saepius 
connectens (i. e. <vobiscu7nconcinens J \ dictuviWVwdiyNosceteipsum, oc- 
centabo vobis: decet enim me occentantem talibus ploratibus. 



DIALOGUS X. 

MENIPPI, AMPHILOCHI, ET TROPHONII. 

Men. NESCIO quomodo vos,6 Trophoni et Amphiloche, cum- 
sitis mortui, honestati estis templis, et vates videmini, et vani 
mortales existimarunt vos esse Deos. Troph. Quomodo itaque 
sumus nos cnlpabiles, si illi prx stultitia opinantur talia de mor- 
tuis ? Men. At non opinarentur nisi vos etiam viventes (i. e. in 
vita) portenta-ostentassetis talia, quasi futurorum prxscii, et 
valentes prxdicere consulentibus. Troph. Sciat sane Amphilo- 
chus hicce, 6 Menippe, quod respondendum est ipsi pro se. Ego 
autem Heros sum, et vaticinor, si quis ad me descenderit. — Tu 
autem videris non omnino fi. e. nunquam) peregrinatus-fuisse 
Lebadis; alioqui enim non diffideres tu hisce rebus. Men. Quid 
ais ? Nisi enim adiissem Lebadiam, et indutus linteis, ridicule 
interim manibus tenens offam, irrepsissem in specum tuum per 
humile (i. e. angustumj ostium, non possem scire quod mortuus 
es et tu, sicut nos, sola, differens impostura — Sed, per vaticinandi 
artem, oro, Quid tandem est Heros ? Ignoro enim. Troph. Est 
quiddam ex homine et Deo compositum. Men. Quod neque 
homo est, ut dicis, neque Deus ; et utrumque-simul est. Quo igitur 
illud tuum Dei dimidium nunc abiit? Troph. Edit-oracula, 6 
Menippe, in Bceotia. Men. Nescio, 6 Trophoni, quid dices: at 
perspicue quidem video, quod totus es mortuus. 



DIALOGUS XI. 

MERCURII ET CHARONTIS. 

Mer. SUPPUTEMUS, 6 portitor, si videtur, quaectmque jam 
mihi debes, ut non posthac de iis rixemur. Char. Suppute- 
mus, 6 Mercuri, est enim melius et minoris-negotii de iis nunc 
statuere. Mer. Attuli tibi itf-mandarus, anchoram quinque drach- 
marura. Char. Magni dicis pretii. Mer. ~Per Plutonem, emi 
earn quinque ; et tropoterem (i. e. Idrum-quo-remus-alligatur \ 
obolis duobus. Char. Pone quinque drachmas, et obolos duos. 
Mer. Et acum emi pro velo — pro ilia quinque ego obolos deposui. 
Char. Appone et hos. Mer. Et ceram ad oblinendas navigii 
rimas, et clavos, et funiculum, ex quo hyperam fecisti, drachmis 
omnia duobus. Char. Euge ! emisti hsec vili. Mer. H sec s lint 
qua emi, nisi quid aliud effugit nos in computatione. Qiiando 
igitur dices te h<ec soluturum ? Char. Nunc sane impossible est ; 
si vero pestis aliqua, aut bellum, demiserit confertos qUosdam 
(i. e. umbrarum turbamj tunc licebit mihi iucrari aliauid in mul- 
titudine, falsd-supputanti portoria. Mer. Egoigitur nunc sedebo, 
orans pessima quceoue even ire mala, ut ex his fructum capiam. 
Char. Non aliter est (i. e. non aliier licet mihi solvere J 6 Mercuri. 
Nunc vero pauci ad nos, ut vides, descendunt ; pax etenim est. 
Mer. Ita melius, etiamsi dcbitum hot prorogfetirr nobis a te. At 
vero nosti, 6 Charon, quales antiqui illi advenerunt, robusti omnes, 
sanguine pleni, et saucii plerique : nunc vero aut veneno quis 
mortuus e fllio, vei uxore, aut tumefactus ventrem et crura prae 
Iuxuria ; pallidi omnes, et degeneres, nee similes 5111s antiiuis, 
Plerique vero eorum veniunt per divitias (i. e. dixitiis mortem 
eorum maturantibusj insidiantes, ut videntur, alii-aliis. Char. 
Nee miruvi ; ha^ etenim sunt prorsus expetibiles. Men. Ego ergo 
minime videar peccare, acriter exigens debita a te. 



DIALOGUS XII. 

PLUTONIS ET MERCURII. 

Plut. NOSTINE senem ilium, ilium dico prorsns senio-confec- 
tum,divitem Eucratem, cuiliberi quidem non sunt, at quinquagies- 
mille qni-venantur ejus hsereditatem . M&REtiam; dicis, nempe, 
S.icyonium ilium. Quid ergo? Pj,ut. Sine, 6 Mercuri, ilium 
yivere, adjiciens ad nonaginta annos, quos jam vixit, totidem 
alios, et, si possibile esset, adhuc plures : detrahe autem hue adu- 
latores ejus Charinum juvenem, et Damonem, cxterosque omnes 



1® 

ordine. Mer. Tale factum videretur praeposterum. Plut. 
Nequaquam, sed aequissimum. Quid enim passi (i. e. qua causa 
motij precantnr ilium mori, aut nil attinente* ( i. e. nullo modo el 
cognati) vendicant sibi ejus opes? Quod vero est foedissimum 
omnium est hoc quod, secreto precantes talia, colunt tamen eum in 
propatulo. — Et, eodem ?egrotante, quamvis quidem qua; intus ma- 
chinantur manifesta sunt omnibus, promittunt tamen se sacrilica- 
turos, si convaluerit ; et, in summa, varia qusedam esthominum 
adulatio. Esto ille, propter hzec, immortalis; illi vero abeant prae 
ipso, frustra inhiantes ejus opibus. Mer. Sic patientur ridicula, 
veteratores ut-sunt.— Et ille plerumque scite admodum lactat eos, 
et sperare-facit ; et, in summa, semper moribundo similis corro- 
boratur multo magis-quam juvenes. Illi vero, partiti jam inter 
se hsereditatem, j/?e-pascuntur, proponentes sibi beatam vitam. 
Plut. Repubescat igitur ille, senectutem exu'cus, sicut Iolaus : hi 
autem e media spe abrepti, postquam-reliquerint divitias somnio- 
possessas, veniant jam hue mali male mortui. Mer. Ne sis 
sollicitus, 6 Pluto ; accersam enim jam tibi illos, singulos ordine. 
Sunt vero opinor, septem. Plut. Detrahe : ille vero factus rur» 
sus adolescens pro sene, deducet singulos ad sepulchrum. 



DIALOGUS X1IL 

TERPSIONIS ET PLUTONIS, 

Terps. HOCCINE justum est, 6 Pluto, me quidem triginta 
annos natum mortuum esse, Thucritum vero senem ilium ultra no- 
naginta (i. e. plus quam nonagenariumj adhuc vivere ? Plut. 
Justissimuin sane, 6 Terpsion, si quidem ille vivit, optans nemi- 
nem amiccrum mori. Tu vero expectans hxreditatem ejus, 
per omne tempus insidiabaris ei. Terps. Nonne etenim 
oportuit ilium senem, et non amplius valentem uti divitiis, e vita 
abire juvenibus^cedentem ? Plut. Novas fers-leges, 6 Terpsion; 
nempe, eum mori qui non amplius valet uti divitiis, ad voluptatem. 
Parca vero, et Natura hoc aliter ordinavit. Terps. Accuso igitur 
hanc Parcam de hujusmodi ordinatione. Oportebat enim rem or- 
dine quodammodo fieri ; nempe, seniorem mori priorem, et post hunc 
quicunque setate esset secundum ipsum ; rem vero nequaquam in- 
verti, neque decrepitum sane vivere, habentem tres tantum dentes 
adhuc reliquos, vix videntem, quatuor famulis incumbentem, 
plenum quidem muco quo-ad nasum, lippitudine vero quo-ad 
oculos; nil suave jam sentientem, et a juvenibus derisum quasi 
animatum quoddam sepulchrum ; non, inquam, oportuit hunc 
vivere, pulcherrimos vero et robustissimos juvenes emori. Hoc 
enim est quasi Fluminum Refluxus. Aut, denique, oporteret 
juvenes scire, quando senum unusquisque sit moriturus, ut non 



11 

ultos frustra colerent. Nunc vero obtinet illud proverbii, Ptatis* 
trum s<epe bovem effert. Plut. Haec quidem, 6 Terpsion, fiunt 
lnul'co prudentius quam tibi videtur. — Vos vero quid passi ft. 
e. qua causa motij gaudetis opibus alienis, et <vosmet senibus orbis 
in-adoptionem-inducitis, ferentes eosdem (i.e. iis servientes ? ) 
Debetis igitur risum (i. e. estis deridendi J ab iisdem defos- 
si (i. e. seupulti:) quae etiam res fit multis jucundissima. Nam 
quo magis optatis vos illos mori, eo magis suave est omnibus 
mori vos ante illos. Novam enim quandam hanc artem excogitas- 
tis, anus amantes ac senes, et praecipue, si sint orbi: parentes 
vero sunt vobis inamabiles. — Qiianquam multi jam ex amatis* 
intelligentes astutiam vestram in amore, etsi forte habent liberos 
fingunt tamen se eos odio habere, ut et ipsi amatores habeant. 
At deinde qui olim dona ferebant exclusi quidem sunt in testa- 
mentis; filius vero, et natura, ut justum est, potiuntur omnibus; 
illi vero, doiore confecti, dentibus strident. Terps. Vera hsec 
dicis! — Quantum itaque meorum devoravit Thueritus iste! semper 
morituro similis, et quandocunque introirem, subtus-gemiscens, et 
subcrocitans penetrate quiddam, perinde-atque pullus imperfectus 
exovo? Adeout ego, putans eum quamprimum conscensurum, 
feretrum, plurima ei miserim, ne aemuli me munificentia supera 
rent. Et plerumque jacebam insomnis prae curis enumerans, et 
disponens singula. Haec igitur (viz. J vigilise et curae, exstitere 
mini causa nnortis: ille autem, postquam-deglutisset tantam mihi 
escam, astitit mihi pridie irridens dum sepelirer. Plut. Euge, 
6 Thucrite! vivas diutissime, ditescens simul, et deridens tales; 
neque tu prius moriaris, quam prasmiseris hue adulatores omnes. 
Terps. Hoc equidem, 6 Pluto, etiam mihi jam suavissimum esset f 
si Chariades morietur-ante Thucritum. Plut. Bono-sis animo, 
6 Terpsion : nam et Phidon, et Melanthus, et omnino omnes 
precedent eum, mortui prae ipsis curis. Terps. Laudo hsec.^ 
Vivas diutissime> 6 Thucrite! 






DIALOGUS XIV. 

ZENOPHANTiE ET CALLIDEMIDx^. 

Zen. TU vero 6 Callidemide, quomodomortuus-es ? Nosti ete- 
nim quod ego, cum essem Diniae parasitus, suitocatus sum plus 
justo devorans; aderas enim mihi morienti. Cal. Aderam, 6 
Zenophanta : meum vero (i. e. mea mors)£\\\t inopinatum quiddam. 
Nam nosti et tu forsan senem ilium Ptoeodorum. Zen Illumne 
orbum, divitem ilium, cum-quo novi te plerumque versantem ? 
Cal. Ilium ipsum semper colebam, promittens mihimet eum 
moriturum, me haerede : postquam. vero res protracta-est in Ion- 



12 

gissimum, et senex ultra Tithonum (i. e. Titboni annosj vixerat, 
inveni compendiariam quandam viam ad ha:reditatem. Mercatus 
enim venerium, persuasi pocillatori, ut simnl atque Ptceodorus 
posceret ^w/ibibendum (bibit vero abunde) turn i lie, injecto in 
calicemmeraciore vino, haberet idem paratum, et daret ei. Si vero 
faceret hoc, juravi me dimissurum eum liberum. Zen. Quid ergo 
fact urn- est ? Videris enim narraturus quiddam prorsus inopinatum. 
Cal. Postquam itaque loti venimus ad canam, puer habens jam 
duo pocula parata, alterum quidem Ptoeodoro, continens venenum, 
alterum vero mihi, turn errore captus, nescio quomodo, dedit sane 
venenum mihi, non venenatum vero Ptoeodoro. Deinceps ille 
quidem bibebat ; ego vero statim porrectim admodum jacui, sup- 

posititium pro illo cadaver. Quid hoc ? Ridesne, 6 Zenophanta ? 

Atqui non oportet irridere virum sodalem. Zen. Cur non? Pas- 
sus-es enim lepida (i. e. lepide) 6 Callidemide. Quid autem ad 
haec dixit senex ? Cal. Primo quidem perturbatus-est ad rem 
improvisam. Deinde intelligens, opinor, quod factum-est, risit et 
ipse ea quae pocillator fecerat. Zen. At non oportuit te divertisse 
in compendiariam illam viam. Hcereditas enim obveniret tibi 
tutius via vulgari, etsi esset paulo tardior. 



DIALOGUS XV. 

CNEMONIS ET DAMNIPPI. 

Cnem. HOC est illud proverbii, Hinnulus devicit Leonem* 
Dam. Quid stomacharis, 6 Cnemon ? Cnem. Rogas, quid sto- 
macher ? Invitus reliqui haeredem astu-elusus miser, praetermittens 
eos quos volebam imprimis possidere mea. Dam. Quomodo hoc 
evenit ? Cnem. Colebam Hermolaum ilium prorsus divitem, et 
liberis-carentem, sub mortem (i. e. imminente ejus mortej et ille 
non illibenter admittebat officium meum. Turn visum est mihi 
hoc etiam inter alia esse astutum, nempe, in lucem proferre testa- 
mentum, in quo reiiquerim illi mea omnia ; ut et ille aemularetur, 
et idem faceret erg a one. Dam. Quid igitur/ec/? ille ? Cnem. Ne 
novi quidem quid ideo ipse scripsit in testamento suo. Ego autem 
subito mortuus-sum, tecto in-me illapso ; et nunc Hermolaus habet 
mea, quasi lupus quispiam qui-abripuerit etiam hamum cum esca. 
Dam. Non solum hamum et escam, sed et ipsum te piscatorem: 
ita ut commentum struxeris contra teipsum. Cnem. Videor iia 
fecisse. Ploro igitur. 



I: 



DIALOGUS XVI. 

CHARGimS ET MERCURII. 

Char. AUDITS quomodo res vestne sese babent. Parva est 
vobis, ut videtis, ac putrida navicula, et perrluit undique; et, si 
inciinaverit in alterutrum latus, subversa peribit. Vos-vero tam- 
multi simul venitis, plurima quisque aEerentes- Si igitur cum 
hisce conscenderitis, vereor ne posrea poenituerit-vos, et prrecipue, 
quotquot riandi non estis-periti. Mortui. Quid igitur facientes 
tuto navigabimus ? Char. Bicani ego vobis. Nudos conscendere 
oportet, relictis in littore superfluis hisce omnibus; vix etenim 
vel sic navigium yds capiet. — Tlbi vero, 6 Mercuri, curse erit nemi- 
nem posthac recipere, qui nudus non fuerit, et abjecerit, ut dixi, 
supellectilem. Stans vero ad scalam dignosce, et recipe eos, nudos 
conscendere cogens. Mek. Bene dicis : at que ita faciemus. — Et 
quisnam est hie primus ? Men. Menippus ego. At ecce, 6 Mer- 
curi, pera mea et baculum projecta-sunt in lacum ; at tritum-palii- 
um non attuli,recte faciens. Mer. Conscende, 6 Menippe, vir op- 
time, et primum occupato locum in excelso juxta gubernatorem, 
ut observes omnes. — Pulcher vero hie quisnam est ? Char. 
Charmolaus sum amabilis iile Megarensis, enjus csculum erat 
(i. e. cestimabatur ) talentorum duorum. Mer. Exue igitur pul- 
chritudinem, et labia cum ipsis osculis, et com am prclixam, et 
genarum ruborem, et cutem totam. Bene habet, snecinctus es, jam 
conscende. Hie vero purpura et diademate Indians, truculentug 
hie ? quis, inquam es tu ? Lamp. Lampichus sum ego, Geiorum 
tyrannus. Mer. Quid ergo, 6 Lampiche, ades tam-multa gerens. 
Lamp. Quid ft. e. quomodo J ergo, 6 Mercuri, deceret virum 
tyrannum nudum venire? Mer. Nequaquam sane tyrannum, sed 
mortuum potias : quare exuito lixc Lamp. Ecce tibi abjectae 
sunt divitise. Mer. Abjice, 6 Lampiche, et jactantiam, et fasturri ; 
nam b,sc tecum simul- incidentia gravabunt navigium. Lamp. At- 
vero sine me habere diadema et chlamydem. Mer. Nequaquam, 
sed depone et hxc. Lamp. Esto. Quid praeterea? Deposui 
enim omnia, ut vides. Mer. Crudelitatem etiam, et arhentiam, 
et insolentiam, et iracundiam : hzec quoque depenito. Lamp. 
Ecce tibi nudus sum. Mer. Jam conscende. — Quis vero es tu 
crassus et carnosus ? Dam. Damasias athleta, Mer. Etiam ; 
idem esse videris. Novi etenim te, srepe conspicatus in pahestris. 
Bam. Ita, 6 Mercuri : sed recipe me nudum. Mer. Nequaquam 
nudum, a bone, utpote circqmdatum tam multacarne: quare exue 
illam, quoniam submerges scapham, impenens alteram tantum 
pedem. Verum abjice et coronas hascc et prrcconia. Dam. Ecce 
tibi re vera nudus sum, ut vides, et par pondere ceteris mortuis. 
Mer. Ita melius est te levem esse, quare jam ingredere. — Et tu, 
6 Crato, depositis divitiis, et moilitie, et luxu insuper, nee portato 

B 



14 

vesmnenta sepulchralia, neque dignitates majorum. Rclinque 
vero et genus, et gloriam, et si quando civitas praeconio promul- 
gavit te nimirum beneficum, et statuarum inscriptiones ; neque 
praedicato, quod ches congessere tibi magnum sepulchrum ; nam 
et hsec in memoriara-revocata gravant. Crat. Invitus certe, 
abjiciam tamen. Quid enim faciam ? Mer. Papae ! Tu vero 
armatus quid tibi vis ? Aut quid portas trophseum hoc ? Crat. 
Quia vici, 6 Mercuri, et praeclaras-res-gessi, et civitas me hones - 
tavit. Mer. Relinque trophaeum in terra ; pax enim est apud 
inferos, et nihil cpus-erit armis. — Quisnam vero est hie ex ha- 
bitu ipso gravis, et fastuose-se-gerens ; hie sublatis superciliis, hie 
in curis totus, hie prolixam demittens barbam ? Men. Philosophus 
quispiam, 6 Mercuri, ut pr& sefert; sed potius (i. e. reveraj prae- 
stigiator, et prodigiorum iictione refertus : quapropter denudato 
et hunc, videbis enim multa et ridicula sub veste occulta. Mer. 
Depone tu primd habitum ; deinde hrec omnia. — O Jupiter ! quan- 
tam portat jactantiam, quantam vero inscitiam, et contentionem, 
et inanem gloriam, et quaestiones dubias, et ratiocinia spinosa, et 
cogitationes perplexas? Sed et vanum laborem valde multum, et 
tleliramenti non parum, et nugas, et minutiarum disquisitionem : 
imo, per Jovem, et aurum hoc, et voluptuosum affectum, et impuden- 
tiam, et iracundiam, et delicias, et mollitiem : non enim bcec me 
latent, etsi ea studiose occultes. Depone autem et mendacia, 
et jactantiam, et opinionem, te esse aliis meliorem. Quod, si 
habens haec omnia conscendas, quae quinquaginta-remorum navis 
te ceperit ? Phil. Depono igitur ea, quoniam ita jubes. Men. 
Sed deponat, 6 Mercuri, hanc insuper barbam, gravemque et 
hirsutam, ut vides. Fili sunt minarum quinque, ad minimum. 
Mer. R.ecte dicis ; depone et hanc. Phil. Et quisnam erit tonsor ? 
Mer. Menippus hie, accepts, naupegorum securi, abscindet earn., 
scaia usus/?ro episcopo, (i. e. trunci vice. J Men. Nequaquam, 6 
Mercuri, sed da mini serrarn, hoc enim erit magis ridiculum. 
Mer. Sufficit securis. Euge ! nunc enim exhibuisti ramhuma* 
niorem, auferens ejus hircinum foetorem. Men. Viir* pauluium 
auferam et (Is superciliis ? Mer. Maxime. Sustulit enim hacc su- 
per frontem, efferens seipsum, nescio quam ob rem. Quid hoc? 
Etiamlachrymaris, 6 sceleste, et ad mortem expavescis ? Conscen- 
de igitur. Men. Habet unura adhuc gravissimum sub axilla. 
j^Ier. Quid, oMenippe ? Men. Adulationem, 6 Mercuri, apprime 
Htilem ei in vita. Phil. Depone ergo et tu, 6 Menipjse, Liber- 
tatem, et loquendi si'mplicitatem, et alacritatem, et magnanimita- 
tem, et risum. Tune solus aliorum rides ? Mer. Nequaquam : sed 
rerine haec, levia cum sint, et valde portatu facilia, et ad naviga- 
tionem utilia. — Et tu, 6 rhetor, depone tantam verborum circui- 
tioneni perpetuam, et antitheses, et adaequationes, et periodos, 
et barbarismos, et alia verborum pondera. Rhet. Esto ; ecce ; 
depono, Mer. Bene res habet. Quare solve retinacula, tollamus 
scaiam, subtrahatur anchcra, expande velum, dirige, 6 portitor, 



15 

clavum. Bene patiamur, (i. e. prosper e navigemus J . — Quid plo- 
ratis, 6 vani ? Et praxipue, tu philosophe, qui nuper spoliatus-es 
barba? Phil. Quia, 6 Mercuri, putabam animam esse immorta- 
lem. Men. Mentitur; alia etenim videntur eum contristare. 
Mer, Quxnam ? Men. Quod non amplius coenas opiparas camabit, 
neque noctu exiens clam omnes, et caput pallio circurnvolvens, 
lustrabit prostibula in orbem (i. e. widiquej, et inane decipiens 
juvenes non accipiet pecuniam propter philosophiam. Hax illi 
dolent. Phil. Tu verd, 6 Menippe, nonne gravaris quod sis mor- 
tuus ? Men. Quomodo, qui festinavi ad mortem, nemine vocante I 
— Sed inter sermenes nostros, nonne clamor aliquis auditur, quasi 
quorundam a terra vociferantium. Mer. Etiam, 6 Menippe ; 
non autem ab unoloco ; sed alii sane, convenienses ad concionern, 
rident omnes, oblectati propter Lampichi mortem, et uxor ejus 
undique-premitur a mulieribus, et pueruli ejus nuper-nati, et iili, 
inquam, similiter obruuntur plurimis lapidibus a pueris. Alii 
vero laudant Diophantum rhetorem Sicyone, recitantem funebres 
orationes in Cratonem hunc. Et, per Jovem, Dafnasise mater 
ejulans inceptat una cum mulieribus lamentationem in Damasiam. 
— Nemo vero, 6 Menippe, te deflet ; solus enim jaces in tranquilio. 
Men. Nequaquam ita res babet ; sed paulo post audies car.es 
luctuosissime ululantes propter me, et corvos alis plangentes, cum 
convenientes me sepelient. Mer. Fortis es, 6 Msnippe. — -Sed 
quum nos jam transfretavimus, vos quidem procedentes recta 
ilia =cid, abite ad tribunal. Ego vero et portitor alios aUatum-ibimus. 

Men. Prospers navigate, 6 PvXercuri. Progrediamur et nos. — 

Quare etiamnnm cunctamini ? Necesse erit vos judicari, et dicunt 
poenas esse graves, nempe, rotas, et vultures, et saxa. Vita vero 
cuj usque manifestabitur. x 



DIALOGUS XVII. 

CRATETIS ET DIOGENIS. 

Crat. NOSTIN', 6 Diogenes, Moerich-um ilium divitem, ilium 
prorsus divitem, ilium e Corintho ; ilium possidentem multas na- 
ves onerarias, cujus consobrinus Aristeas, et ipse opulentus, sole- 
bat dictitare llomericumi)\ud, Auttolle me, ant ego te? Diog. Cujus 
rei causa, 6 Crates, colebant se-mutuo ? Crat. Hserediratio causa 
uterque, quum-essent cocevi. Et in lucem proferebant testamenta ; 
Moerichus quidem relinquens Aristeam dominum suorum omnium, 
si ipse prius-moreretur ; Aristeas vero Moerichum, si idem Arittecs 
prior abiret. Hare sane scripta fuerant. Illi vero colebant se- 
mutuo, superantes alter alteram adulatione. Et vates conjectan- 
*es futurum, sive ab astris, sive a somniis, ut Chaldxcrum fiiii ; 



16 

nee solum illi, sed et Pythius ipse concedebat victoriam nunc qui- 
dem Aristeas, nunc vero Moericho; et lances inclinabant mode qui- 
dem in nunc, modo vero in ilium. Diog. Quisnam igitur, 6 Crates, 
fuit eventns? i^enim auditu dignum. Crat. Mortui sunt ambo 
eodem die; haereditates vero redieruntad EunominmetThrasyclem, 
umbos iUorumcognaXQS, nee unquam a-vatibns-prsediscenteshsec ita 
fore. Illi enim ( Moerichus scil. et Arisieas) navigantcs a Sicyone in 
Cirrham et lapygi cbliquo oecursantes circa medium cursum subversi 
sunt. Diog. Bene fecerunt, (i. e. hoc merko evenitj: Nos vero, cum 
eramus in vita, cogitabamus nil tale alter-de-aUero : neque ego 
unquam optabam Antisthenem mori, ut haeres potirer baculo ejus 
(habivit autem omnino validum, quoniam-fecerat idem ex oleastro) 
nee tu, opinor, 6 Crates, cupiebas mei mortui haeres-potiri posses- 
sionibus, scil. dolioque, et pera continente duas lupinorum choeni- 
ces. Crat. Nil etenim mihi hisce opus-fuit: sed neque tibi, 6 
Diogenes. Nam et tu haeres-potitus-es iis rebus Antisthenis, qui- 
bus opus-erat, et ego mis, multo majoribus et splerdidioribus Per- 
sarum imperio. Diog. Quaenam hacc dicis? Crat. Sapientiam, 
in-me-ipso-su&cientiam, veritatem, loquendi simplicitatem, liber- 
tatem. Diog. Memini, per Jovem, ?ne successorem accepisse 
hits divitias ab Antisthene, et reliquisse tibi adhuc auctiores. 
Crat. Sed alii negligebant tales possessiones, et nemo colebatnos, 
txpectanssehaeredem-fore: omnes vero spectabant adaurum. Diog. 
Nec-injuria. negligebant opes nostras; non enim habebant ubi recipe- 
rent talia anobisperfluentesprae luxuria,tanquam putria marsupia. 
Quare, si quando aiiquis injiceret in eos aut sapientiam, aut loquen- 
df-iibertatem, aut veritatem, statim excidebat, et perfiuebat, fundo 
continere non valente ; quale quiddam hae Danai virgines patiuntur, 
infundentes crijwfiwn in doiium perforatum. Servabantvero////aurum 
dentibus, et unguibus, et omni machina. Crat. Nos quidem 
igitur etiam hie habebimus divitias. Illi vero hue venient feren- 
tes oholumdun taxat, et hunc, usque ad portitorem solummoda. 



DIALOGU3 XVIII. 

ALEXANDRI, ANNIBALIS, MINOIS, ET SCIPIONIS. 

Alex. OPORTET me, 6 Libyce, praeponi tibi ; sum enim prae- 
sta.ntior. Ann. Minime quidem, sed me. Alex. Judicet igitur 
Minos. Min. Quinam vero estis ? Alex. Hie quidem est 
Annibal Carthaginiensis; ego vero Alexander, filius Philippi. 
Min. Per Jovem, praeclari ambo; sed et de quo est vobis con- 
tentio ? Alex. De praestantia. Hie enim ait se fuisse meliorem 
rrte ducem. At dico ego, quod et norunt omnes, ?ne rebus beliicis 
praestare non solum huic, sed prope omnibus ante me ducibus. 
Min. Dicat igitur uterque vicissim. Tu autem, 6 Libyce, primus 



17 

dicito. Ann. O Minos, adjutus sum quo-ad hoc unum (i.e. pro- 
feci hac una in re) quod hie Grascam etiam iinquam didici; ita At 
hicce ne hac quidem parte ferat plus quam-ego, i. e. superet. — Dico 
vero, hos prsecipue dignos esse laude, quotquot, nil cunvessent a 
principio, processere tamen in excelsum siatum induti imperio per 
se (i. e. propria virtute), et digni habiti magistrate Eg©, itaque, 
cum essem legatus fratri meo, primo cum paucis in Hispaniam 
irruropens habitus-sum-dignus maximis honoribus, utpote judicatus 
omnium prsestantissimus. Et cepi Celtiberos, et devici Galatas 
Hesperios. Et, cum-translssem montes ingentes, percurri omnia 
loca circa Eridanum ; et subversas reddidi tot urbes, et campestrem 
Italiam suhjugavi, et veni usque ad suburbia prsecellentis urbis 
Rom<s ; et tot occidi uno die, lit metirer annulos eorum modiis, et 
pontibus insternerem fiurnina ex cadaveribus. Et gessi h<ec om- 
nia, neque Ammonis {ilius vocatus, neque simulans me esse Deum, 
aut matris mec? somnia narrans ; sed confessus me esse hominem, 
et aequiparatus ducibus prudentissimis, et confligens cum militibus 
pugnacissimis: non, Kf Me, Medos debellans, et Armenios, au- 
fugientes, priusquam aliquis sequeretur, et statim victoriam tra- 
dentes, audenti earn peiere, Alexander vero, accepto paterno 
imperio, id auxit, et late ex^endit, hoc autem prastitit, usus fortune 
impetu. Postquam igitur vicit, et superavit miserum ilium Darium 
Issique et Arbelis, tunc abcedens a patriis moribus adorari postn- 
lavit, et mutato-vivendi mere transtulit se ad Medorum vi vend! 
rationem : et caede foedavit amicos in conviviis, et corripuit ecs ad 
mortem. Ego vero ex?equo imperavi patriae, et quum ilia revoca- 
bat, hestibus magna expeditione riavigantibus-contra-Libyam, 
statim parui, et exhibui me ut privatum. Et damnatus tuli rein 
earn requo-animo. Et prsestiti haec, cum-essem barbarus, et Grsecse 
discipiinae ineruditus. Et neque decantavi Homerum, ut hie ; neque 
eruditus/tti sub Aristotele sophista, utpote, usus sola bona natura. 
— Hec sunt ea, in-qnibus dico ego me esse praestantiorem Alexan- 
dre Si vero hie est ornatior, quod vinctum-erat caput diademate 
(forsan quidem et hxc honesta.szm£Macedonibus)non tamen prop- 
ter hoc debet videri melior generoso, et imperatorio viro, qui 115ns- 
est ingenio magis quam for tuna. Min. Hie sane pr© -se habuit 
crationem minime instrenuam, neque ut verisimile 'erat Lihv- 
cum habiturum. Tu vero, 6 Alexander, quid dicis ad hctc ? Ale::, 
Oporteret quidem, 6 Minos, ml dicere contra virum adeo strenuum : 
nam vel fama sufficit ad te docendiun, quantns quidem ego rex, 
quantus vero hie latro fait. Advertere tamen, an paululo etim 
superaverim, qui, cum-essem adhuc adolescent, re^gerendas aggjees- 
sus et cohibui (i. e. pacavi) tnrbatum regnum, et ukus-sum patris 
percussores, perterrefacta Grsecia. Thebanorum clade. Et, electus 
dux ab iisdem Grcscix civitatibus, non dignum-putavi me, prote- 
gentem imperium Macedonum, contentuir.-esse imperare ih tan- 
tum regionibus quotquot "pater metis reliquerat ; sed, animo occupans 
totum orbem, et grave putans, ni subjugarem omnia, invasi Asiam 

E 2 



, 



18 

paucos ducens, et vici magna pugna ad Granicum, Et capta 
Lydia, Ioniaque, et Phrygia, et, in summa, subactis qucecunque 
.trant ante pedes ft. c. abviaj veni ad Issum, ubi Darius, ducens 
multas myriadas copiarum, expectabat. Et post hoc, 6 Minos, 
nostis vos, quam multos mortuos ad-vos demiserim imo die. 
Portitor ideo dicit, scapham tunc non suftecisse illis, sedplerosque 
eorum, constructis ratibus-tumultuariis ft. e. utcunque factis) 
transfretasse. Et gessi has res ipse primus.periclitans, et deco- 
rum putans vtilnerari. Et, ne enarrem tibi aut Tyri aut Arbelis 
gesta, veni porro usque-ad Indos, et feci Oceanum terminum im- 
perii, et elephantes eorum cepi, et Porum subjugavi. Et, trajecto 
Tanai, Scythas, viros non contemnendos, devici magno equestri 
proelio. Et benefeci amicis, et ultus-sum hostes. Si vero visus- 
sum hominibus etiam Deus, ignoscendi sunt illi vel tale quiddam 
de me credentes propter magnitudinem rerum a me gestarum. 
Denique vero, mortuus-sum ego rex ; hie vero in fuga apud 
Prusiam Bithynum,ut par erat, versutissimum et crudelissimum 
obire. Omitto vero dicere quomodo superavit Italos ; quod non 
viribus, sed malitia, et perfidia, et dolis. Prtestitit vero nil legiti- 
mum aut apertum. Quoniam vero exprobravit mihi delicias, vide- 
tur mihi oblitus-esse eorum qua; egit Capuae, versans cum mere- 
tricibus, et admirabilis ille, conterens-voluptatibus belli opportuni- 
tates. Ego vero, nisi, parva ratus Occidentalia, Orientem potius 
nvaderem, quid magni praestitissem, capta Italia sine sanguine, 
jet subjugata Libya, et regionibus iis usque-ad Gades ? Sed ilia jam 
formidantia, et confitentia me dominum, non visa-sunt mihi 

bello-digna. Dixi. Tu vero, 6 Minos, judica. Nam vel hxc e 

multis sufficiunt. Scip. Ne judices, nisi prius audiveris et me. 
Min. Quis vero es tu, 6 bone ? Aut unde existens fi. e. unde oriim- 
dus) verba-facis ? Scip. Scipio sum Italus inperator, qui cepi Car- 
thaginem, et Afros subegi magnis proeliis. Min. Quid igitur dicis 
et tu : Scip. Inferiorem quidem me esse Alexandro, praestan- 
tiorem vero Annibale ; qui persecutus sum eundem victum et tur- 
piter fugere-coactum. Quomode ergo hie non sit impudens, qui 
certat cum Alexandro, cui ne-vel ego Scipio, qui ipsum vici Anni- 
ba!em 3 comparari dignum-censeo. Min. iEqua dicis, per Jovem, 
6 Scipio. Quare Alexander qusdem judicatur primus ; tu vero post 
lUTif delude tertius Annibal, si videtur; nee ipse comtemnendus. 



DIALOGUS XIX. 

DIOGENIS ET ALEXANDRI. 

Diog. QUID hoc, 6 Alexander? Tune etiam mortuus es, 
sicut nos omnes? Alex, Vides, 6 Diogenes, ita rem esse: non 



m 

vero minim, si, homo cum essem, mortuus sim. Diog. Ammon 
ergo mentitus-est, dicens te esse ipsins filium ; tu vero eras fAius 
Philippi. Alex. Philippi procul-dubio. Non enim mortuus- 
fuissem, si essem Ammonis. Dtog. Et sane multa ejusmodi 
dicebantur etiam de matre tua Olympiade ; nempe Draconem ha- 
buisse consuetudinem cwmea, et visum-fuisse in ejus lecto : deinde 
te eo-modo natum-fuisse : Philippum vero fuisse-deceptum, opinan- 
tem se esse patrem tuum. Alex. Audivi haec et ipse, sicut 
tu. Nunc autem video, quod neque mater, neque vates 
Ammonii dixere quid sanum, ( i. e. verumj. Diog. At, 6 Alex- 
ander, mendacium eorum fuit non inutile tibi ad res gerendas. 
Multi enim, existirnantes te esse Deum, formidabant. Sed die 
mihi, cuinam reliquisti tantum imperium ? Alex. Nescio, 6 
Diogenes ; non enim prseoccupavi statuere aliquid de eo, nisi hoc 
solum, quod moriens dedi annulum Perdiccae. Sed quid rides, 6 
Diogenes ? Diog. Quid aliud quam recordarer ea quae Graeci 
faciebant, adulantes tibi nuper adepto imperium, et eligentes te 
defensorem (i. e. patronumj et imperatorem contra barbaros ; 
quidam vero adscribentes te duodecim Diis, et extruentes templa, 
et sacriiicantes quasi Draconis filio. Sed die mihi, ubmam Mace- 
dones te sepeliverunt ? Alex. Jaceo adhuc in Babylone tertium 
hunc diem. Ptolemaeus vero satelies meus pollicetur, si quando 
egerit otium a tumultibus nunc ante pedes (i. e qui nunc in mora 
sunt eij se me iniEgyptum abductum ibi sepulturum, ut unus fiam 
ex zEgyptiis Diis. Diog. Nonne risero, 6 Alexander, videns te 
eiiamnum apud inferos delirentem, et sperantem, fieri Annubim, 
vel Osirim ? Sed ne speres haec, 6 divinissime : non enim fas est 
quern quam eorum, rwz'semel transnavigarunt paludem, et pervene- 
runt intra ostium orci, reverti in <vitam. Non enim est negligens 
iEacus, nee contemnendus Cerberus. Libenter vero discerem 
illud ex te, quoniodo fers, quoties reputas, quantam apud superos 
fcelicitatem relinquens hue venisti ; nempe, corporis custodes, et 
satellites, et satrapas, et tantum auri, et gentes adorantes, et 
Babylonem, et Bactra, et magnas belluas, et honorem, et gloriam, 
et insignem esse agitantem curium, vinctum caput vitta Candida, 
et purpura substrictum. Nonne hsec subeuntia memoriam con- 
tristant te ? Qjiid lachrymaris, 6 vane ? Nonne sapiens ille Aristo- 
teles docuit te hoc, scil. non firma putare ea quae sunt a fortuna. 
Alex. Illene sapiens, qui erat adulatorum omnium perditissi- 
mus ? Sine me solum scire facta Aristotelis ; quam multa a me 
petierit, quae vero ad me scripserit; ut vero abusus fuerit ambi- 
tione mea erga eruditionem, assentans, et laudans, nunc quidem 
propter formam, quasi esset et haec pars aliqua Boni ; nunc vero 
propter res gestas et divitias. Putabat etenim rursus et has esse 
bonas, ut et ipse accipiens eas non erubesceret; praestigiator, 6 
Diogenes, homo, et artifex ! At vero hunc fructum-percepi ex 
ejus sapientia, scil. discruciari propter ilia quae paulo ante enume- 
rasti, ut propter maxima bona. Diog. Sed nostin' quidfacies? 



2p 

Suggeram enim tibi remedium doloris. Quando heileborus non 
hie nascitur, tu taraen saltern, ore inhiante hauriens aquam Leth- 
es, bibe, et rursus bibe, et saepius ; ita enim desines discruciari de 
bonis Aristotelicis: video enim et CHtum ilium, et Callisthe- 
nem, et alios multos irruentes in te, ut diseerpant, et ulciscantur 
te ob ca quze perpetrasti in ipsos. Quare ito tu alia hac via, et 
bibe saepius, ut dixi. 



DIALOGUS XX. 

ALEXANDP,! ET PHILIPPI. 

Phil. NON potes quidem, 6 Alexander, nunc inficiari te 
esse meum fjlium : non enim mortuusi'uisses, Ammonis si esses. 
Alex. Nee ignorabam ipse, 6 pa'er, quod eram rllius Philippi 
filii Amyivis; sed accepi vaticinium, urpote existimans idem esse 
mile ad res gerendas. Phil. Quid ais? Utilene tibi videbatur 
prrebere te failendum a vatibus? Alex. Non hoc volui sed bar- 
bari, inquam, perculsi-stupebant me, et nemo jam obstabat, quod 
opinarentur se cmn Deo pugnare ; quapropter faeilius superavi 
eos. Phil. Quosnam pugnu dignos viros vicisti tu, qui semper 
conflixisti cum timidis, prretendtiV-ibus arculos, et parmulas, et 
gerras saJignas ? Superare Grxcos, Boeotios, nempe> et Phocenses, et 
Athenienses, erat opu3 prceclarum. Prxterea subigere Arcadum 
armaturam gravem, et equitatum Thessalurn, et jaculatores Eleo- 
rum et parmularios Mantineorurp. ; aut Thracas, aut Ilbrios, aut 
etiam Pseonas; hxc inquam, magna fuere. Nonne vero nosti, 
quomodo vel decern millia hominum ascendentes ante te cum duce 
Clearcho superarunt Medos, et Persac, et Chaldxos, et homines 
iilos auro ornatos, mollesque ; neque illos sustinentes venire ad 
manus (i. e. conjligerej, sed fugientes priusquam sagitta ad eos> 
pertingeret. Alex. At Scythx, 6 pater, et lndorum elephantes 
Jltere opus quoddam non contemnendum. Et simui devici eos, 
non ipsos dividendo, neque per proditiones victorias emendo. Nee 
pejeravi unquam, aut pollicitus aliquid fidem-solvi, aut egj perfi- 
dum quid vincendi gratia. Et, quo ad Graecos, recepi quidem 
quosdam ex iis sine sanguine. Forsan vero audisti quomodo 
ultus-sum Thebanos. Phil. Novi hsc omnia; Clitus enim mm- 
ciavit mihi, quern tu inter ccenandum hasta transfossum interfe- 
cisti, quod ansus-esset laudibus extoilere me prae tuis rebus gestis. 
Tu vero, abjecta chlamyde Macedonica, Candyn, ut vocant, 
induisti, et tiaram rectam imposuisti, et a Macedonibus 
liberis viris adorari postulasti. Et, quod est omnium maxime- 
ridiculum, imitatus es mores subactorum. Omitto enim dicere 
quam-multa alia patrasti, includens viros eruditos cum leonibus, 



21 

cr celebrans tales (i. e. tamfosdasj nuptias, et deperiens Hephasg- 
tionem. Cum-audirem bxc, laudavi unura solummodo ?:empe, quod 
abstinuisti ab uxore Darii pulchra existente, et curam-adhibuisti 
roatris et filiarum ejus. Hxc etenim sunt regia. Alex. Non- 
ne vera Iaudas, 6 pater, meam periculorum appetentiam, et me 
primum desiliisse intra moenia apud Oxydracas, et accepisse tot 
vulnera? Phil. Non laudo hoc, 6 Alexander ; haud quia non 
puto esse decorum, vel regem aliquando etiam vulnerari, et peri- 
clitantem praeire exercitum ; sed quod tale J "acinus minime tibi 
profuit. Creditus enim esse Deus, si-quando vulnerareris, et 
homines viderent in-morem-oneris exportatum e proelio, sanguine 
manantem, et gementem propter vulnus; haec, inquam, essent 
ludibrio spectantibus, et Amnion argueretur prxstigiator, et men- 
dax vates, prophetreque ejus adulatores. Aut (si banc rem hoc 
vwdo consideresj quis non riderer, videns Jovis nlium animo deti- 
cientem et medicorum ope esse indigentem ? Nunc etenim, cum 
jam moriuus sis, nonne putas multos esse qui carpant prsetextum 
istum, cum videant cadaver Dei porrectim jacens, putrescens 
jam et tumefactum in morera corporum omnium? Aliterque 
consiuerando, 6 Alexander, etiam utile illud, ut vocasti, nempe, te, 
per hoc fit e.fictionem) facile vincere ; illud, inquam, ip&um abstu- 
lit tibi muitum glorias rerum bene gestarum. Quodque enim tuum 
mentor abittf acinus videbatur minutius, a Deo fieri visum. Alex. 
Non hxc putant homines de me, sed statuunt me aemulum Her- 
culi et Baccho. Et quidem solus ego superavi Aornum illam, 
cuam neuter illorum ccpit. Phil. Viden', ut hax dicas, quasi 
Ammonis filius ? qui comparas teipsum Herculi et Baccho; et 
non erubescis, 6 Alexander, nee dedisces arrogantiam, et nosces 
teipsum, et sapie s jam mortuus. 



D1ALOGUS XXI. 

ACKILLIS ET ANTILOCHI. 

Ant. QUALIA, 6 Achilles, nuper dicta- sunt d te Ulyssi de 
morte ? Quam ignava, et indigna ambobus tuts prseceptoribus, 
Chirone et Phcemce ? Auscnltabam enim, cum diceres, te velle 
colonum mercede-servire apud aliquem e pauperibus, cui multus 
non suppelat victus, potiiis quam mortuus omnibus imperare. Hsec 
diceredeceret quidem forsan Phrygem aliquem abjectum, timidum, 
et ultra pulchre se habens (i. e. prccter bonestumj vitie amantem. 
Magnum verd est dedecus, et contrarietas rebus a-te gestis in vita, 
te nlium Pelei, heroum omnium periculorum-appetentissimum, 
cogitare humilia aded de sese: qui, cum-liceret longzevum inglorie 
regnare in Phthiotide, lubens praetulisti mortem cum bona fama. 
Achil. At, 6 Nestoris fili, cum essem tunc quidem adhuc impe- 



22 

ritus eorum qua hie sunt, et ignarus, utrum illorum ( gloria sell, an 
vita J esset prsestantius, prseposui infoelicem illam gloriolam vitx. 
Nunc vero intelligo tandem, quam quidem inutilis ilia sit. Et, 
etiamsi superi homines quam maxime decantabunt^esta iriea, sequa- 
lis tamen honos est apud inferos. Et, 6 Antiloche, nee pulchri- 
tude- ista, neque robur adest; sed jacemus omnes sub eadem cali- 
gine, similes, et differentes alii-ab aliis in re nulla. Et nee Tro- 
janorum umbrae me formidant, neque Graecorum officiose colunt: 
mera vero est hie aequalitas, et morruus similis est mortuo, sivc 
ign&vus faerit sive strenuus. Haec discruciant me ; atque ideo gra- 
vor, quod non mercede-servio, vivens, (i. e. in vita J. Ant. 
Quid agat tamen quispiam, 6 Achilles ? Ita enim visum-est natu- 
rae, seil. omnes omnino mori. Quare oportet te legi acquiescere, et 
non discruciari statutis. Et praeterea, videsne quot sociorum tuo- 
rum sumus hie circa te ? paulo post veroet Ulysses in-totum descen- 
det. Fertautem solatium velreisocietas, atque illud (nempej ipsum 
te non solum pati. Viden' Herculem, et Meleagrum, aliosque ad- 
mirabiles viros, qui, non opinor, acciperent reditum, si quis remit- 
teret eos in vitam mercede-servituros pauperibus et victu-egentibus 
viris ? Achil. Consilium quidem tuum est am t cum. Memoria 
vero eorum qua aguntur in vita, nescio quomodo, discruciat me et 
quemque, opinor vestrum. Si vero non confitemini, estis hoc pe- 
jores, per silentium (i. e. seeretb) patientes idem quod ego. Ant. 
Non; sed meliores, 6 Achilles: videmus enim inutilitatem loquen- 
di. Datum vero est nobis silere, et ferre, et tolerare, ne optantes 
talia nos etiam debeamus risum (i.e. derideamur et nosj sicut tu. 



DIALOGUS XXII. 

MENIPPI ET TANTALI. 

Men. QUID fies, 6 Tantale, aut cur, stans ad lacum, teipsum 
deploras ? Tant. Qia , 6 Menippe, enectus sum siti. Men. 
Adeone piger es, ut incumbens non bibas, aut etiam, per Jovem, 
hauriens aquain cava mann. Tant. Nullum esset commodum, 
si incumberem ; aqua enim fugit, postquam senserit me appropin- 
quantem. Si vero aliquando etiam hauriam, et adinoveam earn ori, 
non praeoccupo madefaciens (i e. non prius, she sat cito madefa- 
cioj summum labrum, et aqua per digitos perfluens, nescio quomo- 
do, relinquit rursus manum siccam. Men. Patens, 6 Tantale, 
prodigiosum quiddam. Sed die mihi, quid indiges potu ? non 
enimhabes corpus ; sed illud quidem, quod potuit esurire et sitire, 
sepultum est alicubi in Lydia. Tu vero anima quomodo adhuc 
aut sitias, aut bibas ? Tant. Hoc ipsum est suppiicium, animam 
meam sitire, cmasi esset corpus. Men. Sed hoc ita esse credamus, 



23 

quoniam dicis te siti pnniri, Quid vero itaque dirum tibi erit ft. 
t. eveniet? ) Num metuis ne moriaris inopia potus ? Non enim 
video alium orcum post hunc, aut obitum hinc in alium locum. 
Tat;t. Recte sane dicis. Et hoc igitur est pars condemnationis, 
nempe, me, nil indigentem, cupidum-ta?wew-esse bibendi. Men. 
Deliras, 6 Tantale ; et, per Jovem, videris revera indigere potn, 
nempe, rnero (i. e. immixtoj helleboro, qui pateris quiddam diver- 
sum ab iis qui a canibus rabiosis morsi-sunt, formidans non aquam, 
sed silim. Tant. Nee helleborum recuso bibere, 6 Menippe, 
detur mihi modo. Men. Bono sis animo, 6 Tantale. Certc 
scito, quod neque tu, neque alius mortuorum bibit ; est enim 
impossible ; quanquam non omnes, sicut tu, sitiunt ex condemns*' 
tione, aqua eos non expectante. 



DIALOGUS XXIII. 

MENIPPI ET iEACI. 

Men. EXPONE mihi, per Plutonem, 6 j£ace, omnia in orco, 
^Eac. Non facile, 6 Menippe, omnia. Accipe autem quotquot 
percapita-cognoscenda-swz*. Hicquidem, quod Cerberus est, nosti ? 
et adveniens jam vidisti portitorem hunc, qui trajecit te, et lacum, 
et Pyriphlegethontem. Men. Novi hxc, et te, quod jamiam 
custodis. Vidi etiam regem, et Furias. Ostende vero mini homi- 
nes anliquos, et praxipue eorum illustres. /Eax. Hie quidem est 
Agamemnon, hie Achilles, hie Idomeneus juxta eum. Postea 
Ulysses, deinde Ajax, et Diomedes, et Gr^corum optimates. 
Men. Pap?e, Homere ! Qualia tibi rhapscdiarum capita projecta- 
sunt humi, incognita, et informia, cinis omnia, et merss nugse, 
Capita re vera. Caduca. Quisnam vero, 6 iEace, est hie ? 
/Eac. Cyrus est. Hie vero Croesus ; hie ultra eum Sardanapalus ? 
hie ultra hos Midas ; ille vero Xerxes. M en. Tene igitur, 6 sceleste, 
exhorruit Grcsciaponte-jungentem Hellespontum, afFectantem vero 
navigare per rncntes ? — Qualis vero est et Croesus ! Sardanapalum 
autem, 6 ^ace, permkte mihi in malam percutere. ^Eac. Ne- 
quaquam ; franges enim cranium ejus, muliebre cum sit. Men. 
Ergo amplexabortarnen eum, cum-sit omnino semi-focmina. ^ac. 
Visne vero ostendam tibi et philosophos ? Men. Ita, per Jovem. 
Iac. Primus hie tibi est Pythagoras. Men. Salve, 6 Euphorbe, 
vel Apollo, vel quicquid vis. Pyth. Ita ; et tu quoque, 6 Menippe. 
Mem. Annon adhuc est tibi aureum illud femur ? Pyth. Non. 
Sed age, videam, num pera tna habeat quid edule. Men. Habet, 
6 bone, fabas ; ita ut hoc non sit tibi edule. Pyth. Da modo; 
alia sunt apud roortuos dogmata, ^fam enim didici, quod fab?e et 
testicuii parent nm, htc saltern, nil sint simile, she, non sintidem* 



24 

iEAC Hie autem est Solon fdius Execestidis, et ille Thales ; et 
juxta ipsos Pittacus, et c^eteri sapientcs. Sunt vero omnes septem, 
ut vides. Men. Hi, 6 ^Eace, soli aliorum la:ti sunt, et alacrcs. Quis 
vero est illecinere oppletus, quasi pariis subcineritius, ille qui totus 
pullulavit pustulis ? ^Eac. Empedocles, 6 Menippe, qui ab >£tna 
adest semiustus. Men. Quid passus (i. e. qua. causa motusj, 6 
seripes optime, injecisti teipsum in crateras ? Em p. Insania q use- 
dam, 6 Menippe, adegit me. Men. Non, per Jovem, sed vana 
gloria, etfastus, et gravedo pktrima (i. e. stuititia :) Hxc, inquam, 
combusserunt te cum ipsis crepidis tuis; indigmim, ut eras. Ve- 
runtamen commentum illnd non profuit tibi ; nam deprehensus es 
mortuus. — Ubinam vero, 6 j£ace, est Socrates ? iiL\c. Ille nugatur 
plerumque cum Nestore et Palamede. Men. Vellem tamen vi- 
dere ipsum, si hie sit alicubi. JEac. Viden' calvum ilium? Men. 
Sunt omnes calvi ; ita-ut hoc esset-omnium nota. Mac. Simum 
ilium dico. Men. Est ethoc idem : sunt enim omnes simi. Socr. 
Mene quseris, 6 Menippe ? Men. Maxime, 6 Socrates. Socr. 
Quomodo res se habent A then is? Men. Multi Juniorum profi- 
tentur philosophari : et certe plurimi eorum sunt summi philosophi, 
si quis spectet ipscs tantum habitus, et irxessus-eorum. £hio-ad 
csetera autem — Vidisti, opinor, qualis ad te venerit Aristippus, et 
Plato ipse ; alter quidem unguentum spiralis, alter vero doctus 
tyrannos colere in Sicilia. Socr. Quid vero sentiunt de me ? 
Men. O Socrates, beatus es homo quoad tolia. (i. e.fama beatus 
esj. Omnes itaque existimant fuisse te admirabilem virum, et no- 
visse hsec omnia (opoi-et enim, opinor, verum dicere) nil interim 
scientem. Socr. Dixi et ipse hsec iis ; illi vero putabant rem 
esse praetextum . Men. Quinam vero sunt hi circa te ? Socr. Char- 
mides, 6 Menippe, et Phsedrus, et ille Cliniae^/iwj. Men. Euge, 
6 Socrates, qucniam hie etiam exerces artem tuam, et pulchros 
ncn despicis. Socr. Quid enim aliud suavius agerem ? — Sed ac- 
cumbito prcpe nos, si videtur. Men. Non, per Jovem ; abeo enim 
ad Crcesum et Sardanapalum prope ipsos habitaturus ; videor enim 
mihi non pauhilum risurus audiens illos plorantes. ^ac. Et ego 
jam abeo, ne quis mortuorum lateat nos eftugiens. Alias vero, 6 
'Menippe, videbis pleraque virfenda. Men. Abito. Hsec etenim, 
6 iEace, sufiiciunt. 



DIALOGUS XXIV. 

MENIPPI et cerberi. 

Men. O Cerbere, (sum enim tibi cognatus, cum-sim et ipse 
canis) die mihi, per Stygem, qualis evat Socrates, cum descende- 
ret ad ves ? Par est emm te Deum non solum latrare, sed etiam 



25 



humanum sonare, cum veils. Ceub. Procul quidem, 6 Menippe, 
omnibus apparebat accedere vultu immoto, et non omnino mortem 
fprmidare visus, et vclens indicare hoc stantibus extra ostium. 
postquam vero indinavir, intra hiatum, et vidit caliginem, et ego 
cicuta mordens ipsum jam cimctantem pede detraxi, turn ejulabat 
ut solent infantes, et deplorabat liberss suos, et fiebat omnigenus 
(i. e. versabat se in omnes partes. J Men. Homo igitur sophista 
fuit, et non vere rem contemnebat ? Cerb. Non <vcre ; sed, post- 
quam id necessarium vidit, confirm ab at ur 3 quasi quidem non invi- 
tus passurus quod omnino necesse tr&tzpsmn pati : ethoc, ut specta- 
tors eum admirarentur. Et universe dicere possum de omnibus 
talibus, quod sunt audaces et fortes usque ad orci fauces ; qu<e vero 
sunt ^intuscertissimum^/?* indicium, an suit vere fortes. Men. E&o 
vero quomodo visus sum tibi descendisse ? Cerb. Solus, 6 Menipp$, 
dignus genere (i.e. mqgnanimiler ;-J et Diogenes ante te ; quia 
intrastis non coacti, nee protrusi, sed spontanei ; ridentes, et re- 
mmciantes omnibus Plorase. 



DIALOGUS XXV. 

CHARONTIS ET MENIPPI* 

Char. REDDE portoria, 6 sceleste. Men. Vocif^ra-e 6 
Charon, si hoc est tibi jucundius. Char. Redde, inquam Porto 
ria, pro quibus transvexi te. Men, Non aceipere Potes Tnon 
habente. Char. Estne vero ahquis non habens oboluni ? Men Non 
quidem novi, an sit etiam alius qiuspiam: ego vero non habeo 
Char, At, per Plutonem pnefocabo te, 6 impure, nisi reddideW 
Men. Et ego, hoc baculo feriens, frangam tibi caput. Char* 
Tune igitur gratis navigaveris tantum trajectum ? Men Sclvat 
tibi pro me Mercurius, qui me tibi tradidit. Mer. per Jovem 
multum lucrarer, si, prater alios lahurcs meos, futurus-sum -etiam 
solvere portoria pro mortuis. Char. Non absistam a te Men 
Igitur, subducto navigio, permaneto hie, hujus rei (i e we reti 
nencnj gratia.— Sed quomodo accipias quod non habeo » Char Tu" 
vero nonne ndsti, quod oportebat afferre > Men. Novi ouidem - 
non autem habui Quid ergo ? Opportuitne me, propter hoc, non 
mon ? Char Solusne ergo gloriabere gratis trarrsfretasse Men 
Non gratis, o bone ? exhausi enim sentinam, et remum ampul' 
et unus e ceteris vectoribus non flebam. Char. Nil h*c suniZl 
portona. Oponet te obolum reddere ; non enim fas est ali^r fieri 
Men. Abducito ergo me rursus in vital* Char. BelP dicis'tiT 
ob hoc, etiam plagas accipiam ab ^aco. Men. Ne enro turbo? 
cieto Char. Ostende quid habes in pera. Men. Jfup nos I 
vis, et Hecates ccenam. Char. Unde Alercuri, adduxildnobis 



26 

canem hunc ? Qualia vero lcquebatur etiam in trajectu, vectores 
omr.es deridens, et velllcans, et unus cantillans, ploramibiis illis ? 
Men. An ignoras, 6 Charon, quaiem transvexisti virurr. ? oninino 
liberum, et cui nil est curie. Hie est Menippus tile. Char. At- 
qui si unquam te cepero — Men. Si ceperis, 6 bone — bis vero 
non capies. 



DIALOGUS XXVI. 

DIOGENIS ET MAUSOLI 

Diog. QUA cle re, 6 Car, magna-cogitas fi. e. animum infla- 
fuses J et dignaris praeponi nobis omnibus? Maus. Vel propter 
regnum, 6 Sinopensis ; qui quidem rex-fui totius Caria>, imperavi 
vero Lydis etiam quibusdam, et insulas quasdam subegi, et pro- 
gressus sum usque-ad Miletum, subversis plerisque Ionise partibus. 
%t pulcher eram, et amplus, et in bellis valgus. Hoc vero est 
maximum, quod in Halicarnasso habeo monumentum perquam 
magnum in me impositum, quantum non alius mortuus, et neque 
adeo elaboratum ad pulchritudinem ; equis et viris ad absolucissi- 
vcmltci formam expressis e mannore pulcherrimo ? quale ne vel tern- 
plum aliquis facile inveniat. Nonne tibi videor jure magna-co- 
gitare sive efferri, propter haec ? Diog. Propter regnum, ais, et 
pulchritudinem, et sepulchri molem. Maus. Per Jovem, propter 
hare Diog. Atqui, 6 pulcher Mausole, neque vires illae amplius 
tibi adsunt, neque forma. Si itaque eligeremus aliquem venusta- 
tis nostra arbitrum, non possum dicere, quare tua calvaria prsefe- 
ratur mese. Ambx enim sunt calvae, et nudae, et pariter dentes cs- 
tendimus, et orbati-sumus oculis, et simi-facti naribus. Fort-asse 
quidem sepulchrum illud, et sumptuosa ilia saxa possint esse-usui 
Halicarnasseis ad ostentandum, et gloriose-jactandum apnd hos- 
pites, i:er< p2. cum ostendant, quam magnincum sit ipsis aedificium : 
non video autem, 6 bone, quid tuex-eo fruaris, nisi hoc dicas, quod 
pressus sub tantis saxis fers onus niagis ft. e. majusj quam nos. 
Maus Fuerintne ergo ilia omnia stolida fi. e. inania) mini, et 
eritne Diogenes honore par Mausolo ? Diog. Non par, 6 nofeil- 
issime ; Mausolus enim plorabit recordatus terrestria, in quibus 
existimabat se esse beatum. Diogenes vero deridebit eum. Et 
alter quidem, scil. Mausolus, memorabit sepulchrum suum extruc- I 
turn ab Artemisia uxore et sorore sua : Diogenes vero non novit 
quidem, an habeat quod corporis sepulchrum, neque enim cura- 
erat ipsi hujus. At, 6 Carum abjectissime, functus vita viri reli- I 
quit cipud pra;stantissimos famam de se excelsiorem, et in firmiori I 
loco fi. e.fundamentoj extructam quam tuum illud monumentum* 



27 

DIALOGUS XXVII, 

NIREI, THERSITyE ET MENIPPl 

Nir. EN sane, Menippus hie dijudicabit, nter nostrum est 
formosior. Die, 6 Menippe, nonne videor tibi pulchrior ? Men. 
Quinarn vero estis ? Oporet enim, opinor, hoc prids scire. NiR. 
K ire us et Thersites. Men. Uter igitujf Nireus, et uter Thersites ? 
Nondum enim wel hec manifestum. Tkers. Jam quidem obiinui 
hoc unum, quod sum tibi similis, et non tantum differs, quantum 
caucus is^e Homerus te extullt, appellans omnium formosissinutm. 
At ego, ille capite-acuto, et glabra, apparui j&m judici nil deterior 
te. Tempus vero est tibi, 6 Menippe, dicere, utrum existimes for- 
mosiorem. Nir Me sa?ie fiiium Aglaia? et Charopis, qui vent 
pulcberrimus sub (i. e. ad) Ilium. Men. At non venisti pul- 
chernmus, ut opinor, etiam sub terram. Sed ossa quidem nostra 
simi-.ia sunt ; calvaria vero tua dignosci potest hoc solum modo a 
Thersitae calvaria, quod tua est fragilis : habes enim mclliculam 
earn, et neutiquam virilem. Nir. At vero roga Homerum, qualis 
eram cum Gratis commilitarem. Men. Somnia mihi narras. 
Ego vero i?stimo qua: video, et nunc pos&ides: qui autem tunc «£- 
vebant norunt ilia, dux tu nunc j act as. Nir. Nonne ergo ego, 6 
Menippe, sum hie formosior. Men. Neque es tu, neqne alius 
formosus. Aqualitas enirn est apud inferos, et pares sunt omnes. 
Thers. vel hoc quidem mihi sufticit. 



DIALOGUS XXVIII. 

MENIPPl ET CHIRONIS. 

Men. AUDIVI, 6 Chiron, quod, cirrh-esses Den?, cupiebas 
tamen olrvfi. Chir. Audisti h^c vera. 6 Menippe. Et mortuus 
sum, ut vides, cum-potuerim esse immortaiis. Men. Qirinam ver^ 
te mortis amor occupavit, ruipf-e rei plertsque inamabi'lis ? Chir. 
Dicam id apud te, quum sis non imprudens. Non erat amplius 
viiki jucundum immortalita^e frui. Me v. Nonne erat jucundum 
^ viventem tueri lucem? Chir. Non, 6 Menippe: Ego emiri 
duco Jucundum illud, ut vocatv.r, esse varium quiddam, et non 
simplex. Ego vero vivens perpetuo, et fruens iisdem, nempe, sMe, 
luce, c.ibo (tempesta*es vero ipsse, et omnia contingentia, ordi-»e 
singula, quasi succedebant alia aliis) satiatus-sum e?go iis. Jucun- 
ui m enim prorsus erat non in semper eodem, sed etiam in per- 
mutando. Men. I>ene dicis, 6 Chiron. Quomodo vero fers ea 



fttte apiul ir Seres furt, ex quo, iis prrelatis, hue venisti ? Chir. 
2\ T on insuaviter, 6 Minippe ? cqualitas enim est prorsus popularis, 
et res habet nil diiFeremi*, esse in luce, vel in tenebris. Et pre- 
Krea, nee sitire necesse es% ut apud superos, neque es urire ; scd 
siimtfs horum omnium nonindigi. Men. Vide, 6 Chiron, ne con- 
tradieas tibi-ipsi, et oratio tua redeat eodem. Chip., Quomodo 
hocdicis? Men. Dicobnc, quia, si perpctua similitudo er iden- 
litas rerum in v.i'ca fiebant tibi causa fastidii, similia etiam hie ex- 
istentia similiter fient causa-f:istid;i, oportebit te qurcrcre pernui- 
tationem quandam exhinc etfam in aliam vitam ; quod, op in or, 
est impossibile Chir. Quid igitur agat acquis, 6 Menippe ? Men. 
Quod ego opinor, et alii dicunt ; riempe, oporttre, prudentem ac- 
tpiiescere, et contcntum esse ptxsentibus, et putare nil eorum in- 
tolerable 



DIALOGUS XXIX. 
DXOGEKIS, antistiienis, et cratetis. 

Diog. OTIUM mine agimus, Antisthencs et Crates: quare 
cur non obambulaturi abimus recta versus orci descensum, visuri 
descendentes, quales, :iempe, sunt, et quid qui s que eorum agat? 
Ant. Abeamus, 6 Diogenes. Frit enim jucundum spectaculum 
videre alios eorum lacrymantes, alios vcrd ut-dimittantur, snppli- 
cantes; quosdam autem scgre descendentes, et, Mercurio e r :s in 
cervicem impellente, relucta.ntes tamen, et supinos contra-nitentes, 
r.ulla necessitate, (i. e.frustra.J Crat. Ego itaque etiam nar- 
rabo vobis, qua: vidi in via, cum descenderem. Diog. Narra, 6 
Crates; videris enim dicuirus qu^cdam prorsus ridicula. Crat. 
Descendebant quidem et alii plurimi nobiscum ; inter eos vero 
illustres quidam, nempe, et Ismenodorus dives ille nostras, et Arsa- 
ces prsefectus Mediae, et Orcetes Armenius. Ismenodorus igitur 
(occisus enim fuerat alatronibus circa Cithseronem, dum-proticis- 
ceretur, opinor, Eleusinem) et gemebat, et habuit vulnus in mani- 
bus, et inclamabat liberos nuper natos quos reliquerat, et incusa- 
bat seaudacise, qui, transiens Cithseronem, et iterfaciens-per loca 
circa Eleutheras bell is vastata, adduxerp.t tamen duos tantum fa- 
milies; idque, cum haberet securn quinque phialas aureas, et cym- 
bia quatuer. Arsaces vero (erat enim jam natu-grandis, et, per 
Jovem, non inhonestus facie pro barbarico, (i. e. pro barbarorum 
bominum aspectuj segrc ferebat, et indignabatur incedere pedibus, 
et volebat sibi equum adduci. Equus enim mortuus-fuerat-czmi 
ipso, ambo transfixi una plaga a Thrace quodam scutato in proelio 
ad Araxim contra Cappadocem. Arsaces enim, ut ipse narrabat, 
prorumpens longe ante alios adequitabat. Thrax vero subsistens, 
et scutum suum subiens, excutk hastam Arsacis. Hie vero 



20 

et> (nempe ThraxJ supponens sarissam transfodit ipsumqu*- 
equum. Ant. Quommodo, 6 Crates, possibile erat hoc fieri una.- 
plaga ? Crat. Facillrme, 6 Antisther.es. Hie enim (sell. Arm* 
cesj adequitabat, prsetendens contimi quendam viginti-eubitalem ; 
Thrax vero, cum excussisset plagam pelta, et cuspis prxteriisset 
ipsum, subsidens in genu excepit impetum Arsacis sarissa, et sub 
pectus vulnerat equum, transfodientem sese prse vehementia et 
impetu; trajicitur vero et Arsaces penitus in inguen usque ad na- 
tes. Vides quale hoc factum evenit: opus fuit non viri, sed poti- 
us equi. Indignabatur tamen Arsaces, quod esset, ceteris tanium 
honore-sequalis, et volebateques decendere.— Oroctes autem mrtpri- 
vatus, et prorsus pedibus tener, et non potuit stare humi, neduni 
incedere. Medi vero omnes re-vera patiuntur idem. Postquam 
descenderint ab equis, segre incedunt, veluti qui summis-peclum- 
digitis gradiuntur super spinas. Quare, cum dejiciens seipsum . 
jaceret, et vellet nullo pacto resurgere, tunc Mercurius optiinus 
tollens eum portabat usque ad cymbam : ego vero ridebam. Ant. 
Ego autem, cum descenderem, non admiscui meipsum caeteris, 
sed, relinquens plorantes illos, et accurrens ad cymbam, prseoccu- 
pavi locum, ut commode navigarem. In trajectu vero, nonnulli 
quidem et rlebant, et nauseabant : ego autem oblectabar admodum 
inter eos. Diog. Tu sane, 6 Crates, et tu Antisthenes, tales sor- 
titi-estis comites. At et Blepsias fcenerator ijl'e ex Piraeo, et 
Lampis Acarnan externorum militum-ductor, et Damis dives 
ille e Corintho, simul descendehant mecum : Damis quidem mor-- 
tuus ex veneno dato a filio ; Lampis vero jngulatus a seipso, ob 
amorem Myrtii meretricis. Miser autem Elepsias dicebatur ex- 
aruisse fame ; et ostendebat hoc, apparer.s pallidu.s supra medum, 
et ad exilissimum attenuatus. Ego vero, etsi ante noram inter- 
rogabam tamen, quomedo iriortuus-fiiisset. — Dixi dein' Damidi 
filium accusanti: " Passus es sane non injusta ab eo, qui habens 
" mille simul tulenta, et luxurians ipse jam nonager.arius, suppe- 
(l ditabas tamen quatuor tantum obolos adole.scentulo octcdecim- 
" anncnmi." — Tu vero (deinde aiebamj li 6 Acarnan (gemebat 
" enim et ille, et Mynium execrabatur) quid accusas amorem, non 
" vero teipsum ? Tu, qui nunqaam forrnidabas hestes, sed andacter 
" preeliabaris ante alios, captus-es tamen tu fortis ille a puella vul- 
" gari, et fictis lacrymis, et gemitibus !"— ^-Blepsias equidem, ipse 
prseoccupans, accusabat nimiam ipsius stultitiam, quod vanus fi. 
e. nequicquam) putans se in perpeuium victurum custodierat opes 
suas hxiedibus nil attinentibus (i. e. nullo modo sibi cognatis) — 
Sed, denique, gementes illi turn mihj przebebant voluptatem non 
modicam — At jam quidem sumus ad ostium orci. Oportet itaque 
nos prospicere et procui contemplari advenientes. Paprc ? plurimi 
quidem sunt, et varii, et lacrymantes omnes, prater nuper natos 
hosce, et infantes. Quin et prorsus senio-ccnfecii lugent. Qiiid 
hoc? Num vitae philtrum quodda^n eos tenet? Libet ergo interro- 
gare decrepitum tiimc — " Quid lacrymaris tu mortuus tarn state- 
" provectus ? Quid indignaris', 6 optime, idque, cum adveneris buQ 

G 2 



30 

"senex? NuncnVi rex eras? Men. Nequaqtiam. Diog. At 
" satrapa fqraan? Mer. Neque hoc. Diog. Num ergo dives- 
** eras, ideoqne dolet te obisse, relictis deliciis plurimis> Men. 
" Nil tale ; sed jam quidem natus-eram circiter annos nonaginta. 
" Habui vero victum inopem ex arundine et linea, egenus supra 
u modiim, et liberis carens, et claudus insuper, et aquosum intu- 
?' ens fi. e. lippiens.) Diog. Anne dein', talis cum-esses, cupie- 
" bas vivere ? Men. Etiam : Lux enim erat dulcis, mori autem 
" dirum et fugiendum. Diog. Deliras, 6 senex, et pueriliter- 
" agis in re necessaria, idque, cum-sis coaevus vel portitori. Quid 
" igitur posthac dixerit quispiam de adolescentibus, cum tarn 
" grandaevi sunt vivendi-cupidi, quos opcrtebat mortem sectari 
" tanquam malorum in senectute remedium." — Sed abeamus, ne 
quis etiam suspicetur nos quasi fugam meditantes, videns collec- 
tos circa ostium. 



DIALOGUS XXX. 

AJACIS ET AGAMEMNONIS 

Agam. SI td, 6 Ajax, furore-correptus interfecisti teipsum, 
ac membratim concidisti et nos omnes, quid accusas Ulyssem ? Et 
nuper, neque aspexisti ipsum, cum venit hue vatem-consulturus, 
nee dignatus-es alloqui virum commilitonem ac sodalem, sed fas- 
tuose et grandi incessu eum praeteriisti. Ajax. Merito, 6 Agam- 
emnon ; nam idem Hie extitit mihi causa furoris, quippe qui solus 
nnihi competitor-oppositus fuerat pro armis. Agam. Voluistine 
vero esse sine-aemulo, et absque-pulvere superare omnes? Ajax. 
Etiam, quo-ad talia ; armatura enim, cum-esset patruelis met, erat 
mihi domestica fi. e. cognatione debita.J Et vos caeteri proceres, 
multo praestantiores isto detrectastis certamen, et cessistis mihi 
certaminis praeniia. Iste vero^/n/s-Laertae, quern ego sacpe ser- 
vavi periclitantem fi. e. cum p arum abesset quinj concideretur a 
Phrygibus, voluit esse praestantior me, et magis idoneus obtinen- 
dis armis. Agam. Accusa igitur, 6 generose, Thetidem ; quae, 
cum-oporterat tibi tradere haereditatem armor um, cum esses cog- 
natus Acbilli, afferens tamen eadem in medio posuit. Ajax. 
Minim?; sed Ulyssem, qui solus aemulatus est. Agam. Venia, 
6 Ajax, ei debezur, si cum esset homo, appetivit gloriam, rem dul- 
cissimam, cujus gratia et nostrum unusquisque periclitari sustinet : 
quandoquidem etiam vicit te, et hoc apud judices Trojanos. 
Ajax. Novi ego, quae me condemnavit; sed non fas est dicere 
aliqaid de Diis. At non possum, 6 Agamemnon, non odisse Ulys- 
sem, ne quidem si ipsa mihi Minerva hoc imperet.- 



31 

DIALOGUS XXXL 

MINOIS ET SOSTRATI. 

Mix. IMMITTATUR sane Sostratus hicce latro in Pyriphle 
gethontem. Sacrilegus autem hie discerpatur a Chimsera. Iste 
vero tyrannus, 6 Mercuri, porrectus juxta Tityum arrodatur et 
ipse jecur (i. e. quo-ad jecurj a vulturibus. At vos, boni, abite 
ccius in campnm Elysium, et habitate insulas beatorum, pro iis- 
qiue justa fecistis in vita, Sost. Audi, 6 Minos, num tibi vi- 
debor justa dicere. Min. Audiainne jam denuo ? Annon, 6 
Sostrate, jam convictus-es, ut-qui sis malus, et tain multos occi- 
deris ? Sost. Convictus-sum quidem ; at vide, an juste puniar. 
Mix. Et omnino, si justum est meritum cinque rependere. Sost. 
Responde tamen mihi, 6 Minos : interrogabo eniin te br^ve quid- 
dam. Mix. Die, modd non prolixa, ut jam et alios judicemus. 
Sost. Qiixcunque egi in vita, utrum volens egi, an destinata- 
fuerant mini a Parca. Mix. A Parca proculdubio. Sost. Nonne 
igitur nos omnes, et qui videmur boni, et qui mali, agimus hacc 
illi subserv r ientes, sell. Faroe? Mix. Etiam; subservlentes Clothoi, 
quae injunxit cuique n ascent i omnia ab eo in vita agenda. Sost. Si 
igitur aliquis coactus ab alio occideret quempiam, non valens con- 
tradicere illi qui coglt, v.tpote ab eodem vi compulsus (ut, cum carni- 
fex, aut satelles, occidit aliquetn, ille quidem (nempe carnifex) ob- 
temperans judici, hie vero (sell, satelles ) (tyranno) quemnam in 
retail accusabis tu caddis ? Mix. J udiceni proculdubio, aut tyran- 
num ? quoniam non gladium ipsum : hie enim ( sell, gladlus ) sub- 
servit solummodo, enni-sit nil, nisi instrumentum ad saiiandavi iram 
illi qui primus pnebuit causam (I. e. qui necis autorfult.) Sost. 
Euge, 6 Minos, quod etiam anges argumentum meum exemplo. Si 
vero quis, hero mittente, veniat aurum afferens velargentum, utri 
habenda est gratia, aut u-er perscribendus est benefices ? Mix. 
Is-qui misit, 6 Sostrate ; qui enim attulit erat minister tantum. 
Sost. Viden' ergo, quam injnsta facias, puniens nos, qui 
fuimus ministri ta?it ihn eorum quee Clotho imperavit ; et honorans 
hos, qui bona aliena solummodo ministraruiit ,- Non enim potest 
quis illud dicere, nempe, quod possibile erat contradicere iis quae 
imperata fuere cum omni necessitate. Mix. O Sostrate, si accu- 
rate examines, videas etaliaplurima fieri non secundum rationem. 
At tu capies fructum hunc e quaestione tua ; quoniam videris esse 
non solum latro, sed et sophista quidam Solvito ipsum, 6 Mer- 
curi, et ne-amplius puniatur.— — Vide vero, ne doceas alios etiam 
Baortuos interrogare similia. 



DIALOGUS XXXII. 

MENIPPUS, SEU NECYOMANTIA. 
MENIPPUS ET PKILONIDES. 

Men. SALVE, 6 atrium, vestibulwnque domui mea. Ui lubcns 
te aspexi, progrssus in lucem — Phil. Nonne Menippus est hie, 
canis ille ? Nequaquam sane alius, nisi hallucinor ego ad Menippcs 
omnes. At quid sibi vult hese habitus novitas, pile us, scilicet, et 

lyra, et leonis-exuviac ? Accedendnm tamen ad eum. Salve, 6 

Menippe. Et unde nobis advenisti ? Non enim longo tempore 
apparuisti 'n urbe. Men. Venio relicto nianium specu, et tenebraruvi 
portis, ubi orcus incolitur prccul a Diis. Phil. O Hercules! 
Itane Menippus mortuus latuit nos (i e. clam nos obiitj et denuo 
revixit ? Men. Non ; sed orcus recepit me -adhuc spiraniem. Phil. 
Quxnam verojidt tibi causa noyse hujus et incredibilis peregrin- 
ationis ? Men. jfuventa, et plurima animi audacia me incitavit. 
Phil. Desine 6 beate, tragice ioqui, et descendens ab Iambis 
dicito simpliciter quodammodo, quxnam est vestis ilia, et quid tibi 
opus-fuit itinere inferno ? alioqui enim est ilia via quxdam nee 
jucunda fiCque grata. Men. Necessitas, 6 dileCte, dimisitme ad 
domum Ditis, consuUunnn cmimam 'fireside Thebani. Phil. Heus, 
tu ! at num deliras ? aliter enim non ita metrice-decantares apud 
homines-amicos. Men. Ne mireris, 6 amice ; nuper enim versa- 
tus cum Eurtpde et Homero, nescio quomodo, implettts-sum car- 
minibus, et rnetra veniunt spontanea mihi in cs — Sed die mibi, 
Quomodo se ha.be nt res apud superos, et quid agunt in urbe ? Phil. 
Nil novi, sed qualia aiitehae, nempe, rapiunt, pejerant, tabulis-in- 
scribunt-nomina-usuras-debentium (i. e. fanerantur ) obclos-tru- 
tinant (i. e. vili'sshmtm quodqve faciunt lucellum.) Men. O miseri 
et infelices ! non enim norunt qualia nuper rata-sunt apud inferos, 
et qualia plebiscita decreta-sunt contra divites ; qux, per Cerberum 
ut illi eiiugiant, nulla datur facultas. Phil. Quid ais ? Estne 
decretum aliquid novius ab inferis de iis-qui hie cgunt? Men. Per 
Jovem, et nuilta. Sed non fas est ea proclere apud omnes, neque 
arcana effutire, ne quis scripserit nobis dicam impietatis apud 
Rhadamanthum. Phil. Nequaquam, 6 Menippe, per Jovem, 
ne invideas sermones homini aniico. Dices enim apud metacendi 
gnarum, et prreterea apud etiam sacris-initiatum. Men. Mandas 
quidem mihi durum mandaium, et non omnino tutum. Sed au- 
dendum tarnen tri gratia, — Decretum est itaque, '* Divites hesce, 
" et opulentos, et aurum inclusum, tanquam Danaen, custodientes' — 

2. Phil. Ne prius, 6 bone, dicas qu?e decreta-sunt, quam per- 
curras ilia quae perquam libenter audirem ex te, nempe, quamam 
fuit tibi causa descensus; quis vero itineris dux : turn singula or- 
dine, et qu<e vidisti, et quae audisti apud eos. Veri-simil§ enim est 



te rerum eximiarnm studiesum nil prrctermisisse visu dignttnft ant 

auditu. Men. Parendum est tun edam in his. Quid enim quis 
faciat, cum cogat amicus : — Et primqm exponam tibi sentential!! 
meam, et unde impulsus-fui ad descensum. Fgo enim, usque 
dum inter pueros quidem esscm, audiens Homcrum et Hesiodum 
narrantes beJIa et seditiones, non. solum semideorum, sed et ipso- 
rum jam Deorum ; prxterea vero et audulreria eorum, et violen- 
tias, et rapinas, et supplicia, et patrum expulsiones, et sororum 
nuptias, exhale put abam hrec omnia pulchra esse, et non leviter 
erga eadem incitabar. Postquam vero co:pi inter viros censeri, 
hfc rursus audiebam leges jubentes poetis contraria, soil, neqne 
mccchari neque seditiones movere, reque rapinas exercere. Cou- 
stiti igitur in magna duhitatione, ncscius quomodo meipso uterer 
fi. e. quid de vie facer em.) Neque enim putabam Decs unquam 
adulteria-patrasse, et seditiones-movisse contra se-invicem, nisi 
judicarent de his tanquam pulchris ; neque legum-latores suadere 
his contraria nisi ccnserent z./conducere. 

3 .Postquam itaque dubius-hsrcrem, visum est mihi, me hosce 
adeuntem, qui philosophi vocantur, et its me ipsum in manus 
tradere, et orare eos uc uterentur itie quomodccunque vellent, et 
ostenderent mihi simplicem quandam stabilemque vitae viam. 
Ha?c quidem itaque mente-agitans adibam eos. At latui meipsum 
ruens ft. e.imprudens niebain) e finno in ipsam, lit aiunt, flam- 
man;. Apud hos enim observans plenum que inveni ignorantiam, 
et perplexitatem plurimam, ade6 ut hi mihi statim vitam idiota- 
rum apparere-facerent auream. Nam alius videlicet eorum horta- 
baturomnino voluptati-indulgere, et sequi hanc solam ex omnibus ; 
hanc etenim esse foelicitatem. Alius vero rursus continuo acci- 
nens celebres illos Hesicdi versus de virtute, et sudorem, et as- 
censum ad mantis verticem, suadebat vie semper laborare, et a% 
rumnosum-esse, et corpus subigere, scrdentem, et squalentem, et 
Omnibus morosnifj-nie-praebentem, et convitiantem. Jubebat alius 
contemnere divitias, et putare possessionem earum indifferentem. 
Alius vero rursus contra ostendebat et ipsas divitias esse Boxum 
quid. Quid vero opus est me memorare etiam de mundo? qui quo- 
tidie audiebam ab iis bujusmodi voces, nempe, ideas, et incorpoiea 3 
et atomes, et vacua, et talem quandam nominum contrariorum 
turbam ? Et quod absurdissimum erat hotutn omnium difficiliuni/K/* 
hoc, quod illorum unusquisque. loquens de maxime-contrariis, ai v e- 
rebat sermones vincentes admodum, et persuasorios, ita ut possem 
contradicere neque huic dicenti earn ipsam rem, dequaerct qiavsiio, 
esse calidam, neque illi asserenti eandem esse frigidam ; et hoc, cum 
plane scirem, quod non aliquid unquam posset esse calidum et 
frigidum eodem tempore. Plane ergo passus eram quiddam simile 
his-qui dormitant, mcdo quidem annuens, mcdo iteruin renuens. 
Hoc quod sum dicturus, est adhuc multo absurdius illis qua jam dixi, 
Observans enim, comperi ipsos hosce pbitosopbos studiost-exer- 
centes maxirae-contraria ipsorum sermonibus. Vidi itaque eos, 



34 

qui hcrtabaritur spernere divltias mordicus ipsas tenentes, et 
de fee n ore litigantes : et pro mercede docer.tes, et harum gratis 
omnia sustinentcs : et illos-qui gloriam aspernabantur, omnia ejus 
gratia studiose agentes : et prnpe onrnes rursus accusantes volup- 
tatem, privatim ver6 huic sol: deditos. — Frustratus igitur etiam 
hac spe, magis adhuc angebar, paululum tamen consolans meipsum 
quod et sruluis essem, et ignarus adhuc veri eberrarem cum mul- 
tis, et prudemibus, et magnopere propter sapientiam ceiebratis. 

4. Et placuit mini tandem, caosa hcrum pervigilanti, me Baby- 
Ionem profecium impbrare aliqnem ex Magis Zoroastri disci- 
pulis et successoribus. Aud'veram enim ipsos et portas iuferni ap- 
erire incnntamentis, et cseremeniis quisbusdam, et tute deducere 
quern vellent, et inde rursus remittere. Putavi ergo esse optimum 
factu, me paciscendo-iirpetrantem descensum ab horum quopiam, 
et ad Tiresiam Boeotium prdfectum discere ab eo, utpore vate et 
sapiente, qu<enam esse optima vita, et quam quis recte sapiens, 
eligere^. lit sane, svper ooc\ exsiliens quanta poteram celeritate 
contendi recte Babylonem. Cum vero to pervenissem, ccnvenio 
Chalda^rum quendam, sapientem virum, et arte Magum, canmn 
quidem capillos, et r/uo-advene random admodum barbam demisium 
ft. e. demtesam habens barbainj nomen vero erat ei Mithi 
zanes. Implorans autem, et supplicant, v\x impetravi ab eo mihi 
vire mdinferos dux-esse quacunque vellet rnercede. Vir aurem, me 
recepto, primo quidem, cum lima nova exorsus, lavit me per no- 
vem et viginti dies, mane deducens ad Euphratern orientem ver- 
sus sclem, et recitans longam quandam oration, m, quam non ad- 
moduin audiebam. Pronunciabat enim voluhile quiddam, et min- 
ime certum (i- e. disthictinnj sicut mali prazcones in ceriamini- 
bus (i. e. ludisj Videbatur tamen invocare Daemcnes quos- 
dam. Turn post incamationem, cum ^er inspuisset in fadem 
meam, redivit denuo, neminem occurrentiurn intueus. Et glandes 
quidem ercnt nobis cibus, potus vero lac, ct mulsum, et Cftetespis 
aqua ; lectus autem sub dio in berba. Postquam vero satis habuit 
praeparati-per diaetem, ducens me circa mediam noctem ad fiuvi- 
um Tigrem purgavitque me, abstersn, et undique purificavit face, 
et squilla, et aliis pluribus, simul et incantamentum illud submur- 
rnurans. Deinde incantans me totum, et circumiens, ne l^derer a 
spectris, reducit me domum, ita-ut eram retrogradientem : et ha- 
buimus reliquum noctis circa navigationcm. Ipre ergo indnit magi- 
cam quandam vestem similem admcdum Medicse. Adferens vero 
ornavit me hisce, pileo, r.empe, et exuviis leonis, et lyra insuper ; 
jussitque, si quis rogaret me nomen, non dicere Menippum, sed 
Herculem, aut Ulyssem, auc Orpheum. Phil. Quid ita, 6 Me- 
nippe ? Non enim intelligo causam neque habitus, neque nomi- 
num. Men Hoc sane manifestum est, et non omnino arcanum. 
Quoniam enim hi ante nos descenderunt vivi in orcum, putabat, si 
assimulasset me iiiis, facile custodias iEaci decepturum, et nulk> 



35 

proliibente transiturum, ntpote magis familiarem, cum deducerer 
tragice admodum per vestitum. 

5. Jam vero itaque lucescebat dies, et degressi ad flumen occu- 
pati fuimus circa exitum e-portu. Parata vero eram ipsi et cymba, 
et sacrincia, er m til sum, et quot alia era?2t-usu\ ad cxremoniam. 
Impositis igitur omnibus para^is, rum et ipsi quidem conscendimus 
tnasti, et uteres laqryTnasfundenies. Et jam quidem aliquatenus 
vecti fuimus in fluvio. Deinde vero navigaviinus in paludem, et 
lacum in quern Euphrates conditnr. Trajecto vero et hoc, deveni- 
mus in deser am qnandam, ec silfcsarfij e obscuram regionem. 
In quam egressi (praeipai autem Mi hr. barza.ies) er foveam 
effodimus, e oves jiigulavimus, et sanguinem libavimus circa fo- 
veam. Magus vero, inrerea facem tenens accensanv, et vcciferans 
non jam submissa. voce, sed quarn-ftlaxrme poterat, inclamabat 
Dsmonesque simul omnes, et Poanas, et Furias, et nocturnam 
Hecaten, et excelsam PrOserpinam, admiscens simul barbarica 
quidam, et ignota, et polysyllaba nomina. Stat mi itaque omnia 
ilia loca concussa sunt, et solum diinssum est ex incantamento, et 
latratus Cerberi proeul audiebatur, et res erat supra modum-tristis 
et aspectu-terribilis. Timuikvero infra Pluto umbr arum rex. Jam 
enim apparebant r. leraque, et lacus, Pyriphlegethon, et Plutonis 
palatia. Descendentes tamen una per hiatum invenimus Rhada- 
manthum prse metu prope extirictum. Cerberus vero latrabat qui- 
dem, et furebat ; me vero cciuslyram pulsante, statim cantu sop- 
itus est. Post-quam vero venimus ad lacum, parum quidem abfuit 
quin ne trajiceremur ; nam navigium erai jam onustum, et eju- 
latu p!enurii. Navigabant vero omnes saucii, hie quidem capite 
contusus, ille vero crure, alius vero alio quopiam membro ; ita ut 
mihi viderenrur e bello quopiam adesse. Optimus tamen Charon 
ut vidit leonis exuvias* Herculem esse me rams recepit, et lubens 
trans vex it, et semitam commons ravit nobis egresses. 

6. Quoniam vero in tenebris eram us, Mi hr obarzanes quidem 
prreiba.. Ego vero sequebar adherens ei a rergo, donee deveni- 
mus in maximum pratum asphodelo consitum Ibi autem stridulse 
mortuorum umbrae circumvolhabant nos. Progressi vero paululum 
pervenimus ad Minois tribunal. Hie auiiem sortitus est sedens 
(i. e. sedemj super alrum quoddam solium. Poenae autem, et Dae- 
mcr.es vindices, et Furix assistebant ei. Ex-altera vero parre ad- 
ducebantur muPi quidam ordine catena longavincti. Dicebantur 
autem essemoechi, et lenones, publicani, et aduiatores, et delatores 
et talis ^urba perrurbantium omnia in vita. Seorsim vero divites- 
que et foeneratcres accedebant, pallidi, et ventricosi, et podagrici, 
gravatus quisque eorum collari, et corvo talentorum duorum. Nos 
igitur adstantes vidimusqUe transacta, et audivimus defendentes 
sese. Novi vero quidam mirique oratores accusabant eos. Phil. 
Quinam hi fuere, per Jovem? Nee enim gravere et hoc dicere. 
Men. Nostin' alicubi umbras hasce e corporibus factas ad solem. 
Phil. Omnino sane. Me^, Hse igitur, postquam mortui-fuer* 



36 

imus, accusant nos et contra-testantur, et redarguunt ea quae facta- 
sunt a nobis in vira: etvitientur quaedam earum perquam ride-dignar, 
Utpote semper versantes nodiscum, et nnr.quam abc.edentes a corpo- 
ribus nostris. Miuos igitur, diligenter examinans, dimisit quem- 
que in impiorum locum, poenam subiturum pro ausorum merito : et 
praecipue perstringebat eos qui inrlati-erant propter et divitias, et 
imperia, ac tantum non vel adorari expectantes ; idque fecit Minos, 
detestans mnmentaneam eorum jactantiam, et supcrbiam ; quod- 
que non meiriinerint et ipsos esse mcrtales, et mor^alia bona 
sortitos. Illi vero, exuri splendidis II 1 is omnibus (divitias dico, 
et genera, et imperia) stabant nudi, et vnltu demjsso vjt* hujus 
fedicitatem tanquam somniuni quoduam recensemes : quare ego, 
hac videns, supra modum gaudebam ; ac, si agnoscerem eorum 
quempiam, accedens tacite sub-moncbam eum, " Qualis erat in 
«' vita, et quantum tunc turgeret, cum multi mane adstarent 
« vescibulo expectantes egressum ejus, protrusique interim, et 
'« exclusi a famuli s. At is, vix tandem illis exoriens jiurpureus, 
« aut aurarus, aut versicc lor quispiam, putabat se reddere allo- 
" quentes falices, et beatos, si, protenden's pectus aut dextram, 

fi daret iis alterutrum osculandum. Turn illi hi.ee audientes dis- 

" cruciabantur. 

7. Una vero causa judicata-fuit a Minoe etiam in gratiam. 
Cyrenaais quippe Aristippus (proscquuntur enim cum lionore, et 
valet plurimum apud inferos) interveniens liberavit a condemna- 
tion Dionysium Siculum, cum accusalum a Dione tie multis et 
nefariis crimini'bu*] turn testimonio convictmn a Porticu, et pewe 
aH'igatum Chimlrie; liberavit, inc/iraw 9 eum Aristippus, asserens 
mul'tis eum eruditis ber.ignum furs.se ki suppeditanda pecunia. 
Discedenres vero una a tribunali pervenimus ad suppiicii-lccum. 
Ibi vero iicuit, 6 amice, et audire et videre multa et miserabilia. 
Nam audiebatur sirnul et flagellorum sonus, et assatorum in igne 
ejulatus, et tormenta, et coliaria, et rot re ; et Chimera dilacerabat, 
et Cerberus dilanians-vorabat ; omnesque simul puniebantur, reges, 
servi, satrapx, pauperes, divites, mendici ; et pcenitebat omnes 
facinorum. Spectantes vero etiam agnovimus eorum quosdam, 
nempe, quotquot erant e nuper mortuis: illi vero occultabant sese, 
et avertebantur. Si vero aspicerent ?ws, erat id quiddam servile 
admodum et adulatorium ; et hoc, cum-fuissent in vita, quam putas, 
saevi et fastuosi? — Dimidium quidem malorum remittebatur pau- 
peribus, et interquiescentes rursus puniebantur. 

8. Vidi equidem et fabulosa ilia, Ixionem, et Sisyphum, et 
Tantalum Phrygem misere se habentem ; et terra genitum -Tity- 
ura: oHercul.es, quantum! jacebat enim occupans totius agri 
spatium. Praetergressi vero et hos, irrumpimus in campum Ache- 
rusium ; ibique invenimus semideosque, et heroinas, et aliain 
mortuorum turbam, distributam in gentes et tribus ; hos quidem 
yetustos quosdam, et situobsitcs^et, ut ait Homerus, EVAN1D0S ; 



37 

alios vero juveniles, et firmos, ipsosque maxime ex JEgyptih, vim 
propter condicurx. Erat sane quiddam non facile adraodum quem- 
que eorv.m dignoscere ; sunt enim omnes prorsus sibi-mutud similes, 
nudaiis, quippe, ossibus : ateos, vel diu contemplantes, vix tanc/evi 
agnoscebamus. Jacebant vero, alii super alios, obscuri, et indis- 
tincti, et nil jam retinentes ecrum quae apud nos pulchra habentur. 
Quare,'sceletis plurimis in eodem-/oco jacentibus, et similibus sibi 
invicem omnibus, et terrificum cavumque quiddam tuentibus, 
dentesque nudos ostendentibus, dubitabam apud me, quonanw/^ws 
discerrierem Thersitem a pulchro Nireo, aut mendicum Irum a 
rege Phaeacum, aut Pyrrhiam coquum ab Agamemnone. Nil 
ctenim veierum notarum adhuc ipsis permansit, sed ossa erant 
similia, obscura, et titulis-carentia, et quae jam a nemine digncsci 
poterant. 

9. Vita igitur hominum videbatur mihi, ista spectanti, similis 
esse pompae cuidam longae: Fortuna vero choro praeesse, et dis- 
ponere singula, accommodans pompam-agentibusdiversos varios- 
que habitus. Fortuna etenim hunc recipiens regaiiter instruxit, 
tiaramque imponens, et satellites tradens, et caput ejus diademate 
coronans: alii vero induebat servi habitum: hunc vero ornabat, 
ut pulcher esset ; ilium auieni instruxit deformem et ridiculum: 
opmor enim oportere spectaculum omnigenum, sive varium, esse. 
Saepe vero mutabat habitus quorundam in media pom pa, non si- 
nens eos ad tinem pompam-usque-agere, utprimo instructi iuerant, 
sed vestes mutans cogebat Croesum assumere servi et mancipii 
habitum: Mceandrium vero, e<> usque inter servos procedentein, 
Polycratis tyrannide mutata-veste induit, et aliquantisper tantiim 
sinebat euni uti habitu regali. Postquam vero pompae tempus prs- 
teriit, turn unusquisque vestitum reddens, et habitum cum ipso cor- 
pore exuens, fit qualis erat prius, nil diiferens a vicino. Quidara 
vero prae ignorantia, cum fortuna adstans ornatum repent, aegre- 
ferunt quidem. et indignantur, quasi propriis quibusdam privati, 
ac non ea reddentes quibus ad exiguum solinmnodo tempus uteban- 
tur. Opinor vero te saepe vidisse et tragicos hosce rerum in scena 
actores, factos modo quidem Creontas, modo vero Priamos aut 
Agamemnonas, pro necessitatibus dramatum (i. e. prout fabulg 
postulant J. Et idem actor, etiamsi forte paulo ante graviter admo- 
dum imitatus-fuerit personam Cecrcpis, aut Erecthei, paulo ta+ 
men post, a poeta jussus, servus prodiit. Fabuia vero jam linem 
habente, unusquisque ecrum exuens auratam illam vestem, et de- 
ponens larvam, et descendens a cothurnis, obambulat pauper cc 
humilis, non amplias ncminatus Agamemnon Jitius-Axrei, neque 
Creon Menoecei, sed Poius SuniensisfJius Chariclis, vel Satyrus 
Marathonius Theogitonis. — Tales sunt etiam res mortalium, ut 
tunc mihi videbancur spectanti. 

10. Phil. ]jic mihi, 6 Menippe, qui in terris habent sumptucsa 
haec et excelsa sepulcnra, et coiumnas, et imagines, et inscriptio- 
nes, nihilne honoratiores sunt apud ecs ( scil. irjcrosj quam urn- 

D 



32 

privatorum ? Men. Heus tu! nugaris ; si enim vidisses Man- 
Solum ipsum, Carem ilium dico sepitfchro celebrem, probe scio, 
quod non desineres ridere ; ita humilirer abjectus-fuerat alicubi in 
occulto loco, in ca^tero vulgo mortuorum latens. Videtur mihi tan- 
tummodo friii monumento, in quantum degravatus-erat tanto onere 
oppressus. Postquam enim, 6 amice, iEacus demensns-fuerit 
unicuique locum (dat vero non plus pede, ad-maximum) necesse- 
est decumbere contentum, et ad mensuram contractum. Multo 
vero, opinor, mag-is rideres, si vidisses nostros reges et satrapas 
mendicantes apud eos, et pr?e inopia aut salsamenta-vendentes, 
aut primas literas-dccentes, et a quolibet contumeliis-affectos, et 
in malam percussos, vilissima tanquam mancipia. Ego itaque, 
Philippum Macedonemconspicatus, non potui meipsum continere. 
Monstratus vero erat mihi in angulo quodam putres, sive wfirrrws, 
ealceos mercede sanans (i. e. sarciensj. Licuit vero videre et 
alios multos in triviis mendicantes; Xerxes dico, et Darios, et 
Polycrates. 

11. Phil. Incongrua narras, et propemodum incredibilia, de 
regibus. Quid vero Socrates agebat, et Diogenes, et si quis est 
alius-sapientum ? Men. Socrates quidem etiam illic obambulat 
redarguens omnes; versantur vero cum eo Paiamedes, et Ulysses, 
©t Nestor, et si quis est alius loquax mortuus. Crura quidem ad- 
huc infiata-erant ei, et tumebant ex haustu-veneni. Diogenes 
autem optimus habitat-juxta Sardanapalum Assyrium, et Midam 
Phrygem, et alios quosdam sumptuosos. Audiens vero ipsos plo- 
rantes, et veterem fortunam recensentes, ridetque, et delectatur, 
et, jacens pierumque snpinus, cantat aspera. admodum et immiti 
voce, supprimens ejulatus eorum ; adeo-ut viri, Diogenem non 
ferentes, discrucicntur, et de sede mutanda dispiciant. 

12. Phil.. H sec quidem satis enarrasti. — Quodnam vero erat de- 
cretum Mud, quod initio dixisti ratum-fuisse contra divites. Men. 
Bene submonuisti ; non enim novi quomodo, cum-proposuissem 
dicere de hoc, prccul aberravi ab ejusdem mentione. Commorante 
enim me apud illos, magistratus proponebant concionem de rebus 
publice conducentibus. Cum-viderem igitur multos concurrentes, 
commiscens memet mortuis, eram et ipse statim unus ex concio- 
aiariis. Agitata-sunt igitur et alia multa: postremo vero illud de 
divitibus. Postquam enim iis multa et atrocia objecta fuissent, 
violentia, scil. et jactantia, et superbia, et injustitia, tandem qui- 
dam ex demagogis assurgens hujusmodi legit decretum. 

DECRETUM. 

<{ QUANDOQUIDEM Divites in vita perpetrant multa et illi- 
u cita, rapientes, et viminferentes, et omni modo pauperes des- 
M picientes: VISUM-EST Senatui Populoque Inferno, corpora 
" eorum, cum mortui-fuerint, puniri, quemaclmodum et aliorum 
'* scelestorum ; animas vero rernissas sursum in vitam dimitti in 



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